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jr. 5 ,v.8 





3 1833 01100 3537 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



Committee of Publication. 


This volume has been printed at the expense of Mr. R. C. Winthrop, Jr 






University Press : 
John Wilson and Son, Cambridge. 


— 1169706 

Officers of the Society, elected April 13, 1882 ... vii 

Resident Members, in the Order of their Election . . viii 

Honorary and Corresponding Members x 

Members Deceased xii 

Preface xiii 


John Winthrop, Jr. . . 



55 » 

Henry Winthrop . . 



55 » 

Forth Winthrop . . 

[1622—1630] . 


55 55 

Stephen Winthrop . . 

[1637-8—1657] . 


55 55 

Adam Winthrop . . . . 

[1636—1652] . 


55 55 

Deane Winthrop . . 

[1648—1662] . 


55 5 J 

Samuel Winthrop . . 

. [1646—1672-3] . 


55 55 

Fitz-John Winthrop . 

[1660—1700-1] . 


55 55 

Wait Winthrop . . . 

. [1659—1699-1700] 


55 5> 

John Winthrop, F.R.S. 

. [1701] .... 

. 571 


. 575 




Elected April 13, 1882. 



Rev. GEORGE E. ELLIS, D.D Boston. 

CHARLES DEANE, LL.D , Cambridge. 

gletorbmg J&ccretarg. 
GEORGE DEXTER, A.M Cambridge. 

Corasponbing ^^tretarg. 
JUSTIN WINSOR, A.B Cambridge. 

CHARLES C. SMITH, Esq . . Boston. 

Hon. SAMUEL A. GREEN, M.D Boston. 


fetntibe Committee of t\t Council. 




CHARLES F. ADAMS, Jr., A.B Quixcy. 

J. ELLIOT CABOT, LL.B Brookline. 




Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. 
Hon. Charles Francis Adams, LL.D. 
Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D. 
Hon. Peleg W. Chandler, LL.D. 
Rev. George W. Blagden, D.D. 
Rev. Lucius R. Paige, D.D. 
Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D. 
John Langdon Sibley, A.M. 
Henry Wheatland, M.D. 
Charles Deane, LL.D. 
Francis Parkman, LL.B. 
Ellis Ames, A.B. 
Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D.D. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D. 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, LL.D. 
Henry Austin Whitney, A.M. 
Rev. William S. Bartlet, A.M. 
Leverett Saltonstall, A.M. 
Henry W. Torrey, LL.D. 
Williams Latham, A.B. 
Rev. Robert C. Waterston, A.M. 
Thomas C. Amory, A.M. 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, M.D. 
Hon. James M. Robbins. 
Charles Eliot Norton, A.M. 
Hon. John .1. Babson. 
Robert Bennett Forbes, Esq. 
Rev. Edward E. Hale, D.D. 
Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, LL.D. 

Hon. Horace Gray, LL.D. 
Amos A. Lawrence, A.M. 
Rev. Edwards A. Park, D.D. 
Hon. Francis E. Parker, LL.B. 
William II. Whitmore, A.M. 
Hon. James Russell Lowell, LL.D. 
Rev. Nicholas Hoppin, D.D. 
Nathaniel Thayer, A.M. 
Hon. William C. Endicott, A.B. 
Hon. Eben. Rockwood Hoar, LL.D. 
Josiah P. Quincy, A.M. 
Samuel Eliot, LL.D. 
Henry G. Denny, A.M. 
Charles C. Smith, Esq. 
Hon. George S. Hale, A.B. 
William S. Appleton, A.M. 
Rev. Henry M. Dexter, D.D. 
Theodore Lyman, S.B. 
Abner C. Goodell, A.M. 
William Amory, A.M. 
Edward D. Harris, Esq. 
Augustus T. Perkins, A.M. 
Hon. Mellen Chamberlain, LL.B. 
Winslow Warren, LL.B. 
Francis W. Palfrey, A.M. 
Charles W. Eliot, LL.D. 
William Gray, A.M. 
Rev. Henry W. Foote, A.M. 
Charles C. Perkins, A.M. 



Charles F. Dunbar, A.B. 

Hon. Charles Devens, LL.D. 

Charles F. Adams, Jr., A.B. 

William P. Upham, A.B. 

Fitch Edward Oliver, M.D. 

William Everett, Ph.D. 

George B. Chase, A.M. 

Henry Cabot Lodge, Ph.D. 

John T. Morse, Jr., A.B. 

Justin Winsor, A.B. 

J. Elliot Cabot, LL.B. 

George Dexter, A.M. 

Hon. Gustavus Vasa Fox. 

Henry Lee, A.M. 

Gamaliel Bradford, A.B. 

Rev. Edward J. Young, A.M. 

Hon. John Lowell, LL.D. 

Abbott Lawrence, A.M. 

Rev. James Freeman Clarke, D.D. 

Rev. Phillips Brooks, D.D. 

William W. Greenough, A.B. 
Robert C. Winthrop, Jr., A.M. 
Henry W. Haynes, A.M. 
Thomas W. Higginson, A.M. 
Rev. Edward G. Porter, A.M. 
John C. Ropes, LL.B. 
Paul A. Chadbourne, LL.D. 
Rev. Henry F. Jenks, A.M. 
Hon. Samuel C. Cobb. 
Horace E. Scudder, A.M. 
Rev. Edmund F. Slafter. 
Stephen Salisbury, Jr., A.M. 
John T. Hassam, A.M. 
Rev. Alexander McKenzie, D.D. 
John C. Phillips, A.B. 
Arthur Lord, A.B. 
Arthur B. Ellis, LL.B. 
Hon. Henry Morris, LL.D. 
Clement Hugh Hill, A.M. 
Rear- Admiral George Henry Preble. 



John Winthrop, Esq. 

Rt. Rev. William B. Stevens, D.D. 

Major E. B. Jarvis. 

E. George Squier, Esq. 

Hon. George Bancroft, LL.D. 

J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D. 

James Riker, Esq. 
Henry Stevens, F.S.A. 
Frederick Griffin, Esq. 
Rev. Wm. S. Southgate, A.E 
John Gilmary Shea, LL.D. 
Hon. John R. Bartlett, A.M. 



M. Francois A. A. Mignet. 

M. Edouard Rene Lefebre Labou- 

laye, LL.D. 
Leopold von Ranke. 
James Anthony Froude, M.A. 
Edward A. Freeman, D.C.L. 
Right Rev. Lord Arthur Hervey, 

Rev. Theodore D. Woolsey, D.D. 
David Masson, LL.D. 

Baron F. von HoltzendorfE. 

M. le comte de Paris. 

Rev. William Stubbs, D.C.L. 

Hon. William M. Evarts, LL.D. 

Hon. Horatio Seymour, LL.D. 

M. Henri Martin. 

Theodor Mommsen, Ph.D. 

M. le marquis Achille de Rochambeau. 

Hon. Elihu B. Washburne. 

Prof. John R. Seeley, M.A. 




Benjamin F. French, Esq. 

Hon. William H. Trescot. 

J. Carson Brevoort, LL.D. 

George H. Moore, LL.D. 

W. Noel Sainsbury, Esq. 

S. Austin Allibone, LL.D. 

Henry T. Parker, A.M. 

Benson J. Lossing, LL.D. 

Lyman C. Draper, LL.D. 

George Washington Greene, LL.D. 

Rev. William G. Eliot, D.D. 

Henry B. Dawson, Esq. 

Goldwin Smith, LL.D. 

George T. Curtis, A.B. 

Hon. John Meredith Read, A.M. 

Joseph Jackson Howard, LL.D. 

Richard Henry Major, F.S.A. 

Rev. Edmond de Pressense. 

Charles J. Stille, LL.D. 

William W. Story, A.M. 

M. Jules Marcou. 

Thomas B. Akins, D.C.L. 

M. Pierre Margry. 

Charles J. Hoadly, A.M. 

John Foster Kirk, Esq. 

Benjamin Scott, F.R.A.S. 

Hon. Charles H. Bell, LL.D. 

Rev. William Barry. 

Rev. Edward D. Neil], A.B. 

William Gammell, LL.D. 

Rev. Thomas Hill, D.D., LL.D. 

Hon. Manning F. Force, LL.B. 

Sir Bernard Burke, C.B., LL.D. 

Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D. 

Hon. John Bigelow. 

George William Curtis, LL.D. 

Henry C. Lea, Esq. 

Hubert H. Bancroft, A.M. 

Rev. John R. Green, LL.D. 

Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D.D. 

M. Gustave Vapereau. 

William F. Poole, A.M. 

Rev. E. Edwards Beardsley, D.D. 

John Austin Stevens, A.B. 

Joseph F. Loubat, LL.D. 

Charles H. Hart, LL.B. 

Moses Coit Tyler, LL.D. 

Hermann von Hoist, Ph.D. 

Franklin B. Dexter, A.M. 

John M. Brown, A.M. 

Hon. Andrew D. White, LL.D. 

Prof. George W. Ranck. 

James M. Le Moine, Esq. 

Alfred L. Elwyn, M.D. 

George O. Trevelyan, A.M. 

Henry Adams, A.B. 

Julius Dexter, A.B. 

Prof. Henry M. Baird, D.D. 

Col. Henry B. Carrington, U.S.A. 

William Wirt Henry, Esq. 

M. le comte d'Haussonville. 

Prof. William F. Allen, A.M. 



Resident, Honorary, and Corresponding Members, who have died since the publication 
of the List of Members in the fifth volume, fifth series, of the Collections, Novem- 
ber, 1878 ; or of whose death information has been received since that date. 


Ildii. Seth Ames, A.B. 
Erastus B. Bigelow, LL.D. 
Jacob Bigelow, LL.D. 
William G. Brooks, Esq. 
Hon. Alexander H. Bullock, LL.D. 
Hon. Caleb Cushing, LL.D. 
Hon. Richard II. Dana, LL.D. 
George B. Emerson, LL.D. 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, LL.D. 
Hon. Richard Frothingham, LL.D. 
Delano A. Goddard, A.M. 

Hon. John C. Gray, LL.D. 
Samuel F. Haven, LL.D. 
Hon. George S. Hillard, LL.D. 
Hon. Charles Hudson, A.M. 
Hon. Solomon Lincoln, A.M. 
Henry W. Longfellow, LL.D. 
John A. Lowell, LL.D. 
Robert M. Mason, Esq. 
Rev. William Newell, D.D. 
Rev. George Punchard, A.M. 
Charles W. Tuttle, A.M. 

Honorary or Corresponding. 

Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D. j Rev. Luther Halsey, D.D. 

G. P. Faribault, Esq. I James Lenox, Esq. 

T. A. Moerenhout, Esq. 

John Hill Burton, D.C.L. 
Thomas Carlyle, D.C.L. 
Comte Adolphe de Circourt. 
II. .11. John A. Dix, LL.D. 
Hon. Hugh Blair Grigsby, LL.D. 

Honorary Members. 

Hon. George P. Marsh, LL.D. 

Frederic De Peyster, LL.D. 

Rev. Barnas Sears, D.D. 

The Very Rev. Arthur P. Stanley, D.D. 

Rev. Leonard Woods, D.D., LL.D. 

Corrcspon ding Mem bers. 

Zachariah Allen, LL.D. 

Rev. William I. Budington, D.D. 
Col. Joseph L. Chester, LL.D. 
William Durrant Cooper, F.S.A. 
Rev. J. Lewis Diniaii, 1) 1). 

Josiah G. Holla. i.l, M.l). 

John Winter Jones, F.S.A. 

John G. Kohl, LL.D. 

Brantz Mayer, Esq. 

Edmund B. O'Callaghan, LL.D. 

Rev. Samuel Osgood, D.D. 

Benjamin R. Winthrop, Esq. 


Numerous Winthrop Papers, from different sources, 
have, from time to time, been communicated to, or de- 
posited with, the Massachusetts Historical Society, and 
many of them may be found scattered throughout its 
printed volumes. The designation "Winthrop Papers," 
however, has of late years been understood to apply more 
particularly to a mass of manuscripts collected, or pre- 
served, by six generations of the Winthrop family, at New 
London, in Connecticut, and which came into the posses- 
sion of the President of the Society in 1860. This col- 
lection extended from the latter part of the sixteenth to 
the middle of the eighteenth century, and much of it had 
apparently been unopened since it was originally filed 

The two volumes of the "Life and Letters of John 
Winthrop" contain some of these papers, while from the 
remainder the Massachusetts Historical Society has already 
published three volumes of selections, namely, the sixth 
and seventh volumes of the Fourth Series, and the first 
volume of the Fifth Series of its Collections. They con- 


tain a somewhat miscellaneous assemblage of letters from 
the most eminent persons in early New England history, 
and are of exceptional value and interest to students of the 
Colonial period. The present volume is devoted wholly 
to such letters of the sons and grandsons of Governor 
John Winthrop as may not heretofore have been printed 
in the Society's Collections, and, in particular, to letters 
of Governor John Winthrop the younger (of whom no 
adequate Life has yet been written) and his distinguished 
sons. It has been found impossible to complete the let- 
ters of Fitz-John and Wait Winthrop without making the 
book umvieldy, and their correspondence subsequent to 
1700 will appear in a later volume, for which there re- 
mains abundant material. 

The letters are printed unabridged, without change of 
spelling or correction of errors obviously resulting from 
carelessness and haste ; but it is not unlikely that some 
words may have been incorrectly transcribed, owing to 
illegibility of handwriting, or where the paper has been 
torn or defaced. The interest of the general reader w T ould 
undoubtedly have been stimulated by a judicious excision 
of occasional repetitions and trivial details, and by some 
modification of the barbarous and irregular spelling of our 
ancestors, while retaining its ancient quaintness ; but it 
has been deemed incumbent to adhere to the established 
usage of this and other Societies, and print such manu- 
scripts verbatim et literatim. The reader will not fail 
to notice that many of the more important letters are 
taken from rough draughts, or copies kept for reference, 
— the draughts and copies being frequently in the hand- 
writing of an amanuensis; and it is not improbable that 



the letters actually sent contained fewer abbreviations 
and a less erratic orthography* 

The correspondence, as preserved, is essentially a frag- 
mentary one, considerable gaps occurring, as is frequently 
the case, at some of the most interesting periods in the 
lives of the writers. For instance, of the early letters 
of John Winthrop the younger when a volunteer under 
the Duke of Buckingham for the relief of the Protes- 
tants of Kochelle, and during his protracted travels in 
Eastern Europe, several at least are missing ; while of the 
later letters to his family in America, during repeated 
visits to England as agent of the New England colonies, 
only a portion have come down to us. The few existing 
letters of his brother Stephen contain only the barest 
allusion to his own military services under Cromwell, and 
no reference whatever to his seat in Parliament, where he 
is known to have taken some part in debate. The letters 
of Samuel Winthrop during his residence in Holland, and 
those of Fitz-John Winthrop when a young officer in 
Monk's army, have likewise disappeared ; many of them 

* The abbreviations are very numerous, but most of them are easily understood. 
The following list, it is believed, comprises all which are of frequent occurrence, or which 
will present any difficulty to the reader. 

A straight or a curved mark, ~, "", indicates the omission of one or more letters fol- 
lowing the one marked. 

A superior letter generally indicates the omission of one or more letters either preced- 
ing it or following it. 

fe is 

used for ber. 

y e is used for the. 

CO , 

} » 

,, tio. 

y m „ 


, them. 

tt , 


,, delivered. 

y n „ 


, then. 

g* , 


,, great. 

y nc ,i 


, thence. 

ft , 


,, har or her. 

y r » 


, their. 

Ire , 


,, letter. 

r » 


, this. 

P „ 


,, par or por. 

yy ,, 


, they. 

P ,3 


„ per. 

y* „ 


, that. 

£ , 


„ pro. 

W c , W cl1 


, which. 



„ pre. 

W*, W th 


, with. 


doubtless never reached their destination, and were either 
lost at sea or destroyed by hostile cruisers. The letters 
of Wait Winthrop will be scanned in vain for any new ac- 
count of the famous trials for witchcraft when he sat on 
the bench, and, according to contemporary testimony, was 
inclined to mercy ; or for any fresh particulars of the 
overthrow of Andros, when he was one of the popular 
leaders. The historical student will be obliged instead to 
wade through many pages of curious medical prescriptions 
for the writer's ailing friends, and still more about trans- 
actions in horseflesh and the sale of live-stock bred by 
him and his brother at Fisher's Island and Tarpaulin 
Cove. The truth is, the last idea which could have oc- 
curred to the fathers of New England was that a remote 
posterity would cherish every scrap of their handwriting, 
and publish volume after volume of their private corre- 
spondence. They led busy, stirring, adventurous lives, 
and had neither leisure nor inclination to cultivate a liter- 
ary style, to indulge in political speculation, or to sea- 
son their brief descriptions with those local anecdotes 
to which the lapse of centuries lends a peculiar charm. 
Their frequent letters to each other were helpful, straight- 
forward, rarely digressing from the matter in hand, 
breathing a profound reliance on the will of God, and a 
spirit of devout resignation in sorrow or adversity; but 
they may not unfairly be considered dull reading at the 
present day, save for the limited number of those whose 
studies lead them in that direction. It could not well 
have been otherwise, although the present volume might 
have been enlivened if John Winthrop the younger had 
Pound time to put on paper his appreciation of the different 


aspects of London society under the Commonwealth and 
the Restoration, to describe the formation of the Royal 
Society, of which he was one of the earliest members, 
and to particularize the circumstances under which he, 
a Puritan of Puritans, received from King Charles II. a 
miniature still treasured by his descendants; or if, thirty 
years later, Fitz-John Winthrop could have given us some 
description of the Court of William and Mary, at which 
he long resided as agent for Connecticut, and received a 
warm welcome from his father's surviving friends. 

One thing at least deserves attention, — the absence in 
these letters of that bitterness and asceticism which it is 
somewhat the fashion of the day to impute indiscrimi- 
nately to every phase of Puritan society. A superficial 
school of recent writers would fain persuade the rising 
generation that the founders of the Massachusetts and 
Connecticut Colonies were sour fanatics, the monotonous 
gloom of whose lives was mitigated only by the occa- 
sional distraction of persecuting a Quaker, or torturing 
a witch, or driving incontinently into exile any one who 
ventured in the slightest degree to differ from them. 
Whatever coloring may lend itself in other quarters to 
such accusations, the writers of the following letters may 
be seen to have been amiable and genial men, good sons, 
affectionate husbands, devoted fathers and brothers, ser- 
viceable friends, not slothful in business, serving the Lord, 
given to hospitality, addicted to moderate amusement 
and scientific investigation, while perhaps singularly free 
from harshness and illiberality of word or deed. As 
magistrates they were doubtless often stern, and some- 


times severe ; but that they knew how to win the regard 
of those from whom they differed most widely as to 
church government and state polity was long ago proved 
by several of the published letters of Roger Williams, 
who held both the elder and the younger John Winthrop 
in unbroken esteem and affection. 

A heliotype copy of an original portrait of John Win- 
throp, Jr., now in the possession of Robert Winthrop, 
Esq., of New York, is given as a frontispiece to this 
volume. A fac-simile of the letter of John Winthrop, 
Jr., to his father, dated August 21, 1629, will be found 
at page 20 ; a fac-simile of the important declaration of 
Wait Winthrop and others, May 25, 1689, at page 491 ; 
and at page 573 fac-similes of the signatures of the prin- 
cipal writers of the letters now printed. 

September 1, 1882. 







To the wor 11 his very loving father Mr. Winthrop at his house in Groton 

these deliver swift. 

Most loving Father, — My duty remembred to your 
selfe, my mother & grandmother, w th my love to my 
brothers & the rest of o r freinds. The occasion of my 
sending thus hastily is this : that whereas M r Lattimer, 
one of the Atturnies of the Court of Wards, is yesterday 
dead, so as now that place is void, my uncle Downing 
willed me to give you speedy notice of it & desire you to 

* John Winthrop, Jr. , eldest son of the Governor of Massachusetts, born February 12, 
1606, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and a barrister of the Inner Temple. In 
1631 he followed his father to New England, founded Ipswich, Mass., in 1632, was com- 
missioned Governor of " Connecticut Plantation " in 1635, founded New London in 1645, 
was elected Governor of Connecticut in 1657, and obtained from the Crown, in 1661, 
the charter uniting the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies, continuing Governor for 
nearly seventeen years. His public duties obliged him repeatedly to visit England, and, 
during his residence there, he became widely known as an accomplished scholar, was one 
of the early members of the Royal Society, and the friend and correspondent of the lead- 
ing natural philosophers of that period. He also took a very active interest in the study 
of medicine and practised extensively and gratuitously among his New England neighbors. 
The journal of Gov. Winthrop the elder mentions that his son John possessed in Boston, 
in 1640, a library of more than a thousand volumes. Some three hundred of these books 
can still be identified, and bear testimony to the learning and broad intellectual tastes of 
their original possessor. He died in Boston, April 5, 1676, aged seventy, and was buried 
with his father in King's Chapel graveyard. By his first wife (his cousin, Martha Fones) 
he left no issue. By his second wife (Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Reade, of Wickford, 
co. Essex, and step-daughter of the celebrated Hugh Peter) he left two sons, Fitz-John and 
Wait (of whom hereafter) and five daughters, — Elizabeth, wife of Rev. Antipas Newman, 
and afterward of Zerubbabel Endicott ; Lucy, wife of Major Edward Palmes ; Margaret, 
wife of John Curwin; Martha, wife of Richard Wharton; and Anne, second wife of Judge 
John Richards. This letter and the twenty-two letters immediately following have been 
already printed in the " Life and Letters of John Winthrop." A few other letters of John 
Winthrop, Jr., may be found in preceding volumes of the Society's Collections. — Eds. 


come up w th all speed you can to London ; for the M r is 
now out of towne & doth not returne till Saterday nexte, 
& he would have you be here before his comming home 
that you might ride some way out of towne to meete 
him, because he feareth that if it be not granted pres- 
ently at his comming home, or before, the Kings or 
Dukes letter may be a meanes to make it be disposed of 
some other way ; therefore if you have a mind to it, my 
uncle thinkes it will be your best course to be heare upon 
Friday at furthest, & he will use all the meanes he can to 
obteyne it for you, & in the meane tyme, if he can by 
any meanes, he will write into the country to the M r 
about it. Thus hoping to see you soone at London I 
desire your prayers & blessing & so rest 

Your Obedient Sonne, John Winthrop. 

London, Jan: 14, 1626 [-7.] 

The bearer hath promised to be w th you by tomorrow 
at night. I agreed w th him for 5 s for the whole iournie, 
whereof I have given him 2 already, but if he performeth 
his promise I pray give him 5 or 6 more, for it wilbe 
cheaper then I could have had any other. 

Since the writing of my letter my uncle Downing him- 
selfe hath written. We are all well save little George 
who hath hadd one sore fitt of an ague. 

I think there is no great hast of sending up my Cozen 
Jeames so he be from Ipswich, therefore I thinke it would 
be good to keepe him at Groton still this cold wether. 


To the worp u John Winthrop Esq. at his house in Groton. 

[On Board II. M. Ship, " The Repulse," 
Road of St. Martins, Oct., 1627.] 

Sir, — My humble duty remembred to your selfe with 
my mother & grand mother, with the remembrance of my 


love to my brothers, & sister, & the rest of my freinds. 
I wrote unto you the last opportunity which I found by 
two severall messengers, whether they came to your 
hands I know not : but yet I dought not but you have 
had so full intelligence of our proceedings till y fc tyme 
that it should be needlesse to write any thing thereof.* 
As touching our affaires now you shall understand now 
thereof. Our army lieth still the most part at St. Mar- 
tins ; some few garrisons in other parts of the iland. 
The cittadel is now intrenched round. Our trenches 
come in some places within a stones quoite of the ene- 
mies, the centinels on both sides continually playing with 
their small shotte, watching as narrowly as the fouler 
after a bird how they may come at a shotte, the great 
ordinance on both sides shoote not so often as they did at 
first. Every day there come some running out of the 
castle who bring divers & uncerteine reports what they 
thinke of the tyme it can hold out ; but it is thought they 
had yielded it up by this tyme had it not beene for 3 or 
4 boats which in a darke & foule night stole over undis- 
covered of the ships, but tis thought they could not fur- 
nish them with much victuals, & if that be spent there 
is such order taken that they shall very hardly get any 
more, for besides the ships which lie there close together, 
& our boats scouting out all night, they have made a 
boome with masts chained together which lieth crosse 
that place where they should go in, so that they must 
needs be foule eyther of the ships or that. Those boats 
which gatt over were garded by two Dutchmen who rid- 
ing among our ships had taken notice of the order of our 
fleet & the likeliest place they might come by them with- 
out discovery ; they are now taken and to be executed. 

* The younger Winthrop had accompanied the naval expedition, under the command 
of the Duke of Buckingham, which sailed from Portsmouth in June, 1627, for the re- 
lief of the French Protestants at Eochelle. See Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 
L237-245. -Eds. 


We tooke the other night two boats which were going to 
the castle with victualls, some other there were which 
escaped backe againe. We have now arrived 2400 sol- 
diers out of Irland & doe expect a supplye of ships & men 
out of England. When they be come I hope we shall 
not stay here long after. I thinke soone after Michael- 
mas we shall be at home. The King of France hath had 
an army about Rochell ever since our coining, they are 
reported to be 12000 men, but the towne and they were 
upon good tearmes till the 30 th of August, & then they 
began to fall out with some store of great shott on both 
sides, but they feare not the Kings forces so long as our 
fleet keepe the sea open to them. When I had well 
veiwed the towne I marveiled not that it holds out so 
long seige, for I think it almost impossible to take it by 
force if they be not shutt up at sea as well as by land. 
It is a very deare place for strangers, & St. Martins is 
dearer by reason of our army, and that all we have 
brought in commeth from Rochell. I am (I thanke God) 
hitherto in good helth and our ship hath bene generally 
helthfull : thus my duty againe remembered, & desiring 
your dayly prayer & blessings I comend you to Gods pro- 
tection and rest 

Your obedient sonne, John Winthrop. 

I pray remember my love to my uncle Gostlin & aunt, 
with M r Lee* & the rest of our freinds. 


To the wor 11 his very loving father John Winthrop Esq. in Groton. 

S IR? — My duty remembered unto you, I am very sorry 
to heare that your hand continueth so ill, but I hope, by 
Gods providence, you shall finde helpe by those thinges 

* Rector of Groton. — Eds. 


I have sent you, which I receyved from a woman that is 
very skilfull, & much sought unto for these thinges. She 
is sister to Mr. Waterhouse the linnen draper in Cheape 
side, by whose meanes, I was brought to her. She told 
me, if you were at London she made noe doubt but to 
cure it quicly, but because you cannot come up she 
therefore gave me these plaisters to send to you, & said 
that if it were not gangreened she would warrant them 
by Gods helpe to doe you present good. The use of them 
is as folio we th : Take the yellow plaister, as much as will 
cover your sore finger all over to the next joynt below 
the sore, & on the rest of your finger whereon this 
plaister doth not lye, lay as much of the blacke plaister 
as will cover it all over, this must be done twice a day, 
morning & evening, till it beginneth to grow well, & then 
once a day. The other blacke plaister you must lay all 
over your hand, & that you must shift once in 2 or 3 
dayes. You must not wash it, nor lay any other thing 
to it. This will draw out the thorne, if any be in, & 
heale it both. She will take nothing for it, & therefore 
I doe the rather credit hir, for she doth it only for freinds, 
&c. I pray you therefore use it, & leave of any other 
course of surgery. I wish you were here at London 
where she might dresse it her selfe. For newes I cannot 
write so good as the last ; this bearer will fully satisfye 
you of all proceedings, which every day alter & change, 
sometime like to be good, by & by crosse againe. 

For my voyage to new England I doe not resolve 
(especially following my uncle Downings advice) except 
I misse of the Straights, but I will stay till you have sold 
the land though I misse of both : thus with my duty re- 
membered againe to your selfe, with my grandmother & 
mother, & my love to my brothers & sisters & the rest of 
our freinds, I commend you to Gods protection & rest 

Your Obedient Son, John Wintheop. 

London : April 11, 1628. 


My uncle Fones hath paid 10* to my aunt Branch,* he 
wondered he had no order from you. 

We are all well (God be thanked). They all commend 
their love to you. You need not send the instruments. 


To the wor 11 his very loving father John Winthrop Esq. in Groton. 

Sir, — I receyved your letters, my selfe & all our freinds 
heere much rejoycing to hear from you so good newes of 
your hand, whereof your former letters put us in noe 
small feare. I have sent you some more plaisters. I told 
the gentlewoman of the bone which you feared was putri- 
fied ; she saith that her plaister will draw it out, if it be, 
& heale it both without any other thing. I hope you 
wilbe at London before you shall need any more. The 
gentleman that my uncle dealt with about the chamber is 
not yet come to towne, but I have inquired where your 
former chamber was ; it is already lett out, but you may 
have a lesser in the same house & cheap. My uncle 
Downing & aunt commend them to you ; he came home 
late last night from Nelmes, & went this morning to the 
M r , & therefore desireth to be excused for not wrighting, 
but sends you this newes — that Mr. Noy hath lately had 
a triall in the West Countrie at the Assises against the 
constables for cessing of his tenants for the billeting of 
soldiers (who for that refused to pay their rents, com- 
plaining that by reason of those taxes they were not 
able), & hath recovered against the constables. My aunt 
savth she would write but that she pitieth you that you 
should write so many letters with your left hand, there- 
fore she will not this weeke provoke you to it by hers. 

* Tins was Elizabeth, wife of Reynold Branch, for whom the elder Winthrop held an 
annuity <>f forty pound* : bn1 nothing further has been ascertained about her. See Life 
and Letters of John Winthrop, I. 213, note, 258, note. —Eds. 

1628.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 9 

On Munday last the lower house made a speech to the 
King in the banquetting house and spake very freely to 
him about the greivances of the subject. This day & to- 
morrow are daies of great expectation what conclusion 
wilbe betweene them, which is hoped to bee well & that 
there wilbe good agreement, which God in mercy grant. 
Thus with my duty remembered to your selfe, my mother 
& grand mother, with my love to my brothers and sister, 
& the rest of our freinds, I commend you to Gods protec- 
tion & rest 

Your Obedient Sonne^ John Winthrop. 

Lond : Aprill 18, 1628. 

My uncle Fones & aunt commend them to you. 
I pray remember my love to my uncle Gostlin & 
aunt, &c. 

The privy seale is in the box, &c. 


To the worp 11 John Winthrop Esq. at Groton in Suffolke. 

Ligorne, July 14, 1628. 

Sir, — I am forced for the more convenient passage of 
my letters in a merchants paquet to be more breife then 
otherwise I should, but I hope hereby they will come 
to your hands safe & with more speed ; which, if they 
were by them selves, would lye long before they could 
come to you. You shall hereby understand, that we 
arrived safely (God be thanked for it) at this port the 7 
of this month, being but 20 daies since we left sight of 
the lands end of England, and 26 since our departure out 
of the Downes. We had (I thanke God) both health & 
faire weather all the way, and are now arrived in a very 

* In June, 1628, the younger Winthrop left England for the Mediterranean, and spent 
a little more than a year abroad, — a considerable part of the time in Constantinople. See 
Life and Letters of John Winthrop, I. 263. — Eds. 


plesant & temperate countrie. We spake not with any 
ships since we lost sight of England save only one Eng- 
lish man of warr upon the coast of Spaine : once we 
mette 25 saile, but they sprung their luffe & would not 
speake with us. This place affordeth little newes, at this 
tyme ; from Genoa there is newes that there is free trade 
granted as is at this towne, & from Marseiles that the 
Duke de Guise is come to sea with 4 gallioones & 12 
sailes of gallies, 'it is supposed to meete with Sir Chillam 
Digby,* who hath taken 3 or 4 Frenchmen, hath beene at 
Algiers, & redeemed some 20 or 30 Christian slaves, hath 
mand his prizes, & is gone againe towards the bottom. 
The newes of this towne is only of some 200 Turkes that 
the Dukes gallies have taken and are now heere making 
ready to set forth againe. Heere is an order from the 
Duke that no prizes shalbe brought into this port. I find 
this place very chargeable, & could wish I had brought 
no English mony with me, for it is foure shillings in the 
pound losse. Thus with my duty remembred to your 
selfe, my mother & grandmother, with my love to my 
brothers & sister, my uncle Gostlin & aunt, & the rest of 
our freinds, desiring your praiers & blessing, I comend 
you to Gods protection & rest 

Your obedient Sonne, Jonis" Wlntiirop. 

It wilbe yet a month or 5 weeke before we goe from 
hence ; if you write to me after the receipt hereof I pray 
let it be to Constantinople & directed to Captaine Ma- 
plesden, or M r John Freeman, marchant, or some other 
way as you tbinke it may come safe to my hands as you 
shall have occasion. 

I pray remember my service to uncle Tindall & aunt, 
when you see them, & to Captaine Best. 

* Sir Kenelm Digby, with whom the younger Winthrop was afterward on terms of 
the mo8l friendly correspondence. See Letter of Sir Kenelm Digby, III. Mass. Hist. 
Coll. X. 5. -Eds. 

1628.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 11 


To the wot 11 his very loving father John Winthrop Esq. in Groton Suff k . 

Constantinople, Octob: 18, 1628. 

Sir, — My duty remembered to your selfe, my mother 
& grandmother, with my love to my brothers & sister, 
my uncles & aunts & all our good freinds ; may it please 
you to understand that we arrived at Constantinople the 
13 th day of September all in good health (God be thanked,) 
hoping the same of yourselfe & all our freinds. When I 
came to this place I found the gentleman to whome my 
letter of credit was directed to be absent, beinge gone 
down to Smyrna, his returne expected now every day, 
but have been furnished with monyes from his assignee ; 
— the bill of exchange I shall not send till his returne. 
I shalbe forced to take up more then willingly I would, 
by reason of our going to Venice, where we are likely to 
stay a good parte of the winter, & our long stay heere, & 
some places we touch at in the way. What I shall pay 
a dollar I know not yet, but the dollar goeth very high 
heere by exchange, being worth 5 3 : 4 d : English. By the 
next vessell I shall, God willing, write againe, & at Venice 
shall hope to heare from you. If you write thither, it be 
best to direct it to Capt : Maplesden. The newes heere 
is of the taking in of Esrom by the Grand Seignior which 
was kept by a rebell ; the Grand Seigniors forces are now 
in siege of Bagdat, alias Babilon, which the Persian hold- 
eth. Heere have been lately many fires in Constantinople. 
One burnt down twelve thousand houses. Thus with my 
duty againe remembered, desiring your prayers & bless- 
ing, I rest 

Your Obedient Son, John Winthrop. 

We shall, God willing, depart hence about a fourtnight 
or 3 weekes hence. 


To the wor 11 his very loving father John Winthrop Esq. in Groton Suffolk. 

Constantinople, Nov. 15, 1628. 

Sir, — May you please to understand that I wrote to 
you dated Oct r 18., sent by way of Venice, giving you 
notice therein of my safe arrivall at this place, w ch was 
about the 13 of September. My stay at this place wilbe 
I thinke about a fortnight longer, & then (God willing) I 
shall goe for Venice with the ship in w ch I came out, w ch 
hence is thither bound. Having no acquaintance there, 
nor letters of credit, I am forced to take up the 200 dol- 
lars for w ch I had credit heere, w ch doth amount by ex- 
change at 5 s 4 d p r dollar to 53 lb 6 s 8 d . The bills I have 
charged home upon my uncle Downing, it being Mr. 
Soane his order in his letter to Mr. Freman : there be 
three bills signed to goe by three severall occasions, the 
first goeth with these letters. Sir I have not yet heard 
from you since my comming out of England, but hope 
of your welfare, whereof I desire you to certify me by 
your letters at my coming to Venice, as also whether I 
shall returne by the next occasion or stay till the London 
returneth, w (h wilbe neere a yeare hence. So with my 
duty remembred to yourselfe, my mother & grandmother, 
with my love to my brothers & sister, my uncles & aunts, 
& all the rest of our good freinds, w ch for brevity I may 
not particularize, desiring your praiers & blessing, I hum- 
bly take my leave & rest 

Your Obedient Son, 

John Winthrop. 

The Embassador from the Emperour was receyved this 
day into this citty & cometh to conclude peace. 
1 am, God be thanked, in good health. 

1628.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 13 


Right Honorable, — After the exhibition of my ser- 
vice to your lordship and my lady, I crave pardon, if 
these rude lines presume to kiss your honors hands. My 
duty and respect to your honor urgeth me to give some 
testimony thereof; and your noble favors have obliged 
me to present this as a small earnest of my thankfulness, 
and the service which I owe, and desire to perform, when- 
soever your lordship shall please to command. Here is 
no news worth your honors intelligence. We are this 
day setting sail from the Castles. So, wishing your honor 
a happy beginning and prosperous continuance of this 
new year, and many more to succeed, I humbly take my 
leave, resting, etc. 

Castles of Hellespont, December 26, 1628. 


Noble Sir, — We are now to set saile from the Castles 
of Sestos & Abidos, & these lines waite for a prosperous 
gale to clime up the streames of Hellespont, that they 
may anchor in the desired port of your kind acceptance. 
I have in them imbarked my love, which at their arrival 
shall present it selfe to you, not in the colored habit of 
painted words but in the simple vest of true friendship ; 
w ch I shall endeavor w th my whole power to mainteine, 

* It has been suggested by Mr. Savage, that the younger Winthrop may have accom- 
panied this very celebrated minister to Constantinople as Secretary of Legation, p or Private 
Secretary. This idea is hardly substantiated by the known facts ; but there is reason for 
thinking, that, on his way back from the East, he was invited to join the party of Lady 
Wich, who was returning to England. See Winthrop's History of New England (ed. 1853), 
I. 423. — Eds. 

14 THE W1NTHB0F PAPERS. [1629. 

desiring the continuance of yours, if the unworthiness of 
the obiect make you not iudge it ill placed. When I 
come to Venice I shall hope to heare of your welfare, w ch 
shall allwaies be most welcome newes to me. For your 
many kindnesses I shall remaine alwaies thankfull, & 
shalbe ever ready to doe you any service w ch my best 
endeavors can be able to performe. So wishing you a 
merry Christmas & a happy nue yeare, I commend you 
to the Divine protection & rest 

Your lovinge freind, ready to serve you, 

John Winthrop. 

From aboard the Loudon ridinge neere the Castles of Sestos & Abidos. 
Deceuib: 2G, [1(328.] 

To the Wop 11 Emanuell Downing. 

Martii 9: 1629 [n.S.], de Vexetia. 

Worthy S r , — May you please to understand that I 
am now arrived in Venice ; the day of o r arrivall was the 
last of Jan y . having beene from Constantinople about 6 
weekes. I should have wrote to you long since, but com- 
ing from a place where the plaugue was very great, we 
could not be admitted to come into this citty, till we had 
spent all February as prisoners in their Lazaretto (a place 
a great way distant from the cytty appointed to such 
purposes) till it was apparent that we were cleere from 
all infection : so that not knowing any by whom I might 
have my letters conveied, I could not write till my com- 
ing into the citty. My charges there were excessive ; 

* Emanuel Downing, a lawyer of the Inner Temple, had married Lucy, sister of John 
Winthrop the elder. He was an early and efficient friend of the Massachusetts colony, 
ami came over to New England in lb'3S. A considerable number of his letters may be 
found in IV. Mass. Hist. Coll. VI. o3-SX>. — Eds. 

1629.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 15 

I find thern little lesse since my coming into the citty, 
so that I shall have skarce to beare my charges hence, 
but may have credite heer for more when I want. It 
may be thought I am a very ill husband, but none can 
beleeve the charges in these countries but he that hath 
exp d them. The exchange also maketh them the deeper, 
paying neere 6 for 4 & would be more if I should take 
up any heere. This maketh me desirous to hasten into 
England ; by sea I find no occasion, by land I might 
have a good oportunity w th the Lady Wake, w° h I heare 
[ would be very chargeable. I deffer to resolve till I 
have receyved letters from Legorne w ch I heare are 
theare for me, w° h I gladly expect dayly, hoping to heare 
from you & my other good freinds of your welfares, w ch 
since my departure from England I have had noe notice 
of. Heare is little newes of importance, saving of the 
French King's coming into Italy, w ch is thought heare 
cannot but bring forth some notable effect ; he hath all- 
ready made peace between Mantoa & Savoi, & it is thought 
entendeth to goe ag* Genoa. Thus w th the remembrance 
of my duty & love to your selfe & my aunt, w th my salu- 
tations to my cozens and freinds, I comend you to Gods 
protection & rest 

Your loving Cosen to command, 

John Winthrop. 


Venice, Martii 28, Stilo novo. 1629. 

unto you bearing date the 13 of March, stil: nov : being 
then newly come out of the Lazaretto, where noe man 
coming at us, nor knowing noe man to send my letters 
to be conveied, I deferred writing to you till my liberty 
gave me better occasion. I advised you of o r arrivall 


heere the 9 of Feb : after 6 weeks at sea, having touched 
at Zante by the way & some other ports. Yesterday I 
recey ved yours of the 7 of Feb : then w ch nothing could 
have beene more welcome, being very glad to understand 
of your welfare. Therein I understand of another from 
you of the 12 of January, w th the draught of your Statues 
inclosed, w ch never came to my hands, w ch had I met w th all 
I would have used much diligence therein, espetially in 
Venice, Padoa, & those citties heereabout, where only I 
have spent my tyme, since I came hither. Further into 
Italy I think I shall not goe, nor stay heere long, but 
thereof I shall not be resolved till the next weeke. The 
Lady Wake being to depart very shortly for England, & 
much good copany going along, I doubt I shalbe drawne 
that way, but thereof I shall further advise you when I 
know more certainly. I found Mr. Prise in Padoa to 
whome I delivered your letter, who was very glad to 
heare & receive a letter from so good a friend. He spoke 
to me of the great friendship between yourself & him. 
Mr. Petty is also at Padoa, but I have not seene him ; he 
staieth to passe w th my Lady into England. I hear that 
there is a booke got out of some of the inscriptions of his 
antiquities by Mr. Selden in England, w th out his knowl- 
edge. The cheife newes heere is of the French king, 
who since his coming into Italy hath taken the Spanish 
generall prisoner, succored the Casell, a castle neare Matua 
besieged by the Spaniard, made a peace betwixt Savoi & 
Mantoa, is now in Savoi, & is thought will goe ag* Genoa : 
he filleth world w th great expectations of his actions what 
the event of them may be. He hath had the cytty 
of Orange delivered up to him by the treachery of the 
Governour selling it into his hands for a great summe of 
money. It is rumored that the Hollanders have againe 
taken some caracks of Portugal worth over the 6000000 
ducats. Of the former I suppose you have heard, being 
old newes when we came to Zante. So w th my love & 

1629.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 17 

service remembred, I commend you to the Divine tuition 
& rest 

Your truest friend to serve you, 

John Winthrop. 
I pray present my service, &c. 


Good S r , — I am now arrived in Christendome. The 
ninth of Feb : siil: nov : was the day that we came into the 
harbour of Malamoco neere Venice, from whence you 
had heard from me sooner had we not beene deteyned in 
the Purgatory of the Lazaretto a whole month, (the con- 
tinuall expectation to be at liberty every day after the 
first weeke, confidently hoped for, making me defer let- 
tres, knowing no man in Venice by whose meanes I might 
have them sent on to you,) before I could have liberty to 
enter the citty. Mr. Throgmorton & the Dutch gentle- 
man being also partakers in the same penalty. To write 
you of the particulars of o r voyage, it would be frivo- 
lous, remembring nothing that passed worthy your intel- 
ligence, only in generall you shall understand that from 
the Castles to Zant we were in 5 daies, where we staied 
about a weeke ; there I delivered your letter to M r Hob- 
son. We found the Hector there bound for England, 
in w ch Mr. Throgmorton had gone but for feare of long 
detention, &c. 

The second parte of our voiage was very longe & 
tedious, w th continuall tempests & foule weather, being a 
month in the way betwixt Zant & Venice. I have sent 
your letters for Legorne. I understand since that Mr. 
Harvy is gone for England. Mr. Hide at the receipt of 
your letters hath kindly offered to furnish me w th monies 
where I shall have occasio, w ch I thankfully acknowledge 
as a fruite of your love, for w ch I confesse myself deeply 



indebted to you, having found such extraordinary kind- 
nesses at your hands whilst I was w th you that to propor- 
tion my thanks w th your deserts would be too difficult for 
my pen to endeavor, only I pray beleeve that I am ever 
your true friend to doe you any service w ch may lye in 
compasse of my best endeavours. 

[Not signed.'} 

Wbrp 11 his very loving father John Winthrop, In Groton. 

Amsterdam, July 28: Stilovet: 1629. 

Sir, — My duty remembered to your selfe, with my 
mother & grandmother, with my love to my brothers & 
sister & the rest of our good freinds, may you please to 
understand that I am yesterday safely arrived in this citty 
of Amsterdam. God be ever praysed for his mercies, 
that he hath given us a prosperous & safe passage, in 
this tyme of much danger. I feare you may be doubtfull 
of my safety, being now foure monthes since my last let- 
ters weere written from Venice ; having beene so long 
from thence in the way, most at sea, saving that we 
touched at Zant & staied there a while for the company 
of 2 other ships. I hoped we should have touched in 
some place in England, & so have found meanes to come 
home, but too favorable winds crossed my desires. I am 
heere without acquaintance & our long passage hath eaten 
out all the money that I receyved at Venice, whereof by 
the foresaid letters you have understood, if they came 
to your hands ; therefore I pray you to send me a letter of 
credit from some merchant to some man in Flushing, 
or Middleborough, which because I thinke you may be in 
the country, & so cannot so readily doe, I have written 
to my Uncle Downing to desire him to doe it; because 
the longer I stay heere the more I shall runn in debt. 

1629.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 19 

Therefore I would, as soone as I can receive answeare 
from you or my uncle, returne with all speede home. I 
have not since my departure out of England heard from 
you, neyther by letter nor otherwise, therefore I long 
much to heare of your welfare, & of the rest of my good 
freinds. If you write to me, I pray conscribe it to be 
delivered in Flushing at the house of Mr. Henry Kerker, 
for I purpose, God willing, to goe shortly thither, where I 
shalbe neere to take my passage upon all occasions. For 
newes I understand little since my coming. The Sher- 
togenbos # that the prince hath beleagered, it is hoped 
will shortly be taken in, they having noe powder in the 
citty. The enemy is on the other side close by this place, 
that they feare he hath some designe for some place in 
Holland. Thus with my duty againe remebered, desiring 
your praiers & blessinge I comend you to Gods tuition & 

Your Obedient Sonne, John Winthrop. 


To the worp 11 his very loving father John Winthrop Esq. In Groton. 

Sir, — My humble duty remembred unto your selfe & 
my mother : may you please to understand that I am 
(God be thanked) yesterday safely arrived in London, 
now first understanding of the death of my grandmother 
& uncle Fones, to my great & unexpected greife, but we 
shall one day meet againe with greater joy,t They are 
already in the haven, we saile towards it dayly. I wrote 
unto you at my coming to Amsterdam, then not thinking 

* Hertogenbosch, now Bois le Due. It was yielded to Henry, Prince of Orange, Sept. 4, 
1629. -Eds. 

t Thomas Fones, who had married Anne, daughter of Adam Winthrop, died in London, 
April 15, 1629. After her death, in 1618, he had married again, but a close intimacy con- 
tinued between him and the family of his first wife. The widow of Adam Winthrop died 
at Groton, only four days after Mr. Fones. See Life and Letters of John Winthrop, 
I. 289. —Eds. 


I should have found so speedy occasions to come over ; 
but coming to Flissing where I thought I should have 
expected answeare of my letters, & finding an English 
ship of good force ready to depart, instigated with a 
great desire to understand of your welfare, I presently 
imbarqued my selfe, on Munday morninge last ; but my 
trunke I could not get with me on board, but have left it 
with a pinke which will shortly be in London, whose 
coining I must expect ; for I must send over by the M r 
thereof some mony which I there owe, being about 12 
pounds. I rejoyce much to heare of your welfare, & shall 
thinke longe till I may see you & our good freinds with 
you. So desiring your praiers & blessinge, I commend 
you to the Almighties tuition & humbly take my leave, 

Your Obedient Sonne, John Winthrop. 

London, Aug: Friday, 1629. 

My brother Henry I heare is in towne, but I have not 
yet seene him. I pray remember my love to my sister his 
wife, with all my brothers & sisters & cozens. 

Also to my uncle Gostling & aunt, with Mr. Lee & all 
our good freinds. 

My Aunt Downing desired to remember her love to 
you, having no leysure to write this weeke. 


S R , — My humble duty remembred to you & my mother, 
may you please to vnderstand, that I receyved your let- 
ters, that by Will. Ridley on Wednesday, & your other 
yesterday, rejoycing much to hear of your welfare, w th the 
rest of o r good friends, w ch I desire much w th my owne 
eyes to behould. Therefore I purpose, God willing, to 
make all hast down the next week, hoping to accept of 
Mr. Gurdons kind offer, if I can. 

1629.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 21 

For the businesse of N. E., I can say noe other thing, 
but that I beleeve confidently, that the whole disposition 
thereof is of the Lord, who disposeth all alterations, by 
his blessed will, to his owne glory and the good of his ; 
&, therefore, doe assure my selfe, that all things shall 
worke together for the best therin. And for my selfe, I 
have seene so much of the vanity of the world, that I 
esteeme noe more of the diversities of countries, then as 
so many innes, whereof the travailer that hath lodged in 
the best, or in the worst, findeth noe difference, when he 
commeth to his journies end ; and I shall call that my coun- 
trie, where I may most glorifie God, & enioy the pres- 
ence of my dearest freinds. Therfore heerin I submit my 
selfe to Gods wil & yours, &, w th your leave, doe dedi- 
cate my selfe (laying by all desire of other imployments 
whatsoever) to the service of God & the Copany herin, 
w th the whole endeavours, both of body & mind. 

The Conclusions, w ch you sent downe, I showed my 
uncle & aunt, who like them well. I thinke they are 
unanswerable ; & it cannot but be a prosperous action, 
w ch is so well allowed by the judgment of Gods prophets, 
vndertaken by so religious & wise worthies of Israeli, & 
indented to Gods glory in so speciall a service. * 

My aunt Goulding remembereth her love to you. She 
saith, it is not yet discharged, that she knoweth. Heere 
is certaine newes, that the Dutch have taken Wesel. So, 
desiring your praiers & blessing, I comend you to the 
Almighties protection, & rest 

Your obedient sonne, John Winthrop. 

Lond., Aug. 21, 1629. 

I pray remember my love to my brothers & sisters & 
all o r freinds, whom I hope shortly to see. 

* The paper of " Conclusions " here referred to was undoubtedly the paper entitled 
" Reasons to be considered for iustifieing the undertakers of the intended Plantation in New- 
England," printed in the Life and Letters of John Winthrop, I. 309-317, or the shorter 
paper on pp. 326, 327, entitled " Some Gen'l Conclusions shewinge that persons of good 
use heere (yea in publike service) may be transplanted for the furtherance of this planta- 
tion in N. E." — Eds. 



Sir, — My humble duty remembred, hoping that you 
are in health, as God be thanked wee are all heere at 
this present. I thought I should have come to you to 
London on Saturday next, but because you wrote at the 
end of your letter to my mother that I should not need 
come till Tuesday, I purpose to stay till then ; but we did 
not well understand whether my brother Forth should 
need come up w th us to come downe w th my aunt Fones, 
w ch you may please to certify my mother of w th 3 our 
next letters. I understand that my brother * doth 
meane to returne from the Barbathoes w th the first occa- 
tion, & then to goe w th his wife into New England. If 
he returne so soone, his voyage will but gaine him ex- 
penses & bee to noe purpose when he hath done ; for 
except hee will continue there, (w ch I thinke would be 
the ruine of his soule to live among such company), he 
must be forced to trust some frend at his returne, w ch 
he may doe as well now, & may make his estate as sure 
as any other merchants that are forced to commit all to 
others trust. Besides he may this winter sell his land & 
make provitions to goe w th you in the spring, or at least 
to sende some stocke over, if my sister should not be 
ready to goe so soone. Therefore I pray S r , if you see it 
fitting, counsell him to stay, or if my counsell hath pre- 
vailed w th him, be pleased to approve thereof. So desir- 
ing your praiers & blessing I humbly take my leave & 

Your obedient sonne, John Winthrop. 

Gkoton, Oct: 5, 1G29. 

* His younger brother, Henry, who came to New England in the Talbot, one of Gov- 
ernor Wint limp's fleet, and was drowned in Salem harbor on the day after his arrival. See 
Lite and Letters of John Winthrop, II. 33, 31. — Eds. 

1629-30.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 23 

I pray remember my duty & love to my uncles & aunts, 
w th m y ] ove ^ mv cozens . My sister Winthrop & my 
brothers & sister remember their duty to you. 

I suppose if you please he may keepe it private. 


To the wor 11 his very loving father John Winthrop Esq. at Mr. Downings 
house in Peterborough Court over ag l the Conduit in Fleet Street, 

S R , — My humble duty remembred, I receyved your 
letters, reioycing much to understand of the continuance 
of your welfare. Wee are heere (God be praised) all in 
good health. I am glad you have made an end w th my 
brothers businesse upon so good termes ; he & she are 
both very glad of it : it would have bred much trouble if 
it could not now have bene put of, besides what hinder- 
ance it would have bene to themselves. I was last weeke 
at Colchester w th Mr. Heath the Kinges workman, who 
made the fort at Langer Point. I have now a perfect 
plot thereof, w th the dementions of the whole & parts. I 
will have it ready ag* you come downe. 

I have now made a rude modell (as only to shew that 
it is feasable) of that wind motion, w ch I tould you of, 
then only imagining it speculatively, but now have seene 
the experience of it, and doe affirme that an instrument 
may be made to move w th the wind horizontally to equall 
if not to exceed the ordinary verticall motion of the wind- 
mill sailes, both in swiftnesse & force : for the wings of it 
(w ch may be eyther 4, 6, or 8, or as many as the work- 
man will) in the one semicircle shalbe allwaies w th their 
broad superficies oposite to the wind, the other semicircle 
(allowing only such bredth as for strength the timbers of 
the wings shall require) shall be in respect only liniarily 


oposite to the same, & where there is any broad superfi- 
cies pressed upon by the violence of winds we may con- 
ceive the force it carrieth by the great weight that it 
moveth, as ships, &c, & where it is placed upon a center, 
& farr distant from the same, we may iudge w th what vio- 
lence it would whirle round, by the effect it worketh 
upon ships sailing close by a wind (w ch tendeth towards 
a round motion, save that it continually as it declineth 
change th his center, & falleth on a new one) that some- 
tyme through the force of it, it o verse tteth them though 
poised w th reasonable weight. Swiftnesse must needs 
proceed proportionably from force. I conceive it may be 
aplied to many laborious uses as any kind of mills, corne 
mills, saw mills &c, & I thinke a cornemill of this to per- 
forme w rth the ordinary verticall mills may be made for 
little more cost than a good horse mill, & so may hold 
proportionably in the other sorts, as saw mills, oyle mills, 
&c, w ch are not made eyther for wind or water w tb out 
great cost ; for this may be made as low as the workman 
will, whereas the verticall mills must be made very highe, 
w ch maketh them so chargeable. And one spetiall prop- 
erty wilbe in them, that they allwaies stand right for the 
wind wheresoever it bloweth. If there may be made 
any use of it, I desire New England should reape the ben- 
efit for whose sake it w T as invented. El soli Deo gloria. 

Heere was to day a youth from Foisted to be enter- 
teyned for New England, but knowing you were full I 
bid him not loose his labour to come any more to speake 
w th you, etc. I pray remember my duty & love to my 
Uncle & Aunt Downing, w th my love to my cosens & 
freinds. Thus desiring your blessing & praiers, I cohlend 
you to Gods protection & rest 

Your obedient sonne, 

John Winthrop. 

Grot. Jan: 18, lG29[-30.] 

1630.] JOHN WINTHROP, JK. 25 


Loving Brother, — I receyved 2 letters from you 
since you went to Exeter, the one whereof came not 
many daies since to my hands ; we all heere reioyce to 
heare of your & the rest of o r friends welfare there. My 
Uncle Downing, & all his company, have beene out of 
towne ever since you went, so as I have not knowne how 
to convey a letter to you, (they are not w th us, but theire 
children came lately from Layer Marnay, not having their 
health there, but are now well restored). We are all 
heere in good health, but it is a very sickly tyme, agues 
very frequent every where about us. My Aunt Gostlin 
was delivered of a daughter this day seven night in the 
morning. We have not yet heard any particular newes 
from New England but dayly expect; if you heare before 
us let us partake. Thus w th my affectionate love to your 
selfe & your alter idem remembred, whome I should reme- 
ber w th a particular letter, if I were certaine of the safe 
conveiance. I desire you to remeber my duty to my 
Uncle & Aunt Painter, & am desired to remember my 
mothers love to them & yourselfe, w th my cozen Martha 
& my sisters love to you & my cozen Ursula, & their duty 
to my Uncle & Aunt, I rest 

Your loving brother, 

John Winthrop. 

Groton, Aug. 25, 1630. 

Your last letter was not dated. 

I have not yet bargained w th any about your land. 
My cozen Forth would have it, but I have not lately 
heard from him ; in your next let us have directions from 
you whether & how to proceed. 


26 THE W1XTHR0P PAPERS. [1630. 


To the right wor 11 my much honored father John Winthrop Esq. In New 


London: Decemb: 9, 1630. 

S R , — My humble duty remembred unto you, may you 
please to understand y fc since my last to you by M r Peirce 
I received yours of the 9 th of Septem., by the Guift : they 
came to my hands about the first of this month. Yours 
to Mr. Gooffe were broken open by the purser and mais- 
ter aboard the ship & read, as I am informed by such 
passengers as were eye-witnesses. By my last I wrote 
you concerning the sale of your lands, that we were to 
finnish it the last terme, & that you should expect us the 
next spring ; but it hath pleased God otherwise to dispose, 
for by reason of some defect in the fine, w ch was acknowl- 
edged by you before you went over ; for by that the ffeof- 
fees had power to convey only the mannour, w ch by the 
wrightings apeares to be little above one hundred acres, 
because all that w ch hath beene laid out in ioynter is sev- 
ered fro the Mannoar, & canot now passe by the name 
of Manerin. Besides the royalties were omitted in the 
fine ; this Mr. Gurdons counsell had not found out till the 
end of the terme, when they were ready to have sealed 
the wrightings. Our agrement now is that the ffeoffees 
shall give possession of the whole, & he is to pay downe 
1000 H before next terme, & lOOO 11 more at o r Lady, & to 
retaine 1800 11 till the returne of a fine to be acknowledged 
by you there, & after by my mother & us heere. By rea- 
son of this I say I have beene both disappointed of monies 
for the 'payment of debts & making any provitions, as I 
was determined ; & also o r journey is of necessity pro- 
tracted till we heare from you againe & receive the dedi- 
mus poicstatcm & concordance & indenture, executed there 
by you; for till you have acknowledged the fine, my 

1630.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 27 

mothers will not be accepted, therefore for the more cer- 
tainty hereof we have taken out 3 dedimas potestate, to 
send to you by three severall passages, one whereof 
together w th a concordance, & an indenture to lead the 
uses, I send you together with these, the other shalbe 
sent as God shall give opportunity. O r counsells direction 
for the execution of them, w ch they desire you to observe 
is this ; first, that the indenture to leade the uses be first 
sealed & delivered by you, before you doe acknowledge 
the fine (M r Gurdon desire th that Mr. Ludlow & goodman 
Kingsbury of Assingto be 2 of the witnesses to it) : sec- 
ondly that the comissioners that shall there execute the 
Dedimas, doe deliver into many of the passingers hands or 
sailers, ioyntly, that one may be living to make affidavit 
of it heere, if the other should die : and such as may come 
to Londo for that purpose. You may please to send it 
to my uncle Downings, & besides give notice by some 
other letter to me or some other by what ship & what 
person it is sent, also what persons there be that may 
make affidavit. Thirdly that if all the three Dedimas 
come to your hands that you acknowledge them all, & 
first seale & deliver theire indentures. The first that 
cometh to our hands will serve, the other we shall can- 
cell. We have now peace w th Spaine, w ch I coceive may 
be a great helpe to the plantation, in o r freer passing to 
& fro, & vent for fish & helping us w fch cattell at easier 
rates, & I hope store of come too, w ch I shall certify you 
of further heerafter. I have but short notice of this occa- 
tion, & hope to have another suddenly. So for p r sent 
desiring your praiers & blessings I rest 

Your Obedient Sonne, 

John Winthrop. 

My mother, God be thanked, is in good health but 
doth not know of this suddaine occation of writing : my 
brothers & sisters & the rest of o r friends are well. I 


remember my love to my brothers, & my service to M r 
Johnson & the rest of the gentlemen. 

Mr. Cradock hath procured the 200 11 to be continued 
till March, he is very ill, being not cured of a hurte w ch 
he received in his scull in summer. Mr. Burrows sonne 
saith you owe him 4 11 besides the 30 11 12 s for w ch he had 
the bill. I have not yet rec d mony for S r Richards fraught: 
the rest is all paid. I am much beholding to M r Kerby, 
he lent me 100 li freely till Christmas; I should otherwise 
becne much shortened, for the fraught. 


To the right wor 11 my much honored father John Winthrop Esq. Governed 
of the Mattachusetts , In New -England. 

London April: 16, 1631. 

S R , — My humble duty remembred unto you, may you 
please to understand y\ since my last letters, w ch I sent 
by M r Allerton, wherein I Avrote you word that w r e had 
not yet any chapman for your lands, we are come this 
last weeke to an agreement about it, w th one Mr. Warren, 
a grocer of this citty, an acquaintance of goodman Pips 
& goodman Lambert, & by them procured to deale for it. 
He hath but newly carried the writings to his counsell, 
& therefore we have no certaine answeare whether he 
will goe through but expect this next weeke, & I hope I 
shall have occasion to wright you of the conclusion of it 
before this ship (the Friendship) shall sett saile from Bar- 
stable. The price we have agreed for is 4200 11 whereof 
2000 11 to be paid at midsommer, the rest at six & six 
monthes, my mother to continue in the house till next 
spring. Since M r Gurdon broke off we have had 3 or 4 
about it but none would offer above 4000 H . I have paid 
Mr. Gurdon 200 11 of his six hundred, whereof 100 H I bor- 
rowed of my uncle Downing, & 100 11 of Mr. Kerby : an- 

1631.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 29 

6ther 100 u I must paye him as soone as I can procure it, 
& the other 3 hundred I shall have till mid sorrier payinge 
use for it. 

When this ship went first out (w ch was soone after Chris- 
tide, of w ch & their coming backe M r Hatherly the bearer 
hereof can better informe you) I sent w th it diverse letters 
& a dedinais potestateni, to acknowledge a fine, w th advise 
in my letters of the reason we were forced to a dedimus 
for a new fine. I give Mr. Hatherly directions to enquire 
out these letters & dedimus, & receive them of the M r of 
the ship or whom else Mr. Allerton delivered them to, 
but least those letters should miscarry I will againe set 
downe wherein their counsell find your fine and deed to 
the feoffees defective, they havinge not power to give 
assurance of the whole estate to the buyer. The former 
fine conveying most of the lands by the name mannor, 
now they say that whatsoever hath beene severed from 
the mannor heretofore by any joynters, that cannot 
passe under the name of mann r , therefore we were forced 
to take out a new dedimus for you to acknowledge a fine 
in New-England, w ch was done whilst we were agreed 
w th Mr. Gurdon for it, & therefore made to him ; but it is 
as good though now we sell it to another. We sent an- 
other dedimus by M r Allerton, & reserve one still to be 
sent by some other ship when there be occation, having 
taken out 3, lest one or other might miscarry. They can 
make no full assurance of your land till they receive 
backe one of them, therefore desire they may be sent 
backe w th the first. 

We now expect w th longinge to heare from you of your 
health & welfare, & of the company w th you, and are 
much grieved that we have beene hindred from our in- 
tended voyage this spring. My mother, brothers & sis- 
ters, & all our friends at Groton, are well. I received 
letters from them this weeke, but they know not of this 
occasion of wrighting to you, for I knew not of it myself 


till yesterday. We are all well heere save my aunt Down- 
ing, who hath still a quartaine ague, but goeth abroad upon 
her well daies. My wife remembreth her duty to you; 
my uncle & aunt Downing remember their love unto you. 
Thus desiring your praiers & blessing I comend you to 
the tuition of the Allmighty & humbly take my leave. 

Your obedient Sonne, John Winthrop. 

The Spaniard hath a mighty fleete prepared to goe 
ag fc the Dutch at Parnambuco, who are very strong there, 
& have sent out strong fleets, also. You will have the 
newes of France in my uncle Downings letters by Mr. 
Allerton : the French Kings brother is w th the Duke Lor- 
raine. The King of Sweden p r vaileth in Germany, he 
hath lately given Tilly an overthrow w th a small army 
ag fc his mighty army. Some say he received some light 
wounds in pursuite of Tilly, & had his horse slaine under 
him. The Duke of Bavaria is dead, and the Protestant 
provinces have appointed a diet at Leipsic, it is hoped 
they will doe something for the Palsgrave. 

Corne was once risen heere to 14 & 15 s a bushell, but 
now is fallen to 11 & 12 s . 

We have had hitherto a very seasonable tyme, & like- 
lihood of a very fruitfull yeare. 


To the right wor' 1 my much honoured father John Winthrop Esqr. Gov- 
erno r of the Massachusetts In New-Eng d . 

London, April 30, 1631. 

S R , — My humble duty remembered unto you, may you 
please to understand that M r Peirce w th all his company 
arrived heere in health & safety yesterday, being the 29 th 
of this p r sent, by whome I received the joyfull & welcome 
newes of your health, & welfare to my great comfort. 

1631.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 31 

Your letters were sesonable to give satisfaction to many, 
that they were of soe fresh date, & brought relation of a 
winter wholy passed. My uncle Downing is very well 
satisfied w th your reasons you give him for the country. 
We had once made an agreement w th some m r chants & 
Captaine Cleyborne for to deliver 100 tunnes of Indian 
wheat fro Virginia to you, w ch they had covenanted to 
deliver before or soone after harvest, the copy of w ch 
agreement I thinke M r Humfries sent over by M r Aller- 
ton, w ch was intended but hath not yet beene sealed by 
us. My uncle Downing, M r Humfry, & myselfe were the 
undertakers in it, but now the ship having delaied her 
getting forth so long, so as we could not see it possible to 
be delivered so soone, we have broken off that covenant, 
& my uncle Downing & myself doe covenant w th them 
fourty tunne, whereof 20 is for your selfe, the other 20 is 
for my uncle Downings owne account, w ch if it be deliv- 
ered unto you he desires you to keepe his 20 tunne safe 
till you heare further from him. Mr. Humfry will like- 
wise send twenty tunne & Mr. Cottington 20 : likewise 
Mr. Cradock 20, & others, but we shall wright you par- 
ticularly thereof by the ship that bringeth it, w ch is the 
Affrica, whereof Capt: Cleyborne is comander. He & 
the m r chants that set him out offer us to bring what corne 
we will for fish, & for this would take fysh of you, if you 
could provide it for them. This corne we understand 
they buy of the natives there for trucke, there is great 
store all alongst the coast, from a little to the southward 
of you to Florida & beyond, etc, & to be had for toyes, 
beads, copper, tooles, knives, glasses & such like. Con- 
cerning your land I can add little to that I wrote about a 
fourtnight since, w ch I suppose will come to your hands 
w th these, by M r Hatherly. We expect all the feoffees 
in towne together this weeke, then I thinke we shall 
make a full conclusion w th M r Warren, or breake off: our 
occasions requiring monies for the satisfying of such 


monies as are owing, & the want of full power in the 
feoffees for the giving of assurance in the whole, & the 
uncertaintie of the tyme of the returne of the fine from you, 
puts us upon much disadvantage in the sale. M r Peirse 
is very earnest to have us goe over this surlier, & we are 
all as earnest and desirous to goe, but I feare it wilbe so 
long ere the fine I sent to you doe returne, that it wilbe 
too late in the yeare. My mother, brothers & sisters, & 
the rest of o r freinds at Groton are well ; we heard from 
them this weeke, they have yet scarce the letters from you. 
I sent them away yesterday as soone as I received them. 
My wife hath beene heere w th me awhile, but is now going 
downe againe, having acknowledged satisfaction to the 
Court of Aldermen for her portion. She remembreth her 
duty to you. I should be larger & write of other things 
but I feare the ship may be gone, or my letter otherwise 
miscarry before it conieth to Mr. Hatherly, for the day is 
past w ch they apointecl to be gone, but I would hoAvsoever 
adventure these that you might understand of the receipt 
of yours, & those other particulars. Thus w th my duty 
againe remembred, desiring your praiers & blessing, I 
coniend you to Gods protection & rest 

Your Obedient Sonne, 

John Winthrop. 

My uncle Downing desireth you to buy 6 goats for M r 
Sewell & three sowes : the goats he hath agreed for at 
40 s a peice & the sowes at 30 shillings apeice, & to deliver 
them all to good man Perkins for M r Seawell. For cowes 
my uncle Downing doth referre it to you, whether you 
thinke he shall need have any more, for Mr. Allerton is to 
deliver him six, &c. He & my aunt remember their loves 
to you, she is not yet ridd of hir ague, but on her well 
dayes goeth abroad, having 2 daies well & one sicke, &c. 
The bill w ch you sent from M r John Dillingham of 9 11 will 
not be paid, for his kinsman to whom he sent it refuseth 

1639?] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 33 

to pay it, & tells me he knoweth not what is become of 
his brother. 

Postscript. For those goats & sowes w ch my uncle Down- 
ing desires you to buy for him to be delivered to good- 
man Perkins for Mr. Seawell, he desires you not to give 
above the prises before written, for soe he giveth to Mr. 
Allerton for those he is to deliver him, & thinketh you 
may have them so at Plymouth. 


To the right worll. my much honored father John Winthrop Esqr. Gov. dd. 

In Boston. 

[Ipswich, 1639?] 

Sir, — My humble duty to your selfe, & my deare & 
honored mother. I thank you for your love & kindnesse 
to my wife & her little ones. I expected them heere by 
the last pinnace, but I find it as she hath told me, she 
knows not how to leave you, nor how to part with my 
mother, when she is with you ; I desire you would please 
to lett her returne now. I doubt there will not goe any 
pinnace from hence this weeke, therefore I pray be pleased 
to speake to John Gallop to bring them. Joseph Grafton 
came from Pascataquache the last Sabath day, there was 
noe other ship come, but one expected by John Trenorthy 
dayly; one is at Richmond Hand. Mr. Marshall & his 
wife being in a canoe there & one other man with them, 
the canoe was overturned, but the 2 men holding fast 
upon the canoe were saved ; his wife was drowned, he 
having hold of her let her goe to save him selfe. The last 
day of the weeke there was a man almost drowned here 
in the narrow river in a canoe, having laden his canoe so 
deepe with dung that she sunke under him, scarce any 
waves stirring. An house was burnt heere last weeke in 



towne. So craving your prayers & blessing I commend 
you to the Almighty & rest 

Your obedient son, John Winthrop. 


[Ipswich, 1639 V] 

Sir, — These calling in this night intending to goe 
towards Boston to morrow, I am bold to present my hum- 
ble duty & my wives to your selfe & my mother, desiring 
to lett you understand y fc we are in good health (blessed 
be God) w th the rest of our friends here, & at my uncle 
Downings. Heer is noe news to write you of. Joseph 
Grafton was on Friday sevennight at Pascataway, having 
made his voyage hence thither and back againe in 3 
daies, but there was noe ship come then to the Isle of 
Sholes. Just now one came to me y* came from Quini- 
piack certifying y fc Mr. Goose was arrived there. Before 
he came thence he saw my brother Steven there well ; 
the merchants there were about to hire Mr. Goose his 
ship for England, but this party coming out of the bay, I 
suppose it is not news to you. Last weeke one having 
laded his canoe w th wood coming where the sea was a 
little ruffe, she filled presently w th water, but not sinking 
right downe he was succoured by another boate & so 
saved. Goodman Giles of this towne came to me this 
day & told me he had order for Sergeant Watson by your 
order to pay me 10 bushells of come, but having no 
notice thereof from you, I doubted it might be some mis- 
take. Thus craving your praiers & blessing I comencl 
you to the Almighty & rest 

Your obedient son, 

John Winthrop. 

Myselfe & wife salute our brothers & friends w tb you. 

1641.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 35 



[Torn] deare Wife, Elizabeth Winthrop, Tenhills, neare [C]harhtowne. 

Bristol, Octob: 8, 1641. 

My deare Wife, — I wrote to the from Newfoundland 
concerning our arrivall there, but know not whether my 
letters y* I sent by 2 severall boats, to be conveied to a 
ship bound for New-England, were delivered. Therfore 
concerning our arrivall there I shall breifely mention it 
againe. We were 14 daies from New-England thither. 
We staied there thre weekes before we found a ship ready 
to sett saile for England. From thence we were 20 daies 
before we arrived in England ; having very foule weather, 
continuall stormes betweene Newfoundland and England, 
and our ship very small, about 60 tunnes. But it 
pleased God to deliver vs out of all those many dangers 
we were almost every day in, so as we are now at Bris- 
toll in safety (praised be His name), where we arrived 
the 28 day of September ; and meeting w th Mf Boole, 
who is going to Barstable, I leave this letter w th him, to 
be sent if any fishing ships doe goe to New-Engl : before 
winter, that thou mightest vnderstand of my welfare by 
the first. I shall write more largely to my father. Re- 
member me to all my deare freinds, brothers, sisters, 
cozens, and specially to thy deare selfe, w th my blessing 
to my children. God keepe you all. 

Thy affectionate husband, 

John Winthrop. 
Turne over the leafe. 

Heere is a ship to goe fro Bristoll (as we are informed) 
about a month hence ; by w ch , God willing, I shall write 
the more, being vncertaine of the conveiance of this. Be 
thankefull to God for vs, for y* He hath delivered from 
great & often dangers. Turne over the leafe. 


Prythe forget not to send my pticular salutations and 
love to my brother and sister Symonds and all my cosens 
there, my vncle and aunt Downing and all there, M r Hum- 
phries and all his, M r Endicot & M rs Endicot, my sister 
Lake, and Martha. If you se my brother or sister Dudly, 
or send to them, my cosen Cookes both and theirs, w th 
M r Dunstan & his wife, Mr Sheapherd, M r Lines, M: Allen, 
& M r Nowell & theires ; also, Capt. Sedgwick, M r Coit- 
more, M r Norton, my cosen Parker, Capt. Kaine, M r Cog- 
gin, M r Tomson, M r Rainsborough, M r Haines, cosen 
George Downing, w th all at home w th you, cosen Hanna 
Lake, and the rest. I cannot write to any of them now. 
Farewell, my deare wife : it is midnight and time to 

I pray be carefull of your journies to Cambridge or 
else where, and remeber what I desired you, to stay 
w th the children one part of the day your selfe. Let 
Betty lerne to read by any meanes ; but keepe hir not 
too close to it. 


[1643-4 ?] 

Tlie liable petition of John Winthrop the yonger of New England to the 
honorable houses of Parliament. 

Siiewetii that wheras your petitioner having in New 
England, at his great charge, searched the country, 
& discovered iron ore in divers parts of y t country, & 
made a voyage thence in to England on purpose to pro- 
cure workemen and materialls for getting vp iron works in 
the said place, w° h might be very beneficiall, not only for 
that plantation, but also to this kingdome; & wheras said 
petitioner, on [&/«»*•] of May, 1643, did at great costs and 
charges imbarqe himselfe, w th many workmen, servants, 
& materialls for the said setting vp of iron workes in 
the said place, in the good ship the An Cleeve, of 

1643-4?] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 37 

London, and the said ship lien, w th hir goods & pas- 
senger, many daies at Gravesend to be cleered, was at 
length, w th other ships in company, cleared by the officers 
there apointed, and was on the next day ready, w th all 
hir passengers on board, to set saile for hir intended 
voyage. The said ship was againe, when she was set- 
ting saile, stopped & hindered be one [&fcm&] Robinson, 
an officer at Gravesend ; and wheras the other ships w ch 
were cleered at the same tyme did set saile, & were in 
the Downes the next day after, your petitioners ship, 
being so stopped & hindered, was afterward kept in by 
an easterly wind, w ch blew very fresh, and continued so 
long that it might have carried our said ship, by Gods 
assistance, cleere of the coast of England and well into 
the sea onward of hir voyage (it being the fairest wind 
could blow for that voyage), your petitioner, having 
beene vniustly deprived of this oportunity, was after- 
ward, withe said ship, kept above six weekes vpon the 
coast of England, and by reason thereof was above 14 
weekes before he could attaine the port in New England, 
& forced to be at sea all the heat of sumer, to the clan- 
ger of the lives of your petitioner & all his workmen 
& servants, being all of us dangerously sick of feavors 
in the later part of our voyage, & so weakened that his 
said servants and workemen were not fitt for any labor 
or imployment when they came ashore ; &, it being 
neere winter before your petitioner arrived, he is hin- 
dered from proceeding in the said iron workes, & is 
forced to keepe his workmen and servants at great wages 
& charge w th out imployment : and thus by these vniust 
hinderance of your petitioner in his intended voyage at 
that tyme at Gravesend your petitioner is damnified in 
the proceed his intended workes above 1000 lb., and doth 
therfore pray for redress of this his great iniury and 
losse, &c. 



To my honored freind, Edward Hopkins, Esq r ., Govern 7 " of Conecticut. 
dd. at Hartford. 

Feb: 10, 1646[-7]. 

Worthy S r , — The last weeke Nenekummatt, the 
sachem of Naganticut, was heere. He came w th few men, 
and stayed one day ; desired to speake w th me. Where- 
vpon I desired the English to be present to heare what 
he said, w ch they did accordingly, and I have sett clowne 
in writing the severall pticulars of his speech. The effect 
of his principall speech was to signify that he heard the 
English had an ill opinion of him ; but he knew noe just 
cause but because he was a stranger to them, not fre- 
quenting their courts and 'plantations, as others did ; 
w ch was chiefly because he was so remote from them and 
fearfull to come amongst them, and was also formerly 
blind, but now sees the English doe justly, and never 
begin w th any till they are provoked ; y t now he comes 
to see me, being newly come to be his neighbor, and to 
have information what to doe that he might enioy the love 
of the English ; that he was resolved to be acquainted 
w th them and keepe peace w th them, [illegible] and to doe 
it whatsoever they shall require in reason : that he hath 
vrged Pesicus to pay, and himselfe hath profered his 
part ; but if Pesicus will not, he desires to have a safe 
conduct to come to the meeting of the comissioners ; and 
what they shall enioine him to pay for his part, he will 
willingly doe it, for he cannot comad Pesicus nor the other 
sachems. I told him that the business did not concerne 
me to answer him, but the comissioners, & could give 
him noe other information what to doe then to attend 
their order in all things, w ch was the only way to attaine 
his desire of peace w th the English ; and could not have 

1648-9.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 39 

peace w th vs or any other, exept w th all the comissioners 
conclusions. The several pticulars of his expressions I 
shall present you afterward, to acquaint you w th thus 
much for present, [obliterated] w ch if I could have avoided it. 
So, w th my service & love to your selfe and the rest of o r 
honored friends, I comend you to the Lord, and rest 
Your affectionate friend & servant, 

John Winthrop. 

Some Neantiqe Indians killed some deere in the water 
not farr fro o r plantation. They sent me word they knew 
not what to doe w fch the skins, for they did not belong to 
themselves. Wherevpon I sent 2 Englishmen to demand 
them to be kept till the comissioners mett, who should 
determine whether the right did belong to the English 
or to any other. Wherof I certified Vncus by [illegible], 
who was heere ; and find Vncus would like it well, be- 
cause his brother would chalenge some right to them fro 
him, conceving it necessary not to lett any just right of 
the English be neglected, especially vnderstanding that 
your selfe and M r Phenwick did strictly [illegible] vpon it 
in the same pticular. 


To the Eight Wor 11 my much honored father, John Winthrop, Esq*, 
Governor at Boston. 

Nameag, Jani. 17, 1648[-9]. 

S R , — The inclosed letters were sent hither last weeke 
to be convei[ed] to you, and we have now an oportunity 
of a vessell of Providence that is this day to goe thither. 
You may be pleased to vnderstand that we are all 
(through Gods mercy) in good health, both in our owne 
family & all our plantation. We heare from New Haven 


that about 10 daies since a small ship of that towne came 
in thither fro the West Indies, & report of the continu- 
ance of the sicknesse there. 2 of their men died ; wher- 
of one was the marchant of the ship, one M r Jordan of 
Gilford. The ship that is bound fro New Haven to Vir- 
ginia was frozen vp when they were ready to sett saile ; 
but I suppose they are now cleere againe, for we have 
had heere 5 or 6 daies of thawing wether, and all our 
coves are open. The Duch ship is heere still, & like to 
be till the spring ; for they have taken in no pipe-staves 
yet, refusing to goe to ride at the rivers mouth, because 
it is no harbour, but will have them bring their pipe- 
staves hither. They carined yesterday, & stopped a 
great leake, w ch was a planke all shivered w th a blow 
vpon a rocke as they came. Heere is a katch of Sals- 
bury, Av ch came from Virginia. They say M r Aliens 
ship is in Virginia, & are well. They intended to have 
written by them; but they came away (I thinke, in the 
night) suddainly. There have beene many Indians in 
these pts & Naraganset & all over the country, w th a sud- 
daine madnesse. They say they doe not remeber the 
like. I have not further to adde at present; but my 
hiible duty & my wives remebred to your selfe & my 
honored mother, w th our love to my brother, sister, & all 
our freinds. I crave your praiers & blessing, & rest 

Your obedient sonne, 

John Winthrop. 

My servise to the honored magistrates & reverend 
elders, I pray be presented. 

1648-9.] JOHN WINTHKOP, JR. 41 


Pequot, Mar: 23. 1648[-9]. 

S R , — I feare the letters by M r Trerice miscaried, ther- 
fore these I adventure by a Duchma bound for Madera, 
and hath promised to send them to London : I received 
yours of May 13, and returne you many thankes for the 
intelligence of severall matters therein : the other w ch you 
mention came not to my hands. I have not beene at Bos- 
ton since last Spring : have done nothing yet about the 
h mine, because of the difficulty in the beginning. Ex- 
ept a plantation were neere, or a good stocke it can be 
well forbourne a yeare or 2, w ch because of your depart- 
ure I have not once minded to raise by other adventure. 
I am glad to heare of those bookes coming forth, Paullin 
and Propugnaculi Fabri, and Helmonts workes, but how 
to be certaine to procure the I know not, exept you 
please to doe me the favour to send for the where they 
are to be had, and desire M r Peters, or my brother in my 
name to lay out the price for me, and I will satisfy it by 
returne hence, or who they shal desire to pay it heere to, 
or M r Hooke or any other that trades hither, I will allow 
them the profit of any other of their goods vpon your 
note and the receipt of the bookes heere. I desire also 
y t in high Duch, Glauberus, if you approve of it, and one 
more I desire you earnestly to procure for me, that is Vi- 
gineere des Cyphres w ch you know is to be had at Paris ; 
at Diepe there is one to be had.t I would have one in 
this country before the impression be quite worn out. 

[Not signed.] 
Indorsed " Letter intended for Dr. Child." 

* The letter to which this is an answer is in V. Mass. Hist. Coll. 1. 158-161. Seven of 
the letters of Dr. Child to John Winthrop, Jr., are printed in that volume. — Eds. 

f Blaise de Vigenere was born at St. Pourgain, April 5, 1523, and died at Paris, Feb. 19, 
1596. He was a very prolific writer; but his works are now utterly forgotten. His Traite 
des Chiffres, ou Secrete Maniere d'Ecrire was published in 1586. See Nouvelle Biogra- 
phie Generate. — Eds. 




To my honored freind, Captaine Atherton, at Naroyansett. 

Pequot, Nov: 10, 1650. 

S R , — I had intelligence but this morning of your being 
at Narigansett. What your comission is I have noe in- 
telligence : I hope only peaceable treatyes ; because, if 
warre had beene intended, I should have expected not 
only proeintelligence, but directions and assistance, to 
have beene sent to our plantation for their safety who 
otherwise, of all those vnder the care of the colonies, 
are ensnared and in hazard. I thought fltt to informe 
you what I heard this morning from the relation of Mf 
Stanton, who had confered in my hearing w th a Narogan- 
sett Indian, who is counted sobor and wise and one that 
hath shewed much fidelity to the English ; and he de- 
manded of him what he heard the Naragasett to deter- 
mine of. He answered that they did really intend to pay 
the peage as fast as they could gather it ; but he thought 
that there was noe possibility that all could presently be 
gathered, and that if the English should therupon goe 
about to sease vpon the person of Nenekunnath, or any 
of the other sachems, he thought they would be madd, 
and rather hazard all, wives & children & lives and all 
that they had. S r , I hope your wisdome will lead you 
rather to accept of any reasonable termes of peace then 
beginne a warre of such doubtfull hazard. S r , I desire 
the Lord to direct you in this weighty businesse w ch you 
are vpon, w ch pticularly I doe not understand what it is, 
but thought it not vnnecessary to informe 3*011 what I 
have motioned of the report of the Indians intentions. 
And so w th my love remebered I rest 

Your loving friend, 

John Wintiirop. 

1654-5.] JOHN WINTHROP, JK. 43 


To my beloved Sonn Fitz-John Winthrop at Cambridge. 

Fitz, — You wrote by your last letter w ch I received 
of some ilnesse that you were troubled w th , w ch we were 
sorry to heare of, but it was so neere winter, that I could 
not goe or send to you ; but since was informed by Arthur 
Mason (who put in heere as he passed to Virginia), that 
you were againe in good health, for w ch let the Lord have 
praise in whose hands is our life and breath ; sicknesse and 
health are wholy in his power. I pceive by your letter 
that you were much possessed w th the feare of Death, 
you must be [care] full that Sathan doth not delude you, 
it is good to be alwaies mindfull and prepared for death, 
but take heede of distrusting, perplexed thoughts about 
it, for that will encrease the sicknesse ; trust him w tb your 
life that gave you life and being, and hath only power 
over death and life, to whom we must be willing to sub- 
mitt to be at the disposing of his good will and pleasure. 
Whether in life or death learne to know God and to serve 
him, and to feare him and walke in his waies, and leave 
your selfe w th him and cast your care on him who careth 
for all his servats and will not forsake those y* trust in 
his name. In sicknesse vse those meanes that you can 
have and comitt your selfe for the successe to the Lord. 

This oportunity is but very suddaine by one that passed 
through the towne, therfore I have scarce tyme to write, 
and shall not have tyme to write to my cousin Dudly : 
therfore remeber my love to him and my cousin Cooke, 
and our friends w th whom you soiourne. We are all in 
good health (God be praised). Your Mother, sisters, and 

* Fitz-John Winthrop, born at Ipswich, March 14, 1638-9, died at Boston, Nov. 27, 1707, 
was the eldest son of John Winthrop, Jr. He went to England when quite a young man, 
and served in the Parliamentary army. Shortly after the Restoration he returned to New 
England. He held numerous civil and military offices, and was Governor of Connecticut 
from 1698 until his death. See page 266. — Eds. 


aunt remeber their love to you and your brother. I 
desire the Lord to blesse you both, and rest 
Your loving father, 

John Winthrop. 

Feb: 8: 1654 [-5]. 

Mrs Pinchen remembers hir to hir sonne and desires 
that you would send word if there be an oportunity how 
he doth, and tell goodma Beale that she desires him to 
speake to M r Davis for any things that he hath want of. 
Remeber my respects to M r D mister and to M r Child 
of Watertowne and \tom"\ me to M r Gold at Tenhills and 
desire him to take care [that the] ratts doe no hurt. 


March 2, 1657[-8]. 

Much honored S r , — Complaint being made to me by 
Daniell Cone that one James Parker (for whom he stands 
bound w th John Cockrill for fifteen pounds due to Richard 
Felloes of Hartford) is w th the said John Cokrill escaped 
to New Netherland, & vnderstanding y t they are there at 
present, vpon his said complaint I thought it necessary 
to request this favour in his behalfe, that you would please, 
vpon examination of the case, to cause the said Jeames, 
& John to be returned to Newhaven by Joseph Alsop, or 
M r Lamerton, exept they doe pay the said debt or put in 
good security for y e same, the said debt being now called 
for to be paid by the said Daniell : If there shalbe the 
like occasion I shall not be wating to attend the further- 
ing of equall justice in any case wherin any of yours may 
be required for. 

Your affectionate friend and servant, 

John Winthrop. 

Indorsed, " Copy of Letter to Dutch Governor, Mar. 2, 1657." 

* For a notice of Peter Stuyvesaut, the Dutch Governor of New York, see IV. Mass. 
Hist. Coll. VI. 533. — Eds. 

1658.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 45 


Boston, Sept: 9: 1658. 

Son Fitz, — I received your letters of the 12 th of Aprill 
last and doe blesse God to heare of your safe arrivall and 
continuace of your health, wherein all your friends heere 
reioyce and cannot but take notice of the speciall provi- 
dence and favour of the Almighty in ordering things so 
y* you did not goe in the other ship. You have great 
cause to admire and addore the goodnesse of the Lord 
toward you in disposing things so by his foreseing provi- 
dence for your good and safety that you escaped y* dan- 
ger, for w ch you have great cause to praise and magnify 
his glorious name, and noe lesse for those many deliver- 
ances in that ship wherein you went, of w ch I pceive by 
your relation in your letters you were very sensible, as 
you had just cause. I beseech the Lord to give you an 
heart to glorify him, who hath done so great things for 
you, and to devote your selfe to his service and feare, to 
w ch I beseech the Lord to incline your heart ; be earnest 
w th the Lord in praier, that having delivered you fro those 
great dangers vpon the seas, so he would preserve your 
soule, and body fro eternall death, and all those snares, 
and temptations, and alluremets of Sathan, sin, and the 
world, y* might plunge your soule into pdition. Be care- 
full to avoid all evill and vaine company, w ch are so great 
instrumets of Sathan to draw and intice to evill, and to 
allure the simple into the snares of destruction, as the 
bird is taken in the evill nett ; who so is wise will beware 
of them. Be not drawne vpon any motion or pretence 
whatsoever, into tavernes or alehouses or any houses or 
copany of evill fame. I have often forewarned you, and 
psuaded you against wine and strong drinke, w ch if it were 
only for your health, you should carefully shun, yea the 
very moderate vse thereof; the often vse of such things 


though very moderately taken is originall of great dis- 
eases and distemps ; it never agreeth w tb the constitution 
and lungs of any of our family ; it is more dangerous in 
those pts than heere especiall to breede coughs, catarres 
consution and burning feavers and such like. I am much 
greived at the dangerous sicknesse of your vncle w ch you 
write of, but some hopes of some abatement of the dis- 
sease w ch you metioned in the sequele of your letter did 
give vs longing expecratio of hearing the desired newes 
of bis recovery, w ch I hope by M r Lock to be informed of 
by your letters, but have not received any intelligence by 
any letters or other waies fro you, but a sad report w ch is 
spread abroad in all the plantations w eh , I vnderstand, Co- 
meth fro a letter of captaine Leveret to his sonne, who 
writes, as I am by many informed, that God hath taken 
him out of this life w eh makes me sadly to bewaile the 
losse of so deare a friend, and brother ; but I cannot se 
y fc letter yett, but if it ca be found he promiseth I shall see 
it to my better information, for I am but newly come to 
this towne. I have yett some hopes that there may be 
some mistake or misreport about the same : but I woder 
much that I should have no letters fro you by M r Locks 
ship, w ch arrived heere about three weekes since, by w ch 
I have yet received no letters from any, neyther hath 
M r Amos Richardson received any, or any other intelli- 
gence save only by that letter fro captaine Leverett. You 
should omitt no oportunity of writing : your mother will 
also be much troubled that most others y fc have relations 
heere have written to their friends, and she canot heere 
of any fro you. You should write by every way y fc offers, 
eyther by Barbadoes, Virginia, or other oportunity, though 
never so breifly, where you are, and how you are in 
health, and our friends neere you, or further of We 
slialbe glad, by all occations to heare of your welfares: 
your letters if any be sent by way of Barbadoes or other 
pts, must be inclosed to some knowne setled pson there 

1658. ]j JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 47 

that is also knowne heere : but every direct passage I hope 
you will not faile. Your mother and sisters were very 
glad of those letters fro you and have all of them written 
to you; they were all in good health when I came fro 
there about 14 daies since. They are all at Hartford : 
but I heard since that your sister Elisabeth was ill of hir 
head last weeke and was taking phisick the morning when 
the last messinger came thence. She was very neere death 
last winter when she was sick of the measells, but it 
pleased the Lord to deliver from the very dores of death, 
when we had but little hopes of hir recovery. All the rest 
also had the measells, your cousin Martha also, and your 
brother in the bay, but it pleased the Lord to recover them 
all w th out much ilnesse. Your mother informes me that in 
your letter to hir selfe and in your letter to your sister, 
you still disswade fro that proceeding w th M r Newma, w ch 
if you doe out of care of your sister and love to hir, as I 
doubt not you doe, you doe well ; but those expressions 
w ch it seemes you vsed of not owning him &c, but y* they 
are taken as proceeding fro your earnest desire of dis- 
swading hir for hir good, or other wise would seeme to be 
too harsh. # There is no such disproportion betwixt him 
and your selfe as should occasion such expressions. Scol- 
lars are well esteemed every where, and the more if they 
have answerable parts. Whether that proceed or not, 
you know he is not a despicable ma; and I find he is 
now very much esteemed and beloved of all in those 
places and heere also. I have not heard more esteeme 
of any where he is knowne : and in that regard your 
arguments and pswasions about that matter are lesse 
valid, exept you had propounded another more fitt w ch 
vpon very serious consideration and advise, we find would 
be very doubtfull and vncertaine to be pitched vpon, 

* Elizabeth, daughter of John Winthrop, Jr., by his second wife, was born in 1636, 
and married in 1658 — probably not long after this letter was written — Rev. Antipas 
Newman, of Wenham. See Savage's Genealogical Dictionary. — Eds. 


there being so little choyce of such as might be suitable 
in all respects ; \v ch considerations hath made vs w th many 
other friends, vpon a late renewed motion, to have serious 
thoughts whether there be not some speciall providence 
in it (w ch we could not see before) for hir future good. 
We looked at the businesse as at an end before you went 
away, and so all winter, and till of late, but he hath now 
lately so earnestly renewed his motion that we are now 
seriously advising w th friends heere about the same, being 
desirous to attend councell and advise in so weighty a 
case, to submit to the wise hand of providence, and the 
overruling will and pleasure of the Lord who disposeth of 
hearts and affections, and ordereth all such things as he 
pleaseth. As for your sister, although hir inclination was 
rather that way then any other that presenteth, yet hir 
constant professions and resolutions have beene to doe 
nothing w th out our approbation, and so hath beene very 
well contented hitherto to submitt to such condition as 
we should see providence directing vs to consent to for 
hir future good and cofort : therefore what way soever 
is taken by vs concerning hir, you must continue the 
same indeared affection towards hir as at any tymes 
before, and him also if the Lord shall please to put him in 
that relation to vs. We have not yet fully resolved what 
to doe in that businesse, but our friends heere and those 
that were opposite before doe not only now consent and 
aproove, but pswade to it, as very many others, yea all 
that speake about it : so that your mother is very well 
satisfied in such things as weere formerly obiected against 
it. Your brother also and sister doe now consent will- 
ingly to it, so as though there be no conclusion yet I 
rather thinke if such further counsell w ch I am now advis- 
ing w th , and whose advise I have purposed to looke at as 
a satisfactory issue in the case (having comended it to 
the Lord and hoping for his blessed guidance in the same) 
will conclude for a speedy proceeding exept some iust 

1658.] JOHN WINTHROP, JK. 49 

impediment should appeare. His father* hath purchased 
a very convenient house and land neere the place where 
he is, I thinke in the plantation itselfe at Wenham, w ch is 
lett for twenty pounds a yeare and ca constantly be lett 
for that price at least, and if there be a proceeding y t will 
for present be assured hir, and the people there doe prof- 
fer very largely for so small a people if he will continue 
w th them, but it is not resolved whether he shall follow 
that imployment. He may easily fall into other if it be 
thought best for him. The plantation at Pequot, w ch is 
now called New London (that name being established by 
order of the Generall Court), hath beene very earnest 
with him to be there, M r Blinma having left them, who 
is at present settled at New Haven, and like to continue 
there. He lives in M r Hookes house there. Those people 
at New London have beene very earnest to have M r New- 
ma, but the other of Wenha are not willing to heare of 
his removall fro them : and in respect of the conveniences 
of neerenesse to the plantations in the bay, it may be 
most likely for his continuance there, if he follow that 
imployment. I hope the Lord will direct for the best. I 
am sorry there is an house and a very good orchard vpon 
the land w ch he reserves and doth not let out. 


For my beloved Sonne, Mr. Fitz-John Wi?ithrop at London or Elsewhere, dd. 

I am sorry that that bill fro captaine Clerke was not 
paid. I vnderstand y* M r Yale refused to accept of that 
covenant about y e blacklead, to be ptner w th capt: Clerke 
therein, and therefore would not accept his bills vpon 

* Rev. Samuel Newman, of Rehoboth. He is supposed to have come over to New 
England in 1636, and published, in 1643, a Concordance of the Bible, of which a fifth edi- 
tion was published in 1720. See Savage's Genealogical Dictionary'; Allibone's Dictionary 
of Authors. — Eds. 



that account, but he hath promised me to give me an 
other bill to some other for you, if his blacklead be sold 
when it comes to London, but he thinkes it must be by 
M r Locks ship, because y e blacklead is not yet come fro 
Conecticutt w ch he expected to have sent by this ship 
( M r Peirses ship); there is some blacklead digged, but not 
so much as they expected, it being very difficult to gett 
out of y e rocks, w ch they are forced to breake w th fires, 
their rocks being very hard and not to be entered further 
than y c fire maketh way, so as y e charge hath beene so 
greate in digging of it that I am like to have no profit by 
y e same. The other bills I hope you have received w ch 
were fro capt: Oliver, you might by letters have had intel- 
ligence fro y c pty to whom they were consigned, though 
remote in ye country, whether he would accept and pay 
you, or not, w ch because I know not, I carlot demand 
any further returne fro capt Oliver. I caiiot possibly 
promise any more bills for you, for you know all returnes 
that will answer bills hither must be mony or beavor, 
w cb I am not in any way of procuring, finding it exceed- 
ing difficult to put of any sort of cattle (w ch is the only 
thing we raise) for such things as we must of necessity 
have for our vse heere for y e family. 

Be very carefull that you doe not rune into such debts 
as your imploymet will not produce money for y e satisfy- 
ing therof, for you know I being in no way of trade I 
shall not be able to helpe you w th any thing thither by 
bills, or otherwise : therfore if such imploymet doth not 
present as will affoard you cofortable maintenance there, 
you shalbe welcome to returne, as you seeme by your 
writing to resolve vpon ; but seeing providence hath so 
ordered that you are in some hopefull imployment, and 
are among such good friends eyther in England, or Scot- 
land (for 1 canot certainly now heare where you are at 
present) who may probably doe you good, if you be care- 
lull to follow their advise, and ordering, I shall not call 

1658.] JOm* WINTHROP, JR. 51 

you back suddainly but leave you to the guidance of y e 
Almighty to direct your way, whither for stay there a 
while longer, or to returne, wherein your friends there 
will better advise you than I ca, w th out whose councell 
doe not intermeddle w th any businesse whatsoever. You 
are much ingaged to them for their love to you, let your 
deportment be answerable in due respect and gratitude, 
and present my respects and thankes to them all where 
you are at present, or shall have oportunity to see or 
write to any of them, such of your vncles and aunts as are 
yet living, and other kindred and friends, whether in 
England or Scotland (I know not where you are at pres- 
ent). I hope to write to most of them eyther by this ship 
or y e next, for I am but newly come to Boston and am 
imployed w th ye rest of y e comissioners about those coun- 
try affaires y fc conserne them, so as I have very little tyme 
for any private matters. Heere hath beene a tyme of 
much sicknesse and mortality especially in those planta- 
tions beyond Newhaven toward the Duch and Long Hand ; 
we have not had the same diseases at Stamford and the 
plantations thereabout so comon and violent as by y e sea- 
side at Fairefield and Stamford &c, but lately at Boston 
divers have died, many very sick. I suppose you have 
heard before this of the suddaine death of M r Eaton the 
govern r of Newhaven, much bewailed of all these colonies : 
M r Coggan of Boston died this spring. Informe my sister 
Winthrop thereof if she hath not heard ; other pticulars 
you will heare by every passenger : M rs Eaton goeth now 
over in this ship, doe not neglect to se hir; and to visit 
M r Hooke some tymes, who writes me word he hath not 
seene you since your arrivall, or at least not at his house ; 
other friends neglect not to visit as you have tyme, as 
especially M r Peter, M r Maidstone, and others my friends, 
and present my service to them, though I canot name all : 
but omitt not my speciall remembrance to my honored 
sister Winthrop, w th my thanks to hir for hir kindnesse to 


your selfe : and to hir brother if he yet be living.* Where- 
of I should be of more hope had I not heard so much of 
his great weaknesse w ch your letters by the former ships 
mentioned, and this report of his death fro capt : Leveret, 
though I canot by any meanes see the letter (for his son 
canot find it) makes me so much feare that it may be so, 
yet w th some mixture of hopes of the cotrary y* I cannot 
write eyther to him or my sister as otherwise I would. 
Their is a kinsma of ours, capt: Gostlin, a captaine of a 
ship was last yeare at y e East Indies, if he be come home 
inquire of his welfare, and of his father, and mother and 
brothers and sisters, his father lived at Groton in SufFolke 
where your gradfather Winthrop and we lived. His mother 
was your gradfather Winthrops owne sister. I should be 
glad to heare of them all. If you are in Scotland your 
aunt Downig I believe knoweth how [?]they are, she is hir 
owne sister: his name is Capt Beniamin Gostlin, he liv- 
eth I suppose about RatclifTe, or thereabouts — every mar- 
chant or sea capt : upon the exchange knoweth him and 
can tell where he is. I desire to be remebered to him and 
his and all those relations. I shall now conclude, desir- 
ing the Lord to take the care of you to whose grace & 
guidance and blessing I commend you, hoping that you 
will remeber alwaies above all other things to have this 
feare of y e Lord before your eyes, and labour to honor and 
serve him and place your chiefest delight in the knowl- 
edge & love of him fro whom you must expect and seeke 
for all your good and happiness in this life & for ever, 
and look at and esteeme all other things but meere van- 
ity. That he may work in you this frame of spirit and fill 
you w th his goodnesse & blessing is the vncessant desire 
and praier of 

Your loving father, John Winthrop. 

Boston, Sept: 12: 1658. 

* Col. William Rainsborough, whose sister, Judith, was the widow of Stephen Win- 
throp. — Eds. 

1658.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 53 


To my deare Brother Mr. John Richards at Boston, dd. 

Hartford: Nov: 3: 1658. 

Deare Brother, — These are to let you vnderstand 
that through Gods goodnesse I came safe to Hartford on 
Friday last at night, had only halfe of the day before wett 
weather. I found all well at home (God be praised). 
There went one 2 daies since hence to Boston by whom 
the inclosed should have beene sent but fayled to call as 
was promised. Be pleased to deliver the inclosed, and 
procure a copy for me of that w ch is fro the Govern 1 * of 
Newhaven & return M r Davenports if you please after 
their pvsall. I shalbe glad to heare fro you, that I may 
be informed of your welfares and our good friends there. 
I can write you no newes hence, only what concerns the 
Barbaria. That there is a generall & totall cessation of 
armes betweene the Vplanders and Vncas for present, 
and both sides hunt & goe about their matters securely, 
but how it comes to passe the English know not, but some- 
thing wonder at it and at another matter that is lately 
fallen out, viz. divers great sachems fro about the Duch 
and Wapeages have brought presents to Vncus and made 
a leagu w th him, the English doe not vnderstand the 
cause of it, but are ready to say, Quicquid est timeo 
Danaos, et dona ferentes. 

I am forced to write in hast, and therefore shall only 
adde my affectionate respects & my wives to yourselfe & 
my sister and all our good friends w th you, your mother, 
brothers, sisters, w th brother & sister Deans, and rest 
Your affectionate brother 

John Winthrop. 

* The first wife of John Richards was Elizabeth, widow of Adam Winthrop. He after- 
ward married Ann, daughter of John Winthrop, Jr. See V. Mass. Hist. Coll. I. 431, 
note. — Eds. 




Hartf: Mar: 27: 1659. 

Honored S r , — There hath fallen out lately some 
actions of the Indians w ch have not beene vsuall ; about 
y e 8 th or 10 th of this month there came 12 Narogansetts 
Indians to M r Brewsters farme w ch is vp Monhegen River, 
almost over ag fc Vncas his fort, M r Brewster himselfe was 
then heere at Hartford. Those Indians lay hidden among 
y e bushes neere y e house. M rs Brewster being in the feild 
w th 2 of hir servants and an Ind ia y fc was as a servant 
also w th them. Those 12 Indians came suddainly out of 
the bushes, that Indian rane to M rs Brewster, and held fast 
about hir, the other Indians pulled him by force fro hir 
and presently killed him and cutt of his hand and fledd 
away. We are informed they were Indians of that part of 
Narogansett neere M r Smiths trading house.t The Indian 
they killed was of Monhegen, but had lived as a servant 
to M r Brewster a while. The last weeke there were 
some Pacotuck Indians, Nopequeu and his copany, went 
downe this River to Robert Lay his farme w ch is about 
6 miles above Say-Brooke (Robert Lay was then heere 
at Hartf). There being one of his cowes fast in a boggy 
swampe his man and negro not able to lift hir vp, they 
called 2 Monhegen Indians who vsually lived there and 
planted vsually in his ground and had never beene in this 
warre, one of them as a constant servant a very trusty 
man, and very vsefull to y e farme : they went w th them 
to help vp y e cow, and being about that worke those Pa- 
comtuck Indians came vpon them and killed him that was 

* Thomas Welles, of Hartford, was at this time Governor of Connecticut ; Winthrop, 
Deputy Governor ; and Talent, one of the Assistants. Endicott was Governor of Massachu- 
setts. When the letter was written all three were Commissioners of the United Colo- 
nies. — Eds. 

f Richard Smith was one of the most prominent men in Rhode Island. See V. Mass. 
Hist. Coll. I. 107, note. —Eds. 

1659.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 55 

the most trusty Indian and carried away the other w th them 
(who in the night escaped fro them) : they think w th intent 
to have killed him also at their fort. The Govern 1 " and 
Magistrates heere have sent to some Indians that are 
cofederate w th them that live about 10 miles of to speak 
w th them that they may inquire further into y e matter. 
We thought fitt to acquaint you w th these things doubting 
there may be more in those insolencies then meere re- 
venge to y e Indians their enemies and shalbe gladd to 
vnderstand your apprehensions, and whether nothing be 
fitt to be considered before y e vsuall meeting of y e co- 
missioners : not else at present but our due respects reme- 
bered and rest Your loving friends 

Th : Welles. 

J. Winthrop. 

J. Talcot. 

We desire you to send to the Naragansetts and give 
them charge ag* such practises w ch will otherwise &c. 

Indorsed, " Copy of a letter to the Governor of Massachusetts about the 
Indian kild by Naragasetts in Mrs. Brewster's armes &c." 


Deare brother, — The winter hath begunne to shutt 
vp all passage by snow, w ch yet being not very deepe I 
heare there is one will adventure through the wilderness, 
by whom I hope these may have passage to you w ch can 
tell you little other but that we are through God's good- 
nesse all in good health, and generally all in these parts 
and at the sea side, fro whence we heard last weeke. 
Thence we heare that M r Streete is lately ordained Teach- 
er of the church at Newhaven and 2 new Deacos there, 
M r Peck, whose sonne, a scoller of Cambridge, now suppli- 
eth the place of preaching at Gilford, where M r Higenson 


was formerly, and the other is one Bendall, M r Gilbert one 
of there former Deacons having beene made a magistrate. 
M r Newton who was pastor of Farmington is removed to 
Milford. I suppose you have heard of the Quakers ship 
that arrived at Capt: Silvesters & came over w th him to 
New London and thence to Rode Hand, whence possibly 
you have heard more intelligence fro them than we could 
in these parts. They were but 7 weekes as I heare from 
England. There came a passenger w th them w th his wife 
and children, who was one of the first planters at South- 
ould, a plantation vpon Long Hand neere Shelter Had, 
who went into England a single ma about 14 yeares since, 
is now returned w th a family, but being ingaged by the 
Quakers, and (as I heare) to pay 30 lb vpon his arrivall or 
to be all servants to capt : Silvester, w ch he could not doe, 
but the Towne paid the money for him and freed him. 
There is a ship at N. Haven, one Capt : John Penny. He 
was fraughted by one M r Scott fro Barbados ; this M r 
Scott is M r Pells son in law. The ship is bound to Barba- 
dos this winter or towards spring: 2 of this ships copany 
going fro Manhatas (there this ship came in first) to 
Southamton by land through Long Hand, finding a Duch 
sloope trading there they eeased hir, and vnderstanding 
that there was salt and caske in hir w ch belonged to Leift : 
Gardiner, they went over w th the vessell thither, they say 
to deliver his goods, but the men going ashore there Leift : 
Gardiner fetched the sailes ashore, and stopped the ves- 
sell, w cb now Capt : Penny hath sent hither to coplaine 
of the same. 

If you have any coppy of that act that concernes that 
case of restraint of the Duch trading,* or the articles y t 
were agreed betweene the 2 states I pray a few lines 

* Winthrop probably refers to an order of the Commissioners of the United Colonies, 
adopted Sept. 17, 1<>.">:$, which prohibited Dutch vessels from coming into any port of the 
United Colonics without the permission of the Governor of the Colony, and authorized the 
colony or plantation near which such vessel rode to seize her or drive her away. See 
Plymouth Col. Records, X. 93. -Eds. 

1659.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 57 

thereof, as farr as may concern e this case, if you ca think of 
it before the spring ; and if you have oportunity to know 
the opinion of the Govern 1 " & Deputy and Collonell Tem- 
ple, Capt Allen, or other merchants, (my service I pray 
be presented to them all) be pleased to let me vnderstand 
their apprehentions w th yours in such a case in generall, for 
I canot relate the pticulars of this case but as before, hav- 
ing not heard what the other parties can say therein; but 
especially I desire to know whether any may sease a ves- 
sell in such cases as that act alloweth w th out a comission, 
and whether those that sease a vessell (exept at sea) may 
remove it out of the place, or take any thing out of it, 
though belonging to other me, till there hath beene a 
legall triall whether it be a lawfull prise. By these que- 
ries I intend not to put any to other trouble about them, 
but obiter as you may have occasion to speake w th those 
gentleme or others vpon the exchang or elsewhere. I 
shall not adde at present but my speciale love and my 
wives to your selfe and my good sister, with your mothers 
and sisters as also brother Deans and sister, and rest 
Your affectionate brother 

John Winthrop. 

Hartford: Dec: 12: 1659 

The whole pacquet I intend to paid for heere to this 
bearer, who brings it to Boston for this weeks passage. 
If Capt Scarlet be gone for England and no other direct 
passage, I desire you to send the inclosed to your brother 
at Barbados for a passage thence for England. 

Postcript. Not meeting with the bearer when he went 
away I send these to Winser after him, and so misse of 
paying him therfor. I pray bid him demad his pay of me 
at his returne, as I have sent him word he should, or if 
you should pay him keepe it vpon account here for the 
whole pacquet. 



Sox Wait, — I received your letter by Edward Mes- 
singer. The Lord be praised who hath kept you there and 
vs heere that we may have cause reioyce in his goodnesse. 
Your mother is now (God be praised) cofortably well, but 
was very ill by turnes divers weekes, since we heard of 
the childs death. We have had some sad providences 
heere, both in the death of JVP Wells the deputy Gov 1 ", who 
died about 11 weekes since, very suddainly, being very 
well at supper and dead before midnight, and now lately 
in the death of M r Talcot, one of our magistrates who 
died the 23 of y e former month, March.f Both are much 
and worthily lameted. The Lord sheweth vs the frailty and 
vncertainty of this life, y e we may be psuaded to rember 
our creator and seeke a better, an eternall life. I intend 
to send the horse when there is meat by y e way for him. 
I am sorry you have that trouble ; an oyntment of Brim- 
ston is good to cure it, but when you cure it, its not amiss 
to take some phisick also. I am sorry at your aunts sick- 
nesse ; send word by the first how she is. I have but 
newly received your letter and the messinger is hasting ; 
therefore desiring the Lord to blesse you I rest 

Your loving father, John Wixthrop. 

Your mother and sisters rember their love to you. 
That report you metion about your sister is very false. 
There not any more so much as a motio about it all this 
winter. Remeber my respects to JVP Chancy and thank 
him for the [illegible'] he sent me. 

Ha RTF: Apr: 3: lGu'O. 

* For account of Wait Winthrop see page 3S2. — Eds. 

t See not'', ante, ].. 17. .Mr. Savage was not able to fix the date of Talcot's death. 
Welles died January 14, lGj'J-GO. — Eds. 

1660.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 59 


These For the Right Hon hU Darnell Searle Esq* Govern 1 " of Barbados. 

Eight Hon ble , — I received yours of the 18 th of Jan : 
by M r Giles Hamblin, together w th a chest of that sulphur- 
ous minerall therein metioned, whereof I hoped to have 
made some triall before M r Hamblins returne, but many 
publiq 6 occasions falling in, & since that, & at present, 
being hindred by sicknesse I could not possibly attaine 
any such triall, as from w ch I might returne any certaintty 
whether it doth conteine any mettall, or not : but shall 
indeavour (if God please to returne me health) a perfect 
experiment thereof as soone as may be attained. I pro- 
vided last sumer two young bucks, and for the safety of 
them put them vpon an iland where my servants kept 
them very tame and fitted them for a sea voyage by 
learning to eat such things as may be sutable for them 
at sea. The one of them being brought over to New 
Lond : to be ready for the first oportunity of passage was 
accidentally lost : the other I hope is safe vpon the Iland, 
and have severall tymes sent downe order to my servants, 
y* it should be ready for M r Hamblins coming thither, but 
now he informes me y* he is not likely to touch in those 
parts, having taken in his full fraught heere in the river : 
I shall therfore give order it to be kept in hand for the 
next oportunity. 

I am very deepely obliged for your favour in these min- 
eralls ; they seeme to be of a different nature fro any kind 
of sulphurous matter, w ch I have formerly seene. I wish 
there were vpon triall any such mettall therin as might 
occasio that further correspondence in relation thereto, 
wherby it might really appearr how readily I should 
endeavour therein to be 

Your most huble servant, J. W. 

Hartf: May 22, 1660. 



Tit e Sum of my letter of May 24 : 1660, to Brother Sam : Winth : in 
answer to his 2, of the 18 of Feb. Sf of the 26 of March: last from 
Christoph : 

That I rec. his ; one p M r Hablin, the other by way 
of Boston. Glad to heare of their healths & my sis- 
ters safe delivery of a son ; y 4 by My Richardson & 
Waite I heard of my cousins health at Waterto lately; 
y* I have endeavoured about a minister for them, though 
not likely heere any to be had, but have spoken to M r 
[illegible], who is free fro his preset place ; y 4 he is knowne 
to himselfe, being of y e colledge w th him, but have no 
answer from him to give me hopes of him, but have also 
spoken to some freinds to enquire of one iny e Bay; y 4 my 
present sicknesse hindereth me fro going thither my 
selfe ; y 4 I was troubled about cousin Duclly, who heard 
not of his arrival by his first letter, but glad now to 
hear thereof, & hope a providence hath directed him 
thither ; hope he wilbe advised by him ; y 4 M r Rob : 
Cutts being heere in the spring, & speaking about his 
coming over, he thought would like this place ; y 4 Mf 
Richerson was heer ; y fc he thought he would like N. 
Londo ; that that place fitt for harb r & trade ; y fc the win- 
ters are the moderatest of any pt whose winters [illegible]. 
Cousin Dudly knoweth y 4 & this : its but a day hense 
thither by horse, or water w th a fair wind ; y 4 I fancy the 
sea side, & my accomodat & cattle about N. Lond : but 
Providence & a call of God & the desire of y e people 
have detained me heere some years & at present ; y 4 , 
if God brig him hither, he will least please him selfe for 
situatio ; y fc M r Rob. Cutts was about buying an house & 
laud & a bake house neere a good mill, but agreed not 
on price ; y fc Deacon Child was much mistaken about the 
farrne at Tenhill ; 1 remeber not that he spake of buy- 

1660.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 61 

ing, & I am sure I never spake of selling it, it being my 
choise for certainty of supply for necessaries at Boston, 
other accomodations managed by servants & not let out 
are often to losse rather then profitt, being remote fro 
me and servats wages great ; y* its not in my power to 
sell it, being tied for jointure to my wife & entailed to 
Fitz, as stronge as law ca doe it ; y* if God brings him 
over he may be furnished to content, & at better rates 
then this could be sold. Most affectionate respects fro 
selfe & wife & the rest, & daughter L. & daughters, to 
him selfe & sister & cousins. Y fc Fitz is in Scotland w th 

[illegible J . 

Your most endeared brother, J. W. 

Added in Postscript. That that writing about Tenhills 
was made over to some ffeoffees in trust of my wives 
friends & kinred in the Bay to the vse of my wife & me, 
son, &c, & this was while my father & mother lived, — 
not this last but your owne mother, who was also as deare 
to my selfe as if had beene in the same relation to me, & 
there was also reserved & made over a part of the rent to 
the vse of my father & said mother during lifes ; y* my 
father drew this writing, & y* it is upon record, &c. ; y* I 
thought Deacon Child had knowene of this, butt he hath 
forgotten y* I received formerly by Mf Dav. Evans for 

him Of [illegible] y fc by him [illegible] its [illegible] to Come at & 

farr fro water ; y* I heard of an hill of it not farr from 
the water whither no heavy [illegible] like y e forestrees of 
[illegible] whether saltpeter earth, as I have heard, in many 
places of y* iland ; if so, I desire to see a little of it. 
Saluts to cous: J. Dudly. Yale charisime, iteruque vale. 
Y fc a farme w ch was Brother Stevens at Lin to be sold, 
but none heere hath power for my sister ; y* Mf Hopkins 
house & land heer to be sold, & some other, — I meant 
M r Chaplins at Wethersf. 



For my beloved Sonn, Capt. Fitz-John Winthrop in Col. Read's Regiment 

in London, dd. 

Hartf: Sept: 5: 1660. 

Soxxe, — I have received your letter by Capt: Gookin, 
as also another by Edmund, M r Davenporths rna, together 
w th those inclosed for your mother, brother and sister. I 
reioice and blesse God to heare of your health and recov- 
ery out of that dangerous sicknesse the small pox. I have 
my selfe in the spring beene visited w th a dangerous sick- 
nesse, w ch began w th a paine in my side neere upon the 
right brest, and had upon it a spitting of blood w ch con- 
tinued neere three weekes, but am well recovered (God 
be praised) out of that sicknesse. Your mother had also a 
little turne of ilnesse, once taken with a vomiting and an 
other tyme w th much paine of y e toothach but, by taking 
of phisick, through Gods goodnesse \jom~\ speedy recovery, 
and we all (God be praised) conti[nue] in good health at 
present. Your brother * is in the Bay, he was at home a 
while this sumer but returned against the comecement. 
Your sister Lucy is at Wenha w th her sister Newma. Mar- 
get is gone clowne last weeke to New London to chang 
the aire, having a bad stomach and very pale, as if incling 
to the greene sicknesse, they were all in health lately whe 
we heard of them, and your brother Newma and sister. 
Your last letter by M r Davenport had come but newly to 
us ; their arrival! being but lately, and y e pacquet kept at 
Boston expecting my coing thither, w ch was intended but 
by some occasions hath beene yet differred, so as we have 
not had oportunity since the receiving of them to send 
your letters to your brother and sifters there, but shall now 
I hope send them. I am but now informed of an oportu- 
nity of a ship bound for England and \_<om~\ tyme to write 

* This was Wait Winthrop. — Eds. 

1660.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 63 

but whiles one stayed purposely this letter, w ch I was 
desirous not to omit, to lett you know of our welfares ; 
there being an other oportunity shortly by w ch I shall 
write more largely, and therefore desire my service to be 
presented to my honored brother Collonell Read and his 
lady and my excuse for not writing this tyme, having 
not any notice of the ships so suddaine departure, hav- 
ing beene fro home at New London and other pts by the 
sea side, and detain the messenger while I am now writing, 
w ch ca be only the hasting of these lines. You must ex- 
cuse also your other friends y* you have not any letters 
fro them, being now no tyme for it ; for vpon inquiry we 
heard before there would no ship be ready before a month 
of tyme. I shall not adde therfore but my love and your 
mothers and sisters remeberd to you, desiring the Lord to 
blesse you and rest 

Your loving father, 

John Winthrop. 

Our friends at Ipswich were all well when we heard 
not long since fro them. I am this morning going toward 
Newhaven to y e meeting of y e Commissioners, &c. 


Much honored S e , — I received yours of the 24 of 
March, wherein the matters conteined, although I have 
heard the report thereof in general], yet have never seene 
or heard any such cleere, distinct, & impartiall relation as 
I have therein by your speciall favour beene now made 
acquainted w th , to the singular satisfaction of my selfe, in 
vnderstanding the truth of such things as had at severall 
tymes confusedly come over to vs, as also of some speciall 
friends whom I could not denye the content of informing 
themselves of the concatenation of those severall passages 


w oh your selves have beene eye witnesses & observers, as 
they have beene gradually drawne on by the pmission of 
y l overruling Power y fc sitteth in the highest heavens & 
ordereth the greatest & smallest of the affaires of the 
sonnes of men, but have beene famed to our eares only 
by such broken parcells (in respect of the interposition 
of the vast ocean) y* it could not be cleerely seene how 
such wonderfull occurences had their rise & dependance 
one vpon the other. 

I am much obliged for your great paines in so excel- 
lent & most elaborate epitome of those many strage actings 
& events w ch 2 if sett out at large, might fill vp divers 
volumes ; but although I made bold w th out your leave 
to make those your lines a favour to such deserving friends 
as your selfe, if you knew them (I beleive), would have 
good esteeme of them, yet shall I not take the liberty to 
expose them to the vulgar or publiqe veiw. I acknowl- 
edge my selfe much ingaged for your former favour in 
kind remembrances by M r Hooke in his letter, w ch brought 
the oftener to my mind that mutuall loving corespond- 
ence in our yonger yeares, & those obliging respects w ch 
I could observe towards my father, both formerly & in 
your letters, & y* also since his removall to these ends of 
y e earth, so farre as I was acquainted therew^. besides that 
alliance wherby we are ingaged in some neerer then the 
neere relation of friendship, w ch manifold obligements 
had iustly caused a full resolutio to have written severall 
tymes, but really feared in respect of your many & high 
imploymets, instead of desirable informations I might 
present you w* impertinent diversions ; & therefore must 
crave excuse that I only made bold w th my honored 
friend, M r Hooke, by him to present me, as you were 
pleased to take notice fro him. I hope you will not be 
mistaken in y* fruite w ch you expect fro your great labour 
in epitomising so wonderfull a [iUerjibie] ; but besides y* 
w ch you mention, it is exeeding vseful to vs heere, as to 

1660.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 65 

cause an admiration of the stupendous dispensations in 
such various passages & changes, so also to make vs 
thankfully acknowledge that peace we have inioyed heere 
in these poore colonies to have beene fro the admirable 
goodnesse of the Lord, who hath beene an hiding place 
to such vnworthy ones when their precious brethere have 
beene so long vnder the hurries, hazards, and sufferings by 
civill warres, the sence whereof out of a real sympathy in 
their evills hath stirred vp a spiritt of praier to seeke often 
to the throne of grace, that setled peace & prosperity may 
returne to our deare native country, in whose happinesse 
we shall exeedingly reioyce. I am now ready to answer 
your demads in such directions as might be vsefull for 
such friends as would transport themselves into these 
parts. I must lett you first know that, through the great 
blessing of the Lord vpon the labours of the people heere, 
there is a cofortable supply of all sorts of corne & provi- 
tions necessary for subsistance, & that not only for them- 
selves (the present inhabitans), but also for many others ; 
so as it is not now as in our beginnings, when we were 
necessitated to bring w th vs provitions sufficient for a long 
tyme, but now the country doth send out great store of 
biscott, flower, peas, beife, porke, butter, & other provi- 
sions to the supply of Barbados, Newfoundland, & other 
places, besides the furnishing out many vessells & fishing 
boats of their owne, so as those who come over may sup- 
ply themselves at very reasonable rates. The vsuall price 
of wheat is about 4s. p bushell, & India corne about 
2s. or 2. 6 p bushell, and other things proportionable w ch 
are produced here. This country also is now well stoced 
w th horses, cowes, sheepe, & goates, so as such as come 
over may not only be furnished w th all sorts of fresh & 
salted meate for their familyes, but may stock themselves 
w th such sorts of cattle as they desire at indifferent rates. 
And if they doe not desire to make new beginnings in 
planting new places in the woods, as the first planters have 



done, they may settle themselves in such townes or planta- 
tions as are already setled, by purchasing or hiring coven- 
ient houses & lands, cultured and fenced, at very moderate 
rates ; there being often occurrance by death or removall 
of psons y l give oportunities for such conveniences ; so 
as they neede not be put to any hardships as some of the 
first beginners might meet with, and may so suit them- 
selves to their content that they will find little difference 
fro their accomodations in the country habitation in Eng- 
land (as for necessary matters) ; but it must be vnder- 
stood that if many should come over together, they 
cannot expect so to be accomodated as aforesaid w th con- 
venient habitatios together in one place ; but if so many 
as might make a plantation desire to live together, they 
might begin in some new place, w ch yet would be farre 
easier than could formerly be done. 

These may in part answer your questio, What encour- 
agemet, &c. for friends y* may come over? To w ch may 
be added that such me as have estates may eyther bring 
mony, eyther English or Spanish, w ch may be advanta- 
gious, especially gold or Spanish peices of 8 ; if they be 
good & of full weight, 12 or 25 H p cent; for Mexico peices 
will passe for 5s. apeice, but there is much deceipt in that 
kind of mony, & some are not worth 2 shillings. Some 
have told me y t there is good store of New : England 
mony in London, w ch may be bought for 9 d or 10 d for a 
shilling. Those also y* have mony may have bills of ex- 
change to be paid heere, by w ch they may also have 10 
or 12 or 15 u advantage, as they can agree. You will 
know by M r Hooke or some friends vpon y fc exchange 
who are fit men to deale w th ; but besides, those y t will 
fall into any way of trade may brins* over comodities of 
severall sorts, as lining, woollen, k stuffs, & almost any 
kind of English goods, w ch will advance so much as may 
a Hoard a good living to such as can manage matter of 
trade ; & of this you may have better advise in London, 

1660.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 67 

of M r John Harwood, who hath lived some tyme in New 
England. You will heare of him vpon the Exchange, in 
the New-England walke. There is one M r Peake (an 
woollen draper, I think he is), and M r Woolnock, a linin 
draper, in Grace Church street ; M r Eobert Brooke, in 
Croocked Friers, and one M r Mannaring, I think about Lud- 
gate Hill, y fc are dealers for this country, as many others, of 
whom I suppose M r Hooke can informe you. Your M r Luis, 
and M r Newma, who was elder of the church of Newhaven 
when M r Hooke was teacher, these or almost any New 
Engl : ma can direct what may be best to bring over. 
Also for such rich me as would bestow any stock vpon 
the fishing trade heere, they may fall in with some oth- 
ers, or by themselves in that businesse, or sett vpon some 
other ingenious worke, as iron workes, potashes, saw 
mills, building of shipping, searching for mines, whereof 
there is some good signes & probabilities in some pts of 
this country ; though such things are not for a private 
purse, but rather for a copany, being a matter something 
vncertain because little triall hath yet beene made in those 
matters. There may also tobacco be raised. Some have 
had good croppes, but it is not yet so generally planted 
as to make trade of it. Rape oyle, also, its probable 
might be raised, w ch is a staple comodity. I should also 
give notice y* it is very necessary for them y* come over to 
supply themselves w th good servants, being scarse to be 
hired for any tyme heere ; also as for poorer sort of peo- 
ple, if they be labouring men or good trades, they may be 
set on worke profitably ; & if any have children fitt for 
service, they may be received into very good [illegible] ser- 
vices presently. These are such principall & y e most 
considerable matters I could think of necessary [for] your 
information ; but if your selfe should have any purpose 
of removall into these pts, you may please to lett me have 
notice thereof, y* I may more pticularly consider for your 
coveniece, or any friends of yours, in way & preparatio 


wherevnto, if there be occasion heere to doe you any reall 
service, I beseech you to comad 

Your much obliged servant & kinsma, 

John Wintiirop. 

My wife joyneth w th me in presenting our humble ser- 
vice to yourself & your honored lady, & crave this fur- 
ther favour you will please to present our respects to M r 
Hooke, if you should meet w th him. I heare he is re- 
moved fro London, but where I know not, & therfore 
have omitted writing to him at present, 

Heere is one Willia Blumfeild, who desired earnestly 
to have his service remembred, who saith he doth not 
question but you doe remeber him. He saith he married 
one Sarah Mills (his former wife), and lived at Langham. 

I may adde this, that there is one Capt : Peirse (he may 
be found on y e Exchage), a master of a ship, who hath 
lived long in New England & hath relation still to it, 
though I think vpon a marriage hath his habitation in 
London or neere ; he vseth every yeare to bring passen- 
gers. He is an honest ma, and may be vsefull to be 
knowne to such as intend hither. 

Hartford in New England, 
Sept: 19, 1660. 


Hartford Sept: 28, 1660. 

Son Fitz, — I wrote not long since, being then informed 
of a ship ready to goe fro Boston. Therein I thinke I 
told you of the receipt of your letters, both those y t came 
by Capt: Gookin, and the other by Edmud, M r Daven- 
ports ma, formerly. I have beene since y* a good part of 
the tyme at New Haven, where our commissioners meeting 
fro all the colonies was this yeare by course. There I 
spoke w th Edmond, being by him also satisfied about your 
recovery fro the small pox, as formerly by your letters, 

1660.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 69 

in w ch your friends here doe all of vs reioyce, and doe 
acknowledg Gods goodness to your selfe and vs therein to 
his praise : and for the like mercy to vs in restoring both 
my selfe, and your mother fro sicknesse whereby it pleased 
the Lord to visit vs in May last ; he is the God of our lives 
and the strength of our daies ; it is good to trust in him : 
his compassions faile not, nor doth he remove his loving 
kindnesse fro the y* trust in his goodnesse. I am yester- 
day returned home and have some intelligence fro Boston 
y fc the ship was not then gone, and have hope that these 
may overtake the former, but if not then they shall then 
lie ready for the first oportunity or by way of Barbados. 
Your mother is greatly satisfied in hir spirit fro your let- 
ter to hir selfe, apprehending thereby that you are well 
contented and satisfied about your sisters condition, and 
I hope you have no other cause : she lives very well, and 
plentifully for all outward conveniences, though they have 
yet had very little fro me, so as you need not feare hir 
(as formerly you mentioned) to be in want of any thing, 
if God blesse them (as hitherto). Concerning what you 
write about your returne, although it be our great desires 
(if the providence of God should so order it) to have you 
alwaies w th us, yet I doe not at present give you such 
positive directions for your coming back, not seing at pres- 
ent any sutable way of imployment, for as I wrote for- 
merly, you know the way of this country is to depend 
upon what is produced by husbandry, and cattle, exept 
such as are in some certaine way of trade ; and I consider 
also that your improvemet there (if the Lord please to 
continue your heart in his feare, and keepe you fro vanity 
and the evills of the tymes and the poyson of evill copany, 
w ch is my hope and continuall praiers) may be much more 
for your future good, and inabling you for future imploy- 
ment, then could be attained heere, exept you had eyther 
followed learning, or fallen into the way of planters im- 
ployment and husbandry, w ch yet also you may there 


observe much more, if you take notice of such things, then 
could be seene or observed heere, that may be verv vse- 
full to your future condition heere, if God please to bring 
you over to vs : so as 1 think it best for present to leave 
it to your selfe, w th the advise of your honored vncle,* to 
consider what may be most likely to be for the best for 
your present and future good, eyther to continue there 
longer, or to returne, and I desire the Lord to direct you 
therein, as may be for y e best. I have therefore also 
written to my honored brother, your vncle, to desire his 
good councell to you therein. An other principall consid- 
eration also is this; y fc (as I wrote you last yeare) I had 
thought of going over my selfe, w ch by reason of my sick- 
nesse I could not copasse, exept I should have left things 
in an unsetled way : but I doe still see probabilities that 
next sumer I may make a voyage over, vnto w ch a prin- 
cipall motive is some respects y fc may much concern your 
selfe, in your settlement in a cofortable way heere, if God 
shall please to bring you back hither : but whether I shall 
be able to find a way of such supply for such a voyage, 
and for sutable expenses there in so expensive a place 
(w th out w ch in some certaine way, I dare not adventure 
such an undertaking) it is yet vncertaine, being very dif- 
ficult to procure eyther beaver or bills : therefore I can- 
not write determinattely therein, but there being another 
ship (as I heare) to goe fro Boston before winter, I may 
probably write more certainly about it, if I see that I 
may by that tyme see the way cleere for my more cer- 
taine resolution therein. But if your imployment should 
cease, and y l you should meet w th difficulties in cotinuance 
there, your call for your spedier returne wilbe the clearer, 
and you may be assured you shalbe most welcome to vs 
heere ; but your vncles advise will not be wanting to you 
in any such case whom as you have hitherto found as a 

* Colonel Thomas Read, whose sister had married John Winthrop, Jr. — Eds. 

1660.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 71 

sure friend to you, and as a father, so I can confide in his 
further care of you in my remoteness for his best councell 
and helpe to promote your good. As for forreigne warre, 
if any such thing should fall out I know not how to con- 
sent to your ingaging therein, especially not knowing the 
place, nor circustances about the same, how to be sup- 
plied, what Generall, what other comandders, and you 
had better content your selfe w th a meane condition 
heere in this wildernesse then be exposed to such and so 
many hazards and difficulties that vsually are attending 
such enterprises in forraine pts, exept your call be very 
cleere ; but heerin also I am satisfied y t you wilbe vnder 
your vncles advise, whose wisdom and goodnesse wilbe your 
best helpe (vnder God) for direction in disposing your 
selfe. I desire the Lord to blesse you w th all spirituall and 
temporall blessing and corned you to his guidance, and 
gracious protection, and rest, 

Your loving father, 

John Winthrop. 

Your mother and sisters Martha and Anne remeber 
their love to you. They are about letters to you, but I 
somewhat question whether they wilbe ready for this 
pacquet being ready to be sealed and sent towards Bos- 
ton this morning, and uncertaine whether y t ship be not 
gone ; but you may certainly expect them by the next. 
Your brother and sister Marget are yet at New Londo, 
and Lucy is not yet returned fro Wenham, but we ex- 
pect them shortly. Your sister Newma is the last weeke 
deliverd of a son ; hir son y fc she had before died whe it 
was about halfe ye are old. 



These for my beloved Son, Capt. J. Winthrop, in London. 

Hartf: in N. Exg: Octob: 25, 1660. 

Sox, — I have written to you by M r Wooclgreenes ship 
and an other before ; the later I thinke was about the 20 th 
of Sept : w ch was inclosed in a letter to your vncle. I told 
you of some probabilities of my going over for England : 
the same thoughts are continued, and the occasions of 
this colony will require some to goe over in reference to 
what I have metioned in my letter to your vncle, but 
because it canot be till sinner there is no certaine conclu- 
sion about it. We are all, God be praised, in good health, 
as all our friends at Ipw ch , & your brother & sister at 
Wenham. I write now vpon an vncertaine conveiance to 
be ready for the first oportunity, and therefore you may 
expect no other letters heerew th fro other friends, but 
your mothers, brothers, & sisters remebrance are all 
herein inserted ; there being probabilities of some other 
oportunity w ch shall not be omitted. I have desired your 
vncle to present my huble duty as he seeth it seasonable 
to his exellency,* w th my huble thanks for his favours to 
yourselfe, w ch 1 leave wholy to his wisdom to consider 
whether it be fitting being not knowne to him : but the 
oportunity of the requesting his favour to our colony, w ch 
I also intimated to your vncle may lead therevnto, w ch , if 
your vncle seeth fitting, you may attend him therein. 

1 shall not adde but my love and blessing and rest 

Your loving father, John Winthrop. 

Remeber vs to Capt. Gostlin, if you know him, and to 
cousen Rend, as also to M r Maverack and other friends 
y fc aske of me, and to M r [illegible] to whom my letter by 
, Barstable ship, as he directed, w th Rubila phisick powder. 

* General Monk, in whose army Fitz-John Winthrop had been serving. — Eds. 

1661.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 73 


To the Right Honorable Peter Stevesant, jEsq% Gove r n r of New Nethe- 
land, dd at New Amsterdam. 

Eight Honorable, — It being my purpose (Deo vo- 
lente) to make a voyage into Europe, and having infor- 
mation of a good ship that is shortly to saile from New- 
Netherlands thither, I have sent one purposely to know 
the certainty thereof, & the very vttermost limited period 
that it may be certaine that ship or ships may stay. I 
have written of these quseries & other matters necessary 
for my accomodation for such a designe, to my worthy 
friend, Capt : Willet. I am bold to request this favour 
of your Hon r , that I may obtaine liberty to take passage 
in y* ship. It is really no small motive y fc inclines my 
thoughts y fc way, y* I might thereby have oportunity to 
waite vpon your Hono r , having hitherto beene disapointed 
of the hapiness of such a visit, w ch hath beene severall 
tymes the desire, & is now the present probable hope to 
be atteined by your reall friend & servant, 

John Winthrop. 

Hartf: June 21, 1661. 


S*, — I have received your letter and those w ch came 
by way of New Haven, together w th those [illegible] of newes 
& trialls therein are showed. My [illegible] thankes (I 
pray) to Collonell Temple for that favour, and lett me 
request your acceptance of your share also ; however you 
are pleased to preface in your letter an vndervaluing 
your good deserts therein, you must not be your owne 
judge in such matters. Your loving care in so speedy 
transmitting them must be acknowledged a singular re- 
spect to your friends heere, who were thirsting after the 
true information about those reports w ch had beene rumored 
amongst vs. I make bold w th you to transmitt by your hand 



to Colonell Temple those books [illegible] w ch you will receive 
heerw th (want of fitt artists heere must be my excuse that 
they appeare in that dessolate forme) ; they were sent me 
before winter, from the great intelligence of Europe, M r 
Samuell Hartleb, a Germa gentlema, as conteinig some- 
thing of novelty. That they are yet in sheets may have 
this convenience, that, being divers distinct relations, the 
Govern r , M r Wilson, & M r Norton (if there be any thing 
worth their notice), or any other friends he please, may 
have the pvsall of some pts [illegible] whiles the other 
parts are reading. Heere is not any newes yet fro the 
Duch, but a ship or 2 are dayly there expected fro Hol- 
land, of w ch they had notice by a passenger who came to 
Manhaton by way of Virginia, & saith those ships were 
taking in goods before he came there. There is a ship of 
300 tunnes at Shelter Hand, fro Barbados, consigned to 
Capt. Sylvester (its said fro y e Quakers). I have not to 
adde but my love and respects to your selfe, M rs Lake, 
w th your brother, & rest, Yours really, J. W. 

Hartf: Apr: 15, 1661. 


Deare Lucy, — I received thy letter by y e ship wherin 
Cousin Cooke came, & it was the more welcome because 
wrote w th thine owne hand ; but you forgat to mention y t 
w ch I gave you pticular directions, but I hope it is well, & 
because you did not write any thing to the contrary. I 
meane y e hurt vpon your legg. I hope to be ready to 
returne the beginning of sumer. Whiles I was w th you 
my hope & confidence was in the Lord for his blessing & 
goodnesse to be extended to your selfe & all y e rest of 
mine, & vpon him only can I relye now in my so farre 
absence for his continued blessing & his gratious fatherly 
care of you all, hoping y e in his good tyme he will bring 
me to my deare relations there againe. Continue con- 
stant in his feare, love, & service, & trust only in him 
who is able to bestow what ever is needfull in this life, 

1662.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 75 

& hath infinite good store for our future & eternall condi- 
tion. To his good hand of blessing & providence I corned 
you, & rest your endeared father. 

Lond. Oct: 15, 1661. 


JuxNE 7 th , 1662. 

Right Honor ble , — I never knew till Friday last that 
M r Clerke was Agent for Road Hand ; he then told me of 
it himselfe, and I heard not of it before. I did before 
beleive he was not for these reasons : first I heard before 
I came over that the people there had intentions to send 
over one fro thence ; secondly long after I came hither 
Alderman Peake told me he had newly received a letter 
fro Road Hand wherein he was desired to deliver an Ad- 
dresse to his Ma tie fro them, w ch was sent to him inclosed 
in the said letter ; thirdly I knew M r Clerke had beene 
come over fro thence w th his family many yeares since, 
and hath lived heere in other imployment ever since, at 
least 7 or eyght years. I could not therefore so well 
vnderstand the present [/om] that remote country as to be 
fitt for such [torn] he might have letters fro some private 
psons, and that he might [torn] occasion as a friend in 
their behalfe. This is all I could thinke about his rela- 
tion to them. [Not signed.} 

For my much honored friend, Mr Thirsby at his chamber in the Temple. 

Honored S R , — After M r Boyle and S r Tho : Temple 
had sett downe that expedient, I was willing to submitt 

* Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon and Lord Chancellor of England. Winthrop was 
at this time in London, having been appointed in May, 1661, the agent of Connecticut, to 
present an address of congratulation to Charles II., on his Restoration, and to represent 
the interests of the colony in all matters connected with the patent. — Eds. 

t This was probably William Thursby, Esq., a bencher of the Middle Temple, after- 
ward Chief Justice of Ely, who died Feb. 4, 1700, in the seventy-second year of his age. 
See Burke's History of the Commoners, I. 319. — Eds. 


to it, as far, as it was in my power, as M r Boyle, and all 
present may please to testify, and both they and my selfe 
did vrge M r Clerke to declare whether he did accept of it 
also, but he did not declare his acceptance, and some 
daies after, I mett M r Boyle and M r Clerke at the Lord 
Chancellors, and M r Boyle there againe asked him, and I 
asked him also, at y e same tyme whether he did consent 
to that in that paper, but he did not declare his consent. 
I then told him y l I would leave it to your selfe my coun- 
cell to advise what was fitting to be done on our pte ; and 
I make bold to desire your helpe therein, that you would 
be pleased to appeare for me therein, as there may be 
occasion. I have desired M r Laurence also to act for me, 
and ordered my son to repaire to your selfe and him ; for 
my occasions require my absence for a tyme, having 
through his meanes lost my passage I must take the 
oportunity for some other businesse y* concernes my fam- 
ily. I desire y t what ever be required on our part to be 
granted, M r Clerke may be desired first to sue out his 
charter, if he consents to take it at that bounds sett downe 
by those gentleme in their paper, before any thing be sett 
downe so farre to make an alteration in our charter, for pos- 
sible, when all is granted him, he will not proceede to take 
out any charter, for he hath all y e tyme done nothing to- 
wards it, though he being constant inhabiting heere, might 
have done it, before I came over, or since eyther, to his owne 
mind, without any opposition fro me, or any of ours ; but 
he did not move at all till he saw that ours was passed, 
and that motion was but only oposition to ours, &c. 

That wilbe the greatest motive to our people to be 
contented w th lesse then their due bounds, if they shall 
se his maties pleasure of so farr shorting them declared 
in a new grant to them. S r I hint these things, but I 
leave it to your iugdment what to advise and rest 

Your huble sev 4 , John Wintiirop. 

Aug., 1662. 

1662-3.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 77 


Gentlemen, — I could not avoid the presenting you 
the inclosed papers, a copy thereof under my hand is sent 
also to Newhaven by their Agents, who since the arrivall 
of the ships have informed what complaints they have to 
produce of iniury done to Newhaven (since you received 
y e patent) some pticulars whereof are metioned in that 
paper. The coplaints yet rest in the hands of Maior 
Tomson, M r Hooke, Capt: Scott, and other gentleme, 
authorised by them, who notwithstanding professe them- 
selves equally your friends also, and therefore were desirous 
to give me a meeting, to prevent any further trouble 
or inconvenience. I was not backward to coply with 
them in any service I could doe in promoting the peace 
of the colony, in averting future trouble, and contention, 
w ch I saw would inevitably follow, if something were not 
done y* might so satisfy them, their Agents heere, that 
they might rationally satisfy them there. Hereupon hav- 
ing given them a meeting, they then declared the least 
they could be satisfied in, although I indeavoured their 
satisfaction, by declaring that I did believe that it would 
not appeare (when you should have oportunity to heere 
those coplaints, and to answer accordingly) that there 
had beene any iniury done, and that I vnderstood from 
some of your letters, that the businesse of Newhaven was 
yet only vpon a treaty, and that you had appointed a 
comittee to treat with them ; but they say their intelli- 
gence speaks otherwise, and of inconvenient divisions in 
townes vpon what hath beene acted. At an other of the 
confereces w th them afterward, they produced a paper con- 
taining matters to the same effect of what they had spo- 
ken before, w ch was in forme of a letter to be directed to 

* Mason was Deputy Governor of Connecticut, and was acting as Governor in the 
absence of Winthrop. — Eds. 


your selves, but they would also have one of the same to 
Newhaven in the first ship, w ch if I should subscribe and 
deliver to be sent over, they would rest satisfied, and not 
proceed to further complaints and agitations about that 
businesse. I tooke tyme to pvse the paper or letter, they 
had drawne, and after due consideration and advise about 
it, w th such alterations as I saw necessary, that I could 
bring them to admitt, I have subscribed it, and send it 
heere inclosed, and an other copy, w ch I have likewise 
subscribed, w ch those gentleme have to send to Newhaven, 
and here vpon they have given me vnder their hands to 
desist further prosecutions about this matter. If any 
thing therein should at y e first veiw seeme vnpleasing, I 
begg your favour to suspend your juclgmet vpon it till 
I may have oportunity to give you a fuller account ver- 
bally, w ch I hope will not be very long after this shall 
come to your hands, for I hope to take passage by one 
of the first ships : and if yon shall please to leave it to 
Newhaven to have it rather come fro themselves then 
any vrging of yours to joyne and vnite w th you, it will 
appeare more satisfactory, and make certainly for your 
future peace and more cofortable settlement. These 
gentleme, the friends of Newhaven, did all agree y fc it is 
for their great convenience to ioyne with your selves, and 
wonder they should not see their owne good in it ; but 
if they should desire it, my serious advise would be, that 
you would not suddainly conclude it: (some reasons I 
could give you that I can not at present mention) but 
take consent of y e comissioners of y e colonies therein. 
And I am confident that in treaty w th N : Have you will 
take notice of any former obligations betweene you in 
that consideration wherein y e comissioners were consti- 
tuted and appointed. I can give no advice therein be- 
cause I doe not know the pticulars of it, but only hint 
that much, because there was a consideration thereof 
metioned by their friends heere, as some ingagemet vpon 

1662-3.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 79 

your selves thereby. I beseech you consider what may 
be most for your present peace and peaceable settlement. 
What other trouble may arise by any other actings in ref- 
erence to other places, of w ch vncomfortable coplaining 
reports fly about, as towards the Duch, Southold, M r Sil- 
vesters, and other pts of Long Hand and Westchester, is 
vncertaine, but I hope such reports not to be true; neyther 
can I beleive any thing as to any further extent of author- 
ity then the bounds truly intended ; but if any misunder- 
standing hath beene in any kind, I beseech you to forbeare 
any further proceedings, about M r Sylvesters or parts 
towards the Duch, or any other places, in respect whereof 
there may be vncomfortable opositions and litigious con- 
troversies raised. The Proprieters about Narigansett 
have taken a good way, by impowring Capt : Scott to 
petition his ma*! 6 for their continuance w h in your pat- 
ent, and that may be of good effect for their settlemet 
if he doth atteine what is desired by them, and wilbe a 
way of peaceable advantage to your selves therein. I 
hope y e tyme of my returne will not be long (if God 
pleases) and then I may give you a fuller account of the 
advise of your friends heere then can be now by writing, 
and I hope a sure vnderstanding wilbe atteined to the sat- 
isfaction of all. In the meane tyme it is earnestly desired 
your suspension in any transactions wherein controversy 
and trouble may arise. The hearing w ch M r Clerke had 
procured before winter was appointed severall succeed- 
ing weekes (it was to be before a comitee of y e Lords 
of the Councell, as I gave you notice by way of Barba- 
dos). I attended it the daies appointed of those severall 
weekes, but an hearing having not beene obteined, it hath 
beene since in the hands of private friends to advise about 
it, but nothing being concluded to M r Clerks cotent, he 
speaketh now of petitioning for a new publiqe hearing 
before y e Councell, and is very high in his expressions 
ag* the charter it selfe, since those reports of controversy 


fro Newhaven and other places, of w ch he i/ay hope to 
make great vse, but what he will doe I yet know not. I 
feare he waites as formerly to give me trouble by a step, 
when the ships are iust ready to goe out. Let me begg 
this further favour y* you will please at your next elec- 
tion to leave me out. I spare to trouble you w th the rea- 
sons at present. I have not to adde but to thanke you for 
your care in complying w th y e businesse of satisfactio to 
the ship y* was sent, of w ch y e merchants have advise, that 
it is safe arrived at the Canaries, though not pticular 
intelligence of things from you, and therefore have not 
yet given me a discharge from my ingagements to you, 
but doubt not of it shortly after further intelligence, 
not else but my love and service remebered to you all 
and rest 

Your faithfull servant, J. W. 

London, Mar: 4: 1662[-3]. 

To my honored friends Maior John Mason, 
and the rest of y e Magistrate, and court 
of Conecticut colony : dd. 


Gentlemen, — I am informed by some gentlemen, (who 
are authorised to seeke remedy heere) that since you 
had the late patent, there hath beene iniury done to the 
governmet of Newhaven, and in pticular at Gilford and 
Stamford, in admitting of severall of the inhabitants there 
vnto freedom w th you, and appointing officers w ch hath 
caused divitions in y e said townes, w ch may prove of dan- 
gerous consequence if not tymely prevented, though I doe 
hope the rise of it is fro misvnderstanding, and not in 
designe of preiudice to that colony, for whom I gave 
assurance to their friends that their rights and interests 

1662-3.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 81 

should not be preiudiced, or disquieted by the patent; 
but if both governments would w th vnanimous agreement 
vnite in one, their friends iudged it for advantage to both. 
And further I must let you know that testimony heere 
doth affirme, that I gave assurance before authority heere 
that it was not intended to meddle w th any towne or plan- 
tation that was settled vnder any other government ; had 
it beene otherwise intended or declared, it had beene 
iniurious, in taking out the patent, not to have inserted 
a proportionable nuber of their names in it. Now vpon 
the whole having had serious conference w th their freinds, 
authorised by them, and w th others, who are friends to 
both, to prevent a tedious and chargeable triall, and 
vncertaine event heere, I promised to give you speed- 
ily this representation how farr you are ingaged, if any 
iniury hath beene done by admitting of freemen, or 
appointing officers, or any other vniust intermedling w th 
Newhaven colony in one kind, or other without the appro- 
bation of the governmet it will be forthw th recalled, and 
y* for future there wilbe no imposing in any kind upon 
them, nor admitting of any members w th out mutuall con- 
sent, but that all things be acted as loving neighbouring 
colonies as before such patent granted, and vnto this I 
iudge you are ingaged. I have since ingaged to their 
agent here y* this wilbe pformed by you and they have 
therefore forborne to give you or me any trouble ; but 
they doe not doubt but vpon future consideration there 
may be such a right vnderstanding betweene both govern- 
ments, that an vnion and friendly joyning may be estab- 
lished, to y e satisfaction of all, w ch at my arrivall I shall 
also God willing endeavour to promote. Not having at 
present to add in this case I rest 

Your humble servant J. W. 

London Mar: 3: 1662 [-3]. 

Indorsed, "Copy of the letter w ch N. H. Agents had to send over." 




Whereas some difference hath of late fallen out between 
M r John Winthrop, agent for the taking out of a patent 
for the colony of Connecticutt, and M r John Clarke, agent 
for the taking out a patent for the colony of Providence 
and Rhode Island, concerning the right meaning of cer- 
taine bounds set clowne in a patent lately granted to the 
said colony of Connecticutt ; and whereas by reason of 
the doubtfulnesse of some names, and expressions men- 
tioned in the said patent, and for the better preventing 
of all disputes y t might arise betweene the said colonies 
hereafter by reason of such vncertainty or clubiousnesse ; 
they the said John Winthrop and John Clarke have 
ioyntly and mutually nominated chosen and appointed 
William Brereton Esq., Maior Robert Thomson, Capt : 
Richard Deane, Capt: John Brookhaven, and Dr. Beniamin 
Worsley, or any 3, or more of the to heare, and to con- 
sider the state of the said difference, and to determine 
what they judge might be most comodious, in order to 
the setling the said bounds, clearing of all vncertainties, 
and giving a mutuall satisfaction to both the said colonies ; 
we whose names are vnderwritten, having in pursuance 
of their request mett together, and having at large heard 
what hath beene alleged on each side on behalfe of them- 
selves, and the respective colonies to who they doe respect- 
ively belong : vpon serious debate and consideration had 
of the whole matter, we have joyntly and vnanimously 
agreed to offer this advise as follow eth : 

1, That a river there comonly called, and knowne by 
the name of Paucatuck River shalbe the certaine bounds 
betweene those 2 colonies, w cb said river may for the 

* This award is also printed in Connecticut Colonial Records, 1665-1677, pp. 528, 529, 
and in Rhode Island Colony Records, I. 51S, 519. — Eds. 

1663.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 83 

future be also called the Naroganset or Narrogancet 

2, If any part of that purchase at Quinibage doth lie 
along vpon the easterne side of the river that goeth 
downe by New London within six miles of the said river 
that then it shall wholly belong to Connecticutt colony, 
as well as the rest w ch lieth upon y e westerne side of the 
aforesaid river. 

3, That the proprietors and inhabitants of that land 
about M r Smithes trading house, purchased at first by 
Maior Atherton, Capt : Ilutchenson, and Leiftenant Hud- 
son, and others, or given vnto them by Indians, shall have 
free liberty to chuse to w ch of those colonies they will 

4, That propriety shall not be altered, nor destroyed 
but carefully mainteyned through the said colonies.* 

Dated this 7 th of Aperel, 1663. 

William Brereton. Beniamen Worsly. 

Robert Thomson. Richard Deane. 

John Brookhaven. 

To the four proposalls above mentioned we the s d John 
Wintrop and John Clark do consent and submet as a full 
and finall isue of all the contriversy between us. In wit- 
ness whearof we have interchangeably sat our hands and 
seals this 7 th day of Aperell ano domina 1663, and in the 
fifteenth year of the wrain of our soueren Lord Charls the 
seckond, by the grace of God, King of Eingland, Cotland, 
Franc and Irland, defender of the fith, and signed, seeled, 
deleuered in the presents of 

J. Beane. 

William Potter. John Winthrop. 

Robert Thomson. 

* In the Winthrop Papers there are two copies of this agreement. To the second 
copy, which was evidently made by a very illiterate person, are added the names of the 
referees and a copy of Winthrop's acceptance of the award. — Eds. 



Honorable S r , — When the commissioners were mett 
at Boston in September last, the widdow of M r Mayhew, 
who had beene in his life tyme a preacher to the Indians 
at a place called Marthas Vinyard, desired me very ear- 
nestly to recomend hir condition to y e consideration of y e 
commissioners there for some continuance of allowance 
for hir selfe and educating of hir son ; but because they 
could give hir no assurance of any certainty for future, I 
make bold to write to your Hon r in hir behalfe, that she 
might by your favour be considered by y e hon ble corpora- 
tion for such alowance for hir future. Hir husband was 
one who had wholy devoted himselfe to that Indian worke, 
and laid such a foundation among those natives of that 
iland before mentioned, that the fruit thereof hath beene 
very great, towards the conversion of those poore heathen, 
many of them, and as I have beene informed it was some 
respect to that worke y* made him (though possibly not 
only that) vndertake that voyage when he was lost.f He 
might certainly have beene setled in a better place and 
condition for the more cofortable supply of his family, 
if he would have beene taken of that employment. I 
beseech your Hon r to consider hir condition, and to recom- 
end it to the gentleme of the corporation for what further 
continuance of supply shalbe thought fitt to be allowed 
hir. It canot be bestowed vpon an obiect more interested 
in suffering for the promoting of that pious worke. I 
make bold to send heere inclosed a kind of a rarity, the 
first phaps that your Honor hath seene of that sort from 
such hand ; it is two papers of Latin composed by two In- 

* This letter was first printed in the Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. for June, 1878, 
pp.218, 219.— Eds. 

+ He sailed from Boston for London in Nbv-ember, 1657, and was never heard of after- 
ward. See Savage's Genealogical Dictionary, III. 185 ; Mass. Hist. Coll. I. 202. — Eds. 

1663.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 85 

dians now scollars in the colledge in this country and the 
writing is w th their owne hands. If your Hon r shall iudge 
it worth the notice of the gentleme of the hon ble corpora- 
tion and the Royall Society you may be pleased to give 
them a veiw of it. Possibly as a novelty of that kind it 
may be acceptable, being a reall fruit of that hopefull 
worke y* is begu amongst them, and there w th may please 
to give me leave to have my humble service presented to 
them, testifying thus much, that I received them of those 
Indians out of their owne hands, and had ready answers 
fro them in Latin to many questions that I propounded to 
them in y fc language, and heard them both express sev- 
erall sentences in Greke also. I doubt not but those hon- 
orable fautores scientiaril will gladly receive the intelligence 
of such Vestigia Doctrines in this wildernesse amongst such 
a barbarous people. I humbly crave your excuse for 
detaining your Hon r w th these Indian matters, it is but this 
once this first of that kind that has beene reported from 
this remote pt of y e world, otherwise should not have pre- 
sumed vpon your patience. I shall not add but my hum- 
ble service to your Hon r and the other gentleme of the 
corporation, and rest 
Honorable S r , 

Your most humble and faithfull servant 

John Winthrop. 

Hartford in New Engl : 
Nov: 3: 1663. 


To the Honb le Robert Boyle Esq., Govern' of 
y e corporation for propagating y e gospell 
in New Engl., at his house at Chelsy. dd. 

Indorsed, " Copy of letter to Mr. Boyle." 



Superscribed, For the hon hle Willia Brereton, Esq., at Mr. Raymond's at 
the White Horse, in Lawrence Lane in London. 

Honorable S r , — After I had taken leave of the Soci- 
ety, &c, had inform : that might confidently stay 2 or 3 
dales at London, but next day y e ship was gone so as was 
ingaged to go presently &c., yet was at your lodgings but 
missed y e oportunity of receiving your Hon rs comads at 
my going downe, and could defer no longer &c, and 
was necessitated to passe in another ship, nor could take 
with me y fc writing about M r Clarkes business left w th D r 
Worsly for your Hon rs hand writing to it. 

I doe not remember whether yourselfe were present 
w th the council of the Eoyall Society, when I declared 
some proposalls concerning a way of trade and banke 
w th out mony, w ch I had formerly hinted to M r Hartlib in 
a letter fro home, and sometymes to yourselfe when I was 
in England, but never had tyme for further discourse 
about the same ; and when I mentioned it to that hon ble 
councill, their tyme was so short y* the discourses could 
not be read, only a little of the begining, but ingaged to 
leave a copy for their pvsall at their owne conveniences, 
w ch by reason of shortness of tyme, I could no other way 
have affected but by worthy M r Oldenburgs owne trouble 
to transcribe it himselfe, being not willing to expose it to 
any pvsall but y t hon ble councill and Society to whose dis- 
pose I left that only copye in the hands of the said M r 
Oldenburg, their secretary, of his owne transcribing, and 
he promised at a convenient season to produce it to the 
reading and consideration of your Hon rs , of y fc Royall Soci- 
ety, or their councell, w ch whether since my coming thence 
y non bie counc iU have bene pleased to pvse it, or whether 

* Tin's letter is also printed in the Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. for June, 1878, 
pp. 219, 220. Mr. Brereton was one of the founders of the Royal Society. —Eds. 

1663.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 87 

it ever came to your pticular veiw ; or whether it doth 
vpon pvsall appear to be a foundation of such vse for the 
advance of trade, and setling a sure and easy way of a 
banke, y* the hon ble Society doe thinke fitt to owne, and 
to promote it to a way of practise, I should willingly 
vnderstand. The generall acquaintance and interest 
y fc they have in the gentry, merchants, and citisens, be- 
sides the sufficient insight y* many of you have into 
matters of trade and exchange, made me thinke y fc such 
a designe could no way be better accepted and brought 
into vse then from y fc Eoyall Society. If it may appeare 
of publiq e vse and benifit, they may please to add what 
they se necessary for the pfecting thereof. It is wholy 
their owne. I have given out no copies of it, nor made 
it knowne to any other, it will most probably be so 
approved, as from themselves, that it may be quickly 
brought into a practical way, to the great advance of 
trade, and settlement of such a banke as may answer all 
those ends y fc are atteined in other pts of the world by 
bankes of ready mony. I metion no pticulars, there 
being in y t discourse w ch was left w th M r Oldenburg, the 
modell of what I could se necessary fundamentally for 
such a designe of trade. If there should be appearance 
of such approbation as might cause a triall of affecting 
a beginning, and some progress, there might possibly be 
other additions y* might be vsefull for the proceeding 
therein. This I am bold to mention to your selfe in ptic- 
ular that if there appear no acceptance as to the promot- 
ing of it amongst gentleme and merchats to a triall, &c, 
I might obteine your Hon rs advice, whether to move any 
other way therein by acquainting merchants or others 
for the setting it a foot, or to desist further thoughts 
about it or any further addition to that modell w ch is so 
far already in writing. 

That there could be no pfect triall of the instrumet 
for depth at sea, the motion of the waves vnhookes the 


lead, &c, I wrote M r Oldenburg an account of it w ch hope 
he hath acquainted y e Society : am not vnmindfull of y* 
come w ch I told yo r Honor would ripen sooner, &c, but 
can yet procur none, but doubt not to have some other, &c. 

1 have nothing of new intelligence worth your notice 
and shall not ad but my huble service to your Hon r , and 

Hon ble S r your most humble servant J. W. 

IIartf: in N E. Nov: 0: 1663. 

Indorsed " Copy of Letter to Mr. Brereton." 


Hartford, July 27: 1664. 

Honored S r , — I received yours of July 26, and have 
sent the intelligence to those English plantations above 
on this river, and also to Boston, and thence I doubt not 
but it wilbe comunicated to Plimouth. The English of 
these parts, and all the rest, are much obliged for your 
speedy advertisement of matters y t might be of so much 
concernmet to all the English colonies. I desire you to 
re turn e my thanks in their behalfe to the Hon ble Generall 
Stuivesant, for his loving and freindly intimation to your 
selfe, and by your hand to the English, of those evill 
intentions of the Mowhoake Indians ag* the English, as 
motioned in your letters. The English know themselves 
cleere fro any the least vnfreindly passages towards them, 
and are not troubled at such of their- threatings : yet are 
not willing they should be setled in any such false appre- 
hensions concerning the English, who have had no other, 
hitherto, but freindly account of them, and would have 
the truly informed therein ; but living farre fro them 
know no other way at present but to desire your selfe, to 
use some meanes y e may be certaine (possibly by their 
freinds the Duch, or other Indians) to signify to them, 
that if they have received any such reports concerning 

1664.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 89 

the English, as are metioned in your letter, they are 
vtterly false. The English doe disclaime and abhorr any 
such plotts, or cotrivemets w th Indians. Vpon the best 
inquiry there is not the least ground for such aspersions 
ca appeare. The English of these pts are so remote fro 
those heathen vp in the country, y* they have no acquaint- 
ance nor dealings w th them, and have not any notice of 
any of their actings, but what they heere fro the English 
of Hadly, or Northamto, and I heare that the English of 
those vpper plantations vpon this river (w ch are belong- 
ing to the colony of the Massachusett, and live below the 
lowest of those Hylanders) some of them that had any 
knowledge of them, and had oportunity to speake w fch 
them, did psuade them much to peace w th the Mowhoaks : 
and in a letter lately from M r Pinchon (since I acquainted 
him w th that intelligece fro your selfe) I am informed 
that in pticular Leiftenat Wilson of Northamton, and M r 
Clarke of Hadly (I thinke one of the magistrates there) 
did psuade the Pacotuck Indians, to accept of the warn- 
pam, and make peace with them, and it is reported heere 
that those two, and some others were sent purposely fro 
the English of those upper plantations to the Pacotuck 
fort to labour w th them to make peace ; and in your letter 
there is a passage, that some English of the towne of 
Hadly e were witnesses of peace made w th those' Indians, 
I suppose those above named were some of those English 
witnesses: some also say there were some Duchme, (w ch 
came w th the Mowhoaks) at that tyme there present, who 
could not but take notice of those English indeavouring 
that peace, as likewise y e Mowhoakes themselves there 
present could not but see the same : w ch makes it cleere 
that the Mowhoaks have no ground, so much as of any 
suspicion of the English, who likewise never had yet, y* 
I know, any cause y* should move them to mettle w th the 
Mowhoaks, so much as to speake a word against them, 
but are ready yet rather to promote their peace, if they 



have oportunity. What further intelligence yon may see 
necessary to acquaint the English I doubt not of your 
readinesse vpon all occasions [rest is tornj . 


Hart : Sept. 20 : 1664. 

Hon ble S% — I had had sad & serious thoughts about 
the unhappinesse of the condition of a wilderness life so 
remote from the fountains of learning & noble sciences, — 
the particular ideas of some classic heroes representing 
nothing but sorrowes at the thoughts of their so great dis- 
tance, — when I was greatly revived w th y e speciall fa- 
vour of yof Honor's letter at the happy arrival of our 
noble friend Colonell Nicolls. My ingagements to your 
Hon r have beene formerly very great, & are now much in- 
creased. All your comands are strong obligations, & shal- 
be attended w fc . h all due observance towards the honourable 
Colonell, to the greatest of my endeavours to acte a p te so 
eminently intrusted by his Ma tie as you were pleased to 
announce ; and I hope [he] is come for eminent future 
good of these poore plantations. He was pleased at his 
first arrival at Boston (w ch is about 100 miles fro where 
I live at present) to favour me with the speedy notice 
thereof by his letter, & that he intended speedily to goe 
thence w th his frigats & w th enough of his smaller ships 
w th the rest of his Ma ties Commissioners to the west end 
of Long Hand, w ch is the neerest to the Dutch. I went 
thither to wait their coming, & was there at their first 
arrivall, & continued with them till I sawe y m possessed 
of the fort & towne upon Manatos Hand, w ch was surren- 
dered to his Ma tie9 obedience on Monday the 28 th of Au- 
gust last, by peaceable agreement upon articles, without 

* This letter lias also been printed in Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. for June, 1878, 
pp. 223, 224. It is probably the original rougb draft of the letter afterward sent. Sir 
Robert Moray was the first President of the Royal Society. — Eds. 

1664.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 91 

occasion of one drop of blood. The fort is now called 
Jeames Fort & the towne New Yorke. There is another 
considerable towne on the same river, far up the river, 
w ch is also surrendered to his Ma ties obedience, w c . h is now 
called Fort Albany. I am now returned hither, & hope 
of y eir cominge shortly into these parts. Otherwise I shall 
be willinge to make another journey thither again before. 
Matters of publiqe concernment have been so many & 
difficult since I came over, & severall occasions prevented, 
that, though I have had me at work about some prepa- 
rations about a salt worke, yet could never have tvme 
to goe to the sea side (w c . h is about 60 miles fro this 
place) to make triall of the businesse, but am wai tinge 
some good oportunitye for it, of w cb - I may give your Honf 
some account afterwards. 

I had a piece of marcasite w ch seemed to containe cop- 
per an Indian brought fro up in y e country, but there have 
beene such warres amonge the heathen in these parts that 
there could be no travelling that way upon such discov- 
eries, but tyme I hope will give better oportunitys. I 
heare there is peace like to be made amongst those In- 
dians shortly : then there will be oportunity to search 
that part of the Country, w ch before the Dutch suffered 
not whilst that river & land was in their power. I should 
be glad there could be found any minerall matters of 
reall worth. 

I shall make bold to crave this favor of my humble 
service to the President, my Lord Brunker, & the gentle- 
men of the Royall Society, & shall only beg the further 
favor of yof comands when you shall please to write to 
the hon b . le Gov r of N. Yorke, that I may still be accounted, 
Hon ble S r , 

Your most humble & faithful Servant, J. W. 

Hartf: N. Engl: Sept. 20, 1664. 

Copy to Sir Robert Moray, at his lodgings at Whitehall. 



For the Rigid Honorable, Edward Earle of Clarendon, Lord Chancellor 
of England at Wooster House, London dd. 

Right Honorable, — Vpon the happy arrivall of his 

Maiesties Comissioners I had the high favour of your Lord- 
ships letter. # Dutie & affection inforceth me humbly to 
acknowledge w th all thankfulnesse your Lordships accu- 
mulate goodnesse to your servant, and this colony of 
Conecticutt, & all New England. Your Lordships com- 
mands for the reception of the Honorable Comissioners 
shalbe attended w th all imaginable indeavour, according 
to the capacity of this our wildernesse condition, and w th 
all dutifull observance. I have beene to waite vpon their 
Hon rs at their first coming to the west end of Loner Hand, 
and continued that service till vpon the 28 th of August last, 
I saw the towne vpon the Manatos Hand reduced to the 
obedience of our Soveraigne Lord the King wherby there 
is w r ay made for the inlargment of his Ma ties dominions, 
by filling that vacant wildernesse in tyme w th plantations 
of his Ma ties subiects, and we hope also it wilbe a meanes 
of the future peace, & good of these his Ma ties adioyning 
colonies. I humbly beseech your Lordship be pleased 
still to favour these plantations w th the continued exten- 
sion of that goodnesse, w ch hath appeared thus farr over 
this vast ocean. And that the Lord of Heaven would mul- 
tiply your Lordships yeares, w th all abounding felicities, 
wilbe their continuall supplications, together w th his, who 
is ever devoted to be, 

My Lord, your lordships most dutifull humble servant, 

John Wintiirop. 

Hartford in New England, * 

Sept: 25, 16G4. 

* Nicolls and Cartwright, two of the Royal Commissioners, arrived at Boston, July 23, 
1664, and Can* and Maverick, their associates, landed at Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, 
July 20. See Palfrey's History of New England, II. 578, 5S2. — Eds. 

1664-5.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 93 


Hartford, Jan: 27: 1664[-5]. 

Hon e ™ S R , — In my former I gave your Hon r an account 
of the favor I had of your letter by the Hon ble Colonell 
Richard Nicolls. I then omitted to acquaint your Honor 
what now I will be bold to add : that havinge looked 
upon Jupiter w th a telescope, upon the 6 th of August last, 
I saw 5 satellites t very distinctly about that planet : I 
observed it w th the best curiosity I could, taking very 
distinct notice of y e nuber of them, by severall aspects 
w th some convenient tyme of intermission ; & though I 
was not w^out some consideration whether that fift 
might not be some fixt star w th w ch Jupiter might at that 
tyme be in neere coniunction, yet that consideration made 
me the more carefully to take notice whether I could dis- 
cern e any such difference of one of them fro the other 
foure, y* might by the more twinckling light of it or any 
other appearance give ground to believe y* it might be a 
fixed starr, but I could discerne nothing of that nature : 
& I consider that the tube w'! 1 w c . h I looked upon them, 
though so good as to shew very cleerly the satellytes, 
yet was but of 3 foote & halfe wf 1 a concave ey-glasse ; & I 
question whether by a farre better tube a fixt star can be 
discerned so near the body of that planet w th in the ever 
bright activity of its light, for, if so, why are there not often 
if not alwayes seene w th the best tubes the like or more. Is 
not Jupiter often in neere coniunction w 1 ! 1 them, especially 
in via lacteaf I have been in much doubt whether I 
should mention this, w c . h would possibly be taken fro a 

* This letter has also been printed in Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. for June, 1878, 
pp. 220, 221. — Eds. 

+ Galileo had discovered the four satellites of Jupiter in 1610, and the number has 
never been increased. Winthrop, with his little "tube" in the wilderness, might well be 
distrustful, as he was, of discovering anything which had eluded the gaze of Galileo. — 


single affirmation but a mistaken novelty : but I thought 
I would rather beare such sensure than omitt the notice 
of it to such worthy friends as might fro the hint of it 
take occasion to cause more frequent observations to be 
made upon that planet, & at least this will at length be 
cleared, whether the light of Jupiter doth not take away 
the appearance of fixed Starrs so neere in coniunction w Tt . h 
it, as that they should appear w th in the periphery of that 
single intuitus by a tube w ch taketh in the body of Jupi- 
ter & that at the same unmoved aspect : & I am bold the 
rather to mention this as an inquiry whether any such 
nuber of satellites or moons hath beene seene by your 
Hon 1 " or Mr. Rooke # or any mathematitians or other gen- 
tlemen y t have good tubes & often had the curiosity to 
veiw y* planet, for possibly it may be new to me w c . h hath 
beene more usually knowne by others, though the notion 
of such a thinge is not new to my selfe, for I remember I 
mett w th the like narration many years since in a little 
booke intituled Philosophia Naturalis p Joh. Phociliden, 
though then thought that was but a mistake of some 
fixed starrs. An other thing I make bold to metion, 
upon occasion of a relation w ch I had lately fro an under- 
standing seama, y fc hath beene master of some vessells & 
often beene in y e West Indies (Mr. John Blackleech), he 
affirmed confidently that beinge in y e Gulfe of Florida 
he saw a great pillar of water (such as comonly called 
spouts) rise up from the sea & rise higher till it joyned 
itself to a white cloude over it. I urged it to him to 
be a mistake, & that it was one of those spouts (usuall 
in y e Indies & other p tes ) that fall from y? cloudes above : 
he confidently afhrmeth it could be no mistake, his ship 
was neer & that both himselfe & all in the ship w*? one 
consent judged it to rise out of the sea. I mention not 

* Laurence Rooke, the great observer of the satellites of Jupiter, had died at Gresham 
College, June 27, 1672, on the very night on which he had expected to complete and per- 
fect his observations. Birch's Hist, of Royal Society, I. 98. — Eds. 

1664-5.] JOH^ WINTHKOP, JR. 95 

this out of any credence that it was any other than a 
mistake, supposinge it to have beene an ordinary spout 
falling down ; yet because of his confidence in y e affirma- 
tion as before upon y e occasion thereof, I thought fit to 
comend it to your Hon rs consideration, & the Koyall So- 
ciety (if you think it fit), that, if they please, inquiry 
may be made of severall captaines or masters of ships or 
other understanding seamen y* have often visited the 
West Indies, what the true originall & maner of those 
spouts are, for, however, they are of a strange nature & 
wonderfull, & possibly there wilbe something reported 
about them & the effects of them that wilbe worth the 
knowing. Since my former I have beene againe at New 
Yorke to give the Hon ble Govern r , Collonell Nicolls, a visit 
there, & left him w th all there in good health & peace, & 
have not long since received a letter fro him w c . h signified 
the cotinuance of the same. Not far fro thence upon 
Long Hand there was last sumer, at an English Plantation 
called Gravesend, 16 oxen killed at once all together w*? 
lightning ; & at a plantation called Stratford, a I was 
goinge last to N : Yorke, I saw a great tall oake that was 
stripped of so much of the barke as the breadth of foure 
fingers fro the very uppermost small top of one of the 
highest bowes to the very bottom of the tree at the 
ground ; that breadth I measured by my hand as high 
as I could reach, but by the iudgment of the eye it 
might be narrower upward accordinge to the proportion 
of the bodye & bowes upward, but no p te of the other 
barke, nor the body of the tree hurt by it, & all that 
breadth that was taken off, it was in a kind of spirall 
line runinge at least six or S tymes about the tree & 
bowes fro the top bow to the roote of the tree. 

But I have beene too prolix in these discourses, for w ch 
I presume I may have your Hon ? 3 excuse, & shall not 
add further. J. W. 

Copy of a letter sent by Barbados to Sir Robert Moray. 




Right Hon 1 ? 15 , — I sent away the packet w cb was in- 
closed in y or Hon rs letter the next morning y fc I reed, 
it, etc. 

As sone as I reed, yours w th a copy of his Ma ties letter 
those magistrates y* were at hand were aquainted w th it 
and have sent out dirrections to all y e townes by the sea 
side to be in an order and rediness to defend y m selves 
and lend such nesessary aid to y r neibours as y e exigent 
may call for, and besides we have apointed a meeting of 
the Gen 11 Assembly the midle of next weeke, w ch will be 
the soneest they ca have notis to all parts and come 
together, y t more full order may be taken y rin , and y* pro- 
posall should be againe declared to you w ch was before 
in y e former cort made knowne. According to y r honors 
intimation I propounded it w th all ernestness, and as I 
have alwais observed y m very zelous for his Ma tie interest, 
soe y y considered very seriously about y t proposall and 
expressed a duty and willingness according to y r capasitie 
to give assistance to his Ma t,es subjects in case of sudaine 
invasions about forraine enemies, but did not understand 
the way propounded ; speakeing of a difficulty w ch y y cold 
not get over to make an ingagement of such a matter 
before had, w r in y r might be grater expectations y n y y 
might be at y e time capable to performe w n y e safty of all 
y e plantations and y e preservation of y m , both fro y e mis- 
cheife by y 09 forraine enemies aud fro y e continuall dan- 
gers y y aprehended by y e Indians round about y m , showeing 
y m more insolencies and threates y n ordinary [blot] lay 
equally at y° stake, and haveing put this supposition y* if 
a fleete should come y y might divide y m selves and some 
of y m come directly upon y r plantations w* shold y y then 
doe, etc. Such like discors as this passed, soe as y y cold 
not see a clere way to act directly according to y e propo- 

1665.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 97 

sail ; and for a setled way of mutuall assistance so thought 
it nessesary of so impowred fro each place to cofer about 
a way for it before any setled orders cold pass about y* 
same. I was just writing to y r Honor about y es things w a 
you were plesed to honor us w th y r company at Hartford. 
The inclosed came this night fro Boston and y e tener of it 
speakes of y e taking of 15 ships of y e English fro y e Rode 
at Mevis* and Mountserrat. This is all y e intellegence we 
have about De Rut" at present, but it is said alsoe he is 
not very well mand nor victualed but possibly y r intelli- 
gence in y r letter will be more full. I have not to ad but 
to subscribe myselfe &c. 

[Not signed.] 
June 28: 1665. 

Indorsed, " Copy of my Letter to Col. Nicolls, June 28, 1665." 


Right Hon ble , — At the meeting of the Generall Assem- 
bly of this colony I delivered them the copy of his Ma*! 68 
letter w ch your Hon r sent of Jan : 28 th , together with yours 
of June 26 th . They had very serious consideration about 
those matters contained in them ; and coparing all intel- 
ligence besides, and those y* have lately come fro Nevis 
concerning De Ruiter his fleet, it appeares to them that 
he is vpon a ranging voyage, and may intend (if he come 
this way) to doe hurt and spoile along the coast to all 
places he ca come at, and therefore they have taken order 
for all places to have their armes and ammunition in a 
readinesse, and appointed sentinells to be kept at all the 
sea townes, especially at the entrance of the Sound to 
discover any fleet or ships ; and have also appointed sev- 
erall comittees, according to the situation of the planta- 
tions nearest together, who are impowred to act in any 
suddaine exigent according to a former order w ch they 

* A mistake of Winthrop's amanuensis. The name is Nevis. — Eds. 



thinke is sufficient for present, with the addition of those 
comittees y* will stand fully impowred as to the capacity 
any plantation ca be in for suddaine defence vpon the 
attempt of an enemy. I send here\v th a copy of the for- 
mer order, as also of the order of this late court, the 
former (I suppose) is also in y fc collection of lawes w cb 1 
sent formerly. Those orders have not only respect to De 
Ruiter and other enemies fro sea, but the clanger y fc may 
be fro the multitude of Indians that this colony above 
all others [is] incopassed w th , who are rond about in armes. 
There came a cocurrence of observations fro all pts, y fc 
the Indians are now in such a posture as hath not beene 
formerly knowne, all in a combination fro Hudson's River 
to Canada; and though the reason of it is apparent to be 
vpon this warr w tb the Mowhaukes, yet such a combination 
may be occasion of some wicked plott ag* the English if 
they should find an oportunity of advantage, and some 
will not vnderstand but that besides this bond y* is 
amongst them there may be an vniversall plott, etc., 
there being 2000 of the Newport Indians ready to be im- 
bodied shortly, as one of the cheife Indians of that party 
hath declared lately to some of the magistrates heere, 
and its observed fro all parts that they are more than 
vsually bold and proud. The plantations coplaine of an 
other inconvenience fro this war, that there are parties 
of the Mowhaukes skulking about close to their townes 
and houses and have lately kild some Indians very neere 
their houses. Some English maids at Hadly were w th some 
Indian Squars or maids gathering berries in the woods, 
the Mowhaukes copassed them, and killed and tooke all 
the Indians, but did the English maids no hurt, but they 
were frighted much by it. And there was very lately 3 or 
4 miles fro this towne, where Mr. Wiir Williams and 2 or 
3 other small farmes, they kild an Indian Squa neere hir 
house and escaped away, there were 4 of them together. 
Though there have yet no English beene hurt by them, 

1666.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 99 

yet the fright their women and childre have by such 
attempts, makes every one loth to be fro home, and is 
a great interruption to their businesse, and is a difficulty 
w ch canot well be indured ; but how to helpe it is also a 
great difficulty. All these cocurrences in this juncture 
makes it very difficult to be in a fitt posture for coraon 
defence and safety, and they could at present see no bet- 
ter way than by such comittees as before mentioned 

Your huble servant J. "W. 

Hartford, July 11 : 1665. 

For the Right Hon ble Col. Richard Nicolls, 
govn r of all his Royall Hyghness the 
Duke of York his Territory in America, 
at fort Jeemes in N. Yorke 

A copy of the cheif matters in my letter to Col : Nicolls at N. Yorke. 


A Co-pie. 

Hartford July 15^ 1666. 

Right Honourable, — Yours to o r Goun r dated July 
5 th hath bin by him imparted to us the 10 th of this instant, 
& upon much debate & serious consideration of the case 
we thought good to return as followeth : your Honours 
consideration of o r multiplicity of occations at this season 
is very certaine. Our want of seruants & help to inn o r 
haruest is great, so that all hands are fully improued, so 
that we shall be attended w th much difficulty to spare 
any men from o r busines, yet we shall study the publique 
safety. But therein as the case is circumstanced we finde 
no small difficulty, viz. because the Mowhaukes vpon 
whom the French are now warring have bin a long season 
inveterate enemies to the Indians round about us, which 


will in reason engage them with the French (who are 
their great friends) against the Mowhawkes, and against 
us allso if we should warre w th the French. And your 
Hono r well knowes the hazard of an intestine enimie. 
Your Honour allso (as you write) hath so farre engaged 
w th y e Mowhawkes, as to encourage them in the warr 
against the French, & notw th standing those treatys that 
have bin w th the Mowhaukes for peace w th y e Indians 
about us, they yet w th great force manage their warr w th 
the s d Indians & they have very lately killed & taken nine 
or tenn of y e sayd Indians, & yesterday there was a party 
of y e Mowhaukes at Podunk (a place between y s towne & 
Windsor) who were discovered by the Indians, & as sone 
as discovered they fled. These things considered (w th y e 
numbers of Indians that are round about us) makes it 
difficult to us to part w th any of o r strength from hence, 
vntill there could be an agreem fc , or at least a cessation 
of warr for som sett time concluded upon, between the 
Mowhaukes & o r Indians. Howeuer for o r one & y e pub- 
lique safety, we see we are called to sett o r selves in a 
posture of defence, & in order thereunto, shall send forth 
o r speciall order, to require o r military men in their 
respective townes to see their armes are fitted for service 
(both horse & foot) & in readiness for any speciall occa- 
tion. We are informed that it will be very difficult to pass 
to Fort Albany w th a troop, the way is so bad, but if we 
have occation we must pass as we may. S r , we are glad to 
heare of your Hono rs supply & strengthening of your gar- 
ison at Albany, it being the frontier ; yet wee hope they 
will be in no danger of the French as long as the Mow- 
hawkes stand, & propound whether it may not be good to 
let y e French & Mowhaukes trie it out awhile, & if the 
Dutch can be kept from supplying of them there neces- 
sities, w th the opposition of the Mowhawks, will much 
weaken them & put them into so bad a condition that 
they may be far easier dealt withall. 

1666.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 101 

We hope all the colonyes will be ready to attend their 
duty, as the nature of a matter of so momentus a conse- 
quence may require, & we have this day sent to y e Goun r 
& Councill of the Massachusets to inform them of the 
motion of the French, & to desire them to impower some 
in their townes above us, to joyne w th us, if need require, 
both in councill & assistance against a forraigne enemie, 
they being in as great hazard as your Hono rs townes or 
o rs , they lyeing next Fort Albany. We have not farther 
to add ; but w th the presentation & tender of o r respects & 
service to your Honour we take leave to subscribe o r selves 
your assured freinds & humble servants, the Goun r . 

Indorsed, "Letter to Gen. Nicolls." 


Right Honorable, — May it please your Lordship, 
his Ma ties royall letter of the 22 of Feb : 1666, subscribed 
by your Lordship, was received in July last by the coun- 
cill of his Ma ties colony of Conecticut and myselfe to whom 
it was directed, together w th his Ma ties declaration of warr 
ag* the French, w ch according to his Ma ties orders was forth- 
w th published [at] Hartford, Newlondon, and other places 
of the colony. I called also the Generall Assembly of that 
colony together, who after much and serious considera- 
tion of those other commands in his Ma" es letter, about 
the reducing to his Ma ties obedience the plantations of 
Canada belonging to the French, they thought it neces- 
sary that I should goe downe to Boston to consult w th the 
govern 1 " and councill of his Ma" es colony of Massachusetts 
concerning y* affaire, whose help could not be wanting in 
a businesse of y* nature, there being the greatest strength 
of this country, and likeliest oportunities of shipping, as 
also to consult w th S r Thomas Temple, Govern r of his 


Ma?" colony of Nova Scotia, residing at present at Boston, 
being directed thereto also by the intimation in his Ma? 68 
letter of his comands to him to corespond and assist 
therein. I attended their direction therein w th all possible 
expedition, though deteined a while fro y % iourney by a 
matter of great concernment, w ch was the diverting of 
a great body of Indians fro joyning w th the French of 
Canada, of w ch I had intelligence, both fro Capta Baker, 
comader of Fort Albany, and fro divers cheife Indians, 
y l it was designed & endeavoured by the French to draw 
those people into a confederacy w th them, vpon pretence 
w ch the said French declared to them, that their intent 
was to make warr vpon the Mohaques, another nation of 
the heathen, who were already in war w th those other 
Indians, and these seemed very joyfull of the oportunity 
of the French to joyne w th them, who sent them word 
they were vpon their march w th many hundred soldiers, 
and expected to meet them at a place apointed, vpon 
w ch there were many hundred of y e Indians gone forth 
already vpon their [inarch ?] towards the. Therevpon I 
vsed all possible indeavour to stay the further progresse 
of y e designe w ch was accordingly in a short tyme effected, 
having spoken w th some of their cheife sachems (so they 
call their princes) they were so well pswaded by such rea- 
sons as were vsed to them, that they presently sent to 
other their confederates, already vpon their march, vpon 
w ch they returned at y fc tyme. I sent also at the same 
tyme some few horse accopanied w th as many from the 
Massachuset colony, as well to discover the way toward 
Canada, whether passable for horse, as also to get good 
intelligence of the motion of the French army, of whom 
both by intelligence fro Colonell Richard Nicolls, Gov- 
ern 1 " of New Yorke, and fro the comader of Albany, as 
also from divers of y e most credible Indians, it was 
reported they were vpon their march towards the parts 
about Albany, pretending against the Mohaques, whose 

1666.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 103 

forts are about fourty mile above that place. These 
horse passed w th much difficulty about one hundred and 
twenty miles fro Hartford, and returning brought intelli- 
gence that the French were then newly vpon a treaty 
of peace w th those Indians, their enimies, and therevpon 
proceeded no further than the Lake Hieracoies. I came 
then immediately to Boston, and had conference w th S r 
Tho. Temple and the govern r and councill there about 
those his Ma ties comands ; and vpon severall considerations, 
as of the apparant necessity of good frigates or ships for 
that vndertaking w ch are heere wanting, the French hav- 
ing considerable forces there, as we have intelligence, and 
divers great ships, as also considering the difficulty of 
passing so long a march over land through such an vnin- 
habited mountainous wildernesse, and the multitude of 
barbarous heathen, y* may be feared to be treacherous 
and many of them vnknowne to the English, and ac- 
quainted w th the French, as also it being late in the 
sumer before we had his Ma*? 68 letters, and too late to 
make preparations fitting for y* designe, it is the vnani- 
mous apprehentions of vs all that at present there could 
be nothing done by these colonies in reducing those places 
at or about Canada ; concerning w ch I humbly beseech 
your Lordships favourable representation to the King, of 
these considerations, w th the inclosed abbreviate thereof 
to his most exellent Maiesty heere presented by 
Your most humble and obedient servant 

J. Winthrop. 

Boston in New England, 
Octob: 25, 1666. 

For the Right Honorable The Lord Arlington 
Principall Secretary of State to his Ma tie . 

The copy of a letter w ch was sent by capt : Christopher Clarke fro Boston 
as above dated. 



Oct: 29, 1666. 

Hon ble S R , — I reioyce much to heare by M r Ashurst 
of your recovery out of some sicknesse w ch he informed 
me you had beene vnder at Oxford. I am out of hope 
you had any letters fro my selfe last yeare, for I heare 
since I came to this towne that M r Gillam ship in w ch 
Col : Cartwright returned being taken by the Duch all 
letters cast into sea. I wrote of severall matters to your 
Hon r largely, of w cb I hope to give your Hon r againe an 
account shortly, but having not the copies of the pticulars 
heere, I must deferr till an other oportunity. I had pre- 
pared divers things of this country last yeare for the 
veiw of the hon ble gentleme of the Royall Society, but 
the casualties of the sea who can prevent ? I hope to 
rewrite most of them aganst better tymes w ch then shalbe 
directed to y r Hon r and them fro 

Your most humble servant, J. W. 

I make bold to present my huble service to the hon ble 
Govern r and other hon ble gentleme of the Eoyall Society. 
I have one of those little tracts about the corner w ch I 
heerew th make bold to present to your Hon r . I had pro- 
vided many of the same last yeare, w cb are gone w th the 
rest ; but shall endeavour to procure more. There is also 
heere inclosed a narrative of the strange march of a 
French army in the very depth of winter fro Canad, w ch 
alarmed all our inland plantations, who were prepared for 
them, but they returned in greater hast than they came. 
This was sent me fro Colonell Rich : Nicolls, who collected 
and penned the true relation of it. I met in one of your 
IIon rs treatises a mentio of an herbe, called a short lived 
herbe good for the Kings evill. May I be so bold w th 
your Hon r to know it, if not kept as a secret, &c. 

* This letter is also printed in the Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. for June, 1S78, 
p. 229. — Eds. 

1666.] ' JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 105 


Hartf: Nov: 28, 1666. 

Right Hon ble , — I could not returne fro Massachuset 
till after this month began. I hoped M r Maverick would 
have beene returned before I came thence, having told 
me of his intentions of a speedy returne before the ships 
should sett forth, and some likelihood of his going w th 
them. I staid till the fleet was gone (w ch its said was 
above 20 great and small ; divers came fro Virginia for 
company) ; but he being not come I kept my letters till 
y e night before, and then had oportunity at Capt : Breed- 
ars to deliver them to M r Christoph : Clerke, master of 
one of the best ships. 

I suppose your Hon r hath heard the relation of the Duch 
ships y* were burnt in y e roade of the Vlye in Holland; its 
confidently reported there were above 150, &c, besides a 
great towne. There was a printed paper at Boston as I 
heard w ch mentioned the maher of it, but not being at 
Boston then when it first came it was gone thence, but 
Capt : Brewer would send your hon r the copy or the pap 
itself, if he could againe have it. There were newly come 
to Massachusett seven Frenchme overland fro Albany. 
Its said they were of y e last yeares wounded men. I 
saw them not. They reported at Springfield y t y e French 
had given the Mohaques a great overthrow, but could 
not tell the pticulars, there being no letter fro thence y fc 
mentioned it. Though they had a passe fro Capt : Baker, 
w ch I thinke Capt : Pinchen saw, we know not what we 
may believe about it. The Indians have also a report of 
y e same, but its said to be originally fro those Frenchmen, 
and that they had it onely fro an Indian, but no Indians 
yet have brought any relation of it fro Albany, or y e parts 
thereabout. I hope we shall shortly heare the certainty 

and y e pticulars, if any such thing hath beene done by 



them. Since I came home I received your Hon 1 " 8 letter of 
the 9 th of Octob : wherein was y fc petition of Ann Philips 
of Southampton, concerning w ch I have spoken w th the 
magistrates heere, and they say there was already an 
abatement made of 20 lb of y fc fine, therefore the petioner 
had no reason to report the exaction of y e whole, when 
she could not but know there was such a considerable 
sume abated vpon the payment of y e rest.* That fine was 
not imposed vpon y t single offence nor vpon suspicion of 
a greater (if any hath so informed your Hon r ) but vpon 
other misdemeanors and crimes, w ch I suppose Capt. Tap- 
pen, and M r Howell may possibly remeber, as well as the 
magistrates of these parts who joyned w th those there in 
a court, w ch had very serious consideration of those mat- 
ters then coplained of, and certainly were not willing to 
be vigorous, but constreined by the nature of severall 
offences presented, and testified or owned, to beare such 
due testimony against them, as might be exemplary for 
the preventing the like amongst the youth of those parts. 
There being then formerly a free abatement, as above 
metioned of twenty pounds of y t fine, I doe not thinke 
the Treasurer would make a demand of more than the 
other thirty, if y* would have beene paid, though I have 
forgot to aske him y* pticular. And for that thirty pounds 
also, it shalbe freely left to your Hon rs consideration & 
determination (as far as my selfe w th these Assistants of 
this towne have power), what should be fitting for y fc young 
ma to pay of it, and if there should be found any diffi- 
culty to your consideration about it, your Hon 1 * may how- 
ever be pleased to order a suspension of y e levying of that 

* Ann, widow of John White of Lynn and afterward of Southampton, Long Island, 
who died in 1662, married Zorobabd Phillips of Southampton. (See Savage's Genealogical 
Dictionary, III. 417; IV. 510.) The. only reference to this matter which we have been 
able to find in the Connecticut Records is under date of May II, 16(55 : "Concerning the 
fineof y e son of Ann Phillips formerly White, of Southampton, this Conrt doth hereby 
declare that in case he pay 30dE. readily and willingly, it shalbe accepted for satisfaction, 
otherwise the whole Bum wilbe expected." See Connecticut Colonial Records, 1665- 
1677, p. 16. — Eds. 

1666.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 107 

fine till you may more fully satisfy your selfe therein, and 
if there be neede we may sometyme acquaint the court 
heere w th these our desires of recomending it to yourselfe 
for the issue of it, who may comand fro those parts a 
reall estimate of y e present condition of y e young man, 
and his capacity in respect of estate to some part of sat- 
isfaction, and I hope all wilbe well satisfied as well as 
ourselves w th your Hon rs sence in y* matter. 

There have beene some few daies suspention of issuing 
these lines in hope of intelligence fro Capt : Pinchen, or 
Indians about the French action ag fc the Mohaques, but 
there is none yet come, but if any shall after be knowne, 
w ch may be credited, it shalbe speedily transmitted to 
your Hon r from 

Your most huble servant, J. W. 

To the Right Hon ble Colonell Richard Nicolls 
Govern r of all his Royall Highnesse the 
Duke of Yorke his territories in America 
at New Yorke. 

It was sent to M r Ston inclosed in a letter to M r Alexand : Bryan at Mil- 
ford to be thence conveied. 


Hartford, Dec 24, 1666. 

Eight Hon ble ? — I had y e intelligence that S r Eobert 
Car was come to N. London divers daies before I had 
your Hon rs letter of the 20 th of Nov : w ch was brought me 
fro N. London by M r Buckly of Wethersfield, and presently 
vpon the receipt thereof, on Friday the 21 of this month, 
the Assistants both of this towne and Winsor mett at this 
towne, and had serious consideration of the contents of 
y* letter, and doe all of vs thankfully acknowledge the 
favour of y t intelligence, and the oportunity of a visible 
testimony y* the French have beene at y e Mohaques Forts, 


by the French scutehion, you were pleased to send with 
your letter, and its said both came to N. London w th S r 
Robert, but I had no letter fro him. I am sorry my sup- 
posed absence occasioned the alteration of your Hon re 
resolutions of a iourney hither, we should all have beene 
joy full of your Hon rs presence, and if such weighty mat- 
ters mentioned should have after occasioned y t winter 
passage intimated we should have beene happy in your 
copany & council! But, having compared all intelli- 
gences, are cofident, y* before y t letter came hither, your 
Honor hath had such other more certaine notice of y e mat- 
ter betweene y e French & Mohaques y* would divert your 
thoughts fro so hard a tyme of travaile. But if your 
Hon r should see cause of conference w th some of this col- 
ony, the Assistants desired me to signify to your Hon r 
that they have not powre to conclude future affaires & 
of great importance, and where great charges must be 
expended, w th out order of the Generall Assembly. And 
y 1 therfore in such cases it would be necessary to have 
sufficient notice for the Generall Court to meet and con- 
sider w th you about such matters. Otherwise myselfe and 
others would wait vpon y r Honor when it were a season, 
& ability to travaile, at Milford or other fitt place you 
should please to apoint, though at present by reason of a 
paine that hath troubled me a while I could not well 
travaile farr : and further that although the Generall 
Court should be assembled vpon any necessary occasion 
w ch should be certified fro your Hon r , yet, exept a very 
aparant necessity, they would not willingly meet till the 
vsuall tyme in the spring, and at that tyme, if need be 
there may possibly be had the concurring councells of 
y e other colonies also, for a way of mutual helpe ag 4 all 
forreigne enemies y l may anoy any of his Ma ties planta- 
tions : and they thinke there cannot but be need of the 
helpe of all in a businesse y* will require both good nubers 
of men, & much charge, and expence, w cb the plantations 

1666.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 109 

of this colony will not be able to supply alone. For be- 
side y e other years losse in a great degree, they are this 
yeare exceedingly disabled in the very nerves of their 
vsual supplyes for publiq 6 charges, there having beene 
so great a blast vpon their wheat, and destruction of 
other sorts of corne by wormes, that very many will not 
have for necessary supplye of their families w th bread. 

The latest intelligence in reference to the French & 
Mohaques doe give great probabilities y fc the French have 
do[n]e no execution vpon the Mohaques, though its 
likely they may have taken their empty forts, for it hath 
beene reported as credible that when the French were 
cominge the Mohaques left their forts, w ch they might 
possibly doe in some kind of policy, and probably the 
French might thereby have a fre possession of them & 
might be satisfied w th the hon r of that kind of conquest, 
rather than pursue them vpon further vncertainties and 
hazards : and by a letter fro M r Pinchen I am informed 
that the Indians have severall of them come lately fro 
Albany, and yet he hath no letter fro Capt. Baker, and 
though he had by some of those Indians a letter fro Capt : 
Parker, and another fro a Duchma, yet there is not one 
word in them of y e French or Mohawkes, and it is not 
likely Capt Baker would have omitted the oportunities 
by those Indians, if the French had done any considerable 
matter ag fc the Mohaques to write of it, and it is not so 
probable the French should returne to hunt after them 
in the winter or spring, till they know them againe setled 
in some other places together, w ch is the greatest advan- 
tage they ca have ag* them, and much lesse to begin w th 
the English till they have mastered those other, who 
they know are so watchfull of their motion : and if they 
had given them already any considerable blow, and in- 
tended & hoped the like ag* the Christians, its like they 
would have taken y* oportunity, when they had beene in 
a conquering posture, & so neere w th their army, and y' 


at so good a season of y e yeare, rather than to returne so 
far to begin againe so long and bad a march at a worser 
season. However it is not good to be secure vpon prob- 
able suppositions ; we must be alwaies ready, according 
to our capacity for defence against such an enemy, and 
opposing of them. That mentioned of the comissaries 
of Albany is a good resolution in them to resist the 
French, and they doe well to repaire their workes for 
defence ag* them if they should make attempt vpon 
them. I cannot but beleive they wilbe strenuos therein 
rather than to expose their estates to plunder ; and they 
may doe much in defence, being so close together, and 
having the helpe of your garison there ; but I hope they 
need not feare the assault of y e French, if the Mohaques 
be not totally overcome. They wilbe the more resolute, 
I suppose, to stand vpon their guard, because they canot 
but consider y* w ch your Hon r mentioneth, of the impossi- 
bility of sending to them, in such a seaso as this, for they 
have the winter there, I beleeve, as bad as it is heere, 
w ch is hard enough, w ch is not so beleeved by many of 
y e seaside, where w r e heare it was little snow when very 
deepe heere at y e first falling, and since have fallen 6 or 
7 snowes more, w ch all continue, and it hath beene difficult 
passing fro towne to towne, the frozen snow (besides the 
depth) cutting the horses feete, and the Indians say it is 
exessive deepe towards the westward in y e woods & moun- 
tains ; after the second or 3 d snow some y* wanted cattle 
going out found it so bad they were constreined to returne 
before they could find them, and some y* would have gone 
towards Ed : Higbees could not proceed much beyond 
Wethersfield. These letters must goe downe the river 
by way of Micldleton, whether there is a track fro Weth- 
ersfield, and thence the best way can be found. We heare 
of none have passed betweene this and N. Haven since 
the great snow. M r Buddy went by the rivers mouth to 
N. London and saith they had raine there some tymes 

1666-7.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. Ill 

when it was snow heere. He brings word y* S r Robert 
was gone to Boston by way of Naroganset before he came 
thither* I am sorry to vnderstand of your Hon rs indispo- 
sition of body by the cholick. I doubt not but you have 
meanes to prevent the extremity : a plaster of deminio 
can give ease to some in y* case, spread large and aplied 
vpon the place of paine. The good tidings of your Hon rs 
full recovery would be very acceptable to vs all and in 
pticular happy unto Your most huble servant, J. W. 

The magistrates remebrance was inserted ; a copy of the 
burning y e Duch Fleet at Vly was inclosed ; and a nerre- 
tive of the sad accident of y e fire at Serg. Sol. Harts at 
Farmington was also inclosed. 

To the R* Hon ble Colonell Richard Nicolls 
govern 1 " of all his Royall Highness the 
Duke of Yorke his Territories in America 
at Fort James in N. Yorke. 

It was sent inclosed in a letter to M r Bryan w ch was sent by Sam : Corn- 
well to be delivered to goodma Whetmore to be caried to Milford. 


Hartford, Jan: 22: 1666[-7]. 

Eight Hon b : le , — I received those 3 letters of the 5 : 
10 th : and 12 : of this month on the 21 of the same, about 
10 at night, and have spoken w th so many of those magis- 
trates, as could come together, in this short tyme, and 

* Sir Robert Carr, one of the Royal Commissioners. While he was in Boston in the 
following January he was involved in an adventure very characteristic of the times. He 
was making merry at the Ship Tavern with some friends on a Saturday evening, when a 
constable appeared and desired them to make less noise and to disperse. They drove him 
off with blows, and then adjourned to another place, where they were waited on by an- 
other officer, and another altercation ensued. Finally the matter was carried into the 
courts, and the constable was tried and convicted for uttering treasonable words. On the 
other hand, Carr was summoned before one of the Assistants for "riotous and abusive 
carriage to one of his Majesty's officers, one of the constables of the town." See Palfrey's 
-History of New England, I. 623. — Eds. 


acquainted them w th your Hon" letters, and we doe all 
returne our huble thankes for the favour of y fc speedy 
intelligence of such matters as were newly come from 
Albany and Canada, and should have beene very glad of 
y* happinesse of your Hon rs company heere, if the same 
intention of a iournye hither had continued, or should 
yet be in your purpose, in such a season, as might not be 
inconvenient, or hazardous of your health. Things may 
be better vnderstood & contrived by discourse then by 
letters, or if there be ability to travaile, my selfe w th others 
should readily wait vpon your Hon r in convenient tyme, 
vpon any necessary occasion, at any other place you shalbe 
pleased to designe. I hasten these because I would not 
loose y e oportunity of returning the by Ed : Higbees son, 
who brought these letters, but shall endeavour speed- 
ily also to have further consideration, w th all the Assist- 
ants heere about, and Capt : Pinchen also, if it can be 
atteined ; if this late new snow hath not so blocked 
vp the passage, y* he canot travaile. Those of them to 
whom already these matters have beene comunicated, 
doe not know what at present can be added to what hath 
beene formerly written, till the Generall Court can be 
assembled who did formerly settle comittees in the sev- 
erall pts to act vpon any suddaine exigent, of w ch I thinke 
I sent formerly copies. There is a troop of horse y fc is 
ready listed heere, and I heare they have another troope 
in M r Pinchens towne, and y e other above, and ye com- 
mitte before mentioned may quickly raise more horse, if 
any suddaine clanger of invasion call for it. Although 
such inconvenience, as your letter mentioneth may be by 
depending vpon the cosultations of an Assembly (wherein 
they and my selfe concurr w th your Hon 1 * 8 opinion) fro the 
vsually slow motion of such a body, in their determina- 
tions, yet an other constitutio w th plenary power canot 
be setled for the present, till they shall meet againe to 
order it, and in the mean tyme they did suppose, y* of 

1666-7.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 113 

the committees was sufficient, and was all y e way they 
thought necessary to be left for a present or suddaine 
occasion, whiles the court might come together to im- 
powre others, according to y e condition of that emergency, 
though manifested as much forwardnesse and zeale in 
opposing any enemy to their vtmost ability as could be 
expressed, being very sensible of the danger of the inva- 
sion of any of the plantations though it should be remote 
fro the pticular station of their owne : nor doe I beleeve 
y* any are so sencelesse as to thinke to be lookers on (as 
you are pleased to expresse) in such a comon storme. 
What is the best way to divert, is y* w ch our thoughts are 
very seriously meditating (besides the condition of this 
colony), the pticular condition of Albany as our owne. 
We have great and often consideration about it, what 
way they (as well as our selves) might be preserved fro 
the incursions of such a force as we have before imagined, 
and now by what Smits Jan speakes of, and those pri- 
vate letters mention to be in the enemies hand ready 
vpon all oportunities y* may invite them. But the im- 
possibility of doing any thing this winter season is well 
knowne to your Hon r , as it was also intimated in your 
former letter. But it may well be supposed, according 
to your good collections fro these late intelligences, they 
will not make any attempt this winter, a bad tyme for a 
seige ; and for the spring it wilbe a very bad tyme for 
their march, and provitions, but if it were not, yet its like 
they will deferr any such great action a little longer till 
they heare againe from France (whence I suppose they 
have all their supplies). But however there wilbe tyme 
ynough to advise and determine, of some way before it 
be possible to put it into action, and I doubt not but this 
colony wilbe as forward as any, to doe their full part, in a 
matter of so publiq 6 and common concernment, wherein 
there shall not want the vtmost indeavours of 

Your most huble servant, J. W. 


114 THE WIXTHROP PAPERS. [1666-7. 

We heere are abundantly satisfied w th y* good effect of 
your Hon rs wisdome in the improvement of y fc interest you 
have gained vpon y e Mohaques, so farr y fc you find they 
are resolved to follow your councell. The present diver- 
tion of the French designes appeares plainly to have much 
dependance thervpon. But that difficulty you are pleased 
to propound, from the Mohaques desire of your joyning 
w th them in their treaty of peace, I am not able to give ad- 
vice therein, but I suppose a Generall may for some good 
end and of future advantage treat of and dmitt for some 
short tyme a temporary cessation of hostility : but I may 
not fully vnclerstand whether that be the meaning of 
your Hon rs proposition, or meerely to treat for these In- 
dians for their peace, but I hope God will direct your 
councells for the best, y* may tend to the comon safety 
of his Ma 1 ! 03 plantations, as hitherto it hath beene. as is 
apparent to all. 

What if your Hon r should vpon y* oportunity of a 
returne to Canada inquire of the generall there his posi- 
tive answer vpon his hon r , whether he hath any reall 
designe at present vpon the English, or y* some of the 
Duch at Albany may have liberty to inquire of him, as 
to their pticular place, and concernment therm, or Capt : 
Baker thence ; and if some way of notice to them could 
be contrived, from the Duch, or some other, of the con- 
stant readinesse of all the English colonies vnanimously 
to oppose the invasion of an enemy. 

Pardon, I beseech your Hon r , my bolclnesse in suggest- 
ing my notions, w ch can only have the effect of a memo- 
randa of matters already better digested in your more 
serious considerations. 

For the Right Hon 1 ? 6 Col : Richard Nicolls 
govern' of all his Royall Highnesse the 
Duke of Yorke his territories in America, 
at N. Yorke. 

1666-7.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 115 


Hartford, Mar: 6, 1666[-7]. 

Eight Hon ble , — My last was of the 22 of January, w ch 
I could never yet heare of arrivall of it at M r Bryans to 
whom it was directed for further conveiance : the way 
having beene ever since so stopt by the extraordinary 
snowes that have fallen vpon many former, that there 
hath not one person y* I know passed betweene this and 
the sea side since, though some attempt have beene made 
but could not get through but returned tyred; but last 
week on Friday before night there came a letter fro M r 
Charles Hill of N. London, who was newly arrived fro 
Barbados: (I meane newly before the date of his letter, 
w ch was the 16 of Jan : but it is now long since, for y* let- 
ter had beene ever since at some farme about the rivers 
mouth). There was a letter for Capt : Delavall, w ch I have 
now inclosed heerew th , beseeching the favor of his notice 
of it by any of your servants. M r Hill in his letter men- 
tions the sad amazing report of the fire in the City, w ch I 
suppose you have fro M r Hill himselfe or the master of 
his ship, who I vnderstand was to goe w th his vessell to 
N. Yorke, as soone as the season would pmitt, w ch hath 
beene for water passage vnsettle ynough a good while, 
therefor I need not mention any thing of it, vnderstand- 
ing, also by Ed : Messinger, by whom I receive yours of 
Jan 18 at his returne fro N. Yorke, that the report of it 
was gone beyond Milford as he came thither, w ch could 
not but be at New Yorke then quickly, M r Malbye at that 
tyme being on his journy thither : but I make bold to 
aquaint your Hon r , what we heare fro Boston by letters, 
that came lately fro theare to Hadly, by Indians y* came 
thither vpon their snow shoes. They write that the 
report they had of that fire was by a ship that arived at 
Boston a little before the Indians came thence, who came 

116 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1666-7. 

to Iladly the 24 of Feb : and came directly fro Boston 
thither. It was reported fro y l ship that y e fire was in 
October, w th differs fro the report that was by M r Hill, w ch 
speakes of the 3 of September.* They fro Boston men- 
tion not perticulars y fc we yet heare, but write also that the 
relation of it came to Jamaica, fro Barbados, and that 
it came to Barbados by letters fro Ireland, whereas it is 
said that they of M r Hills ship speake of a west country 
vessell that brought it to Barbados. They write also fro 
Boston y t one M r Woodbury, master of a Salem vessell, 
taken by a Duch ship, is come passenger (I thinke in the 
Jamaica ship) having made an escape fro the Duchma, 
and who reports that the capt. of y* Duch ship told him 
of the fire, but they write nothing of any pticulars by 
him related about it. 

They write also the small pox hath beene much in Bos- 
ton and in divers other townes, and y fc fourty have died of 
it in Boston, but write of an abatement there now. Di- 
vers vessells have beene cast away. They write of neere 
20 psons found vpon the shore neere Ipsw ch . This is 
the sume of what is mentioned in letters fro Hadly w ch 
they had fro Boston. If any certaine relation be come 
to your Hon r fro Virginia, or any other places, the notice 
thereof will greatly oblige 

Your most humble servant, 

J. W. 

Indorsed " Copy of letter to Gen. Nicolls." 

* The great fire in London began on the 2d of September, 1666, and continued for four 
days. It extended over 436 acres, and consumed 89 churches and many public buildings, 
beside 13,200 houses. See Haydn's Dictionary of Dates. — Eds. 

1667.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 117 


For the Right Honorable, The Lord Arlington, Principal Secretary of 
State to his Ma u s and one of his Ma ties most honorable Privy Councell 
at White Hall. 

Right Honorable, — May it please your Lordship, ac- 
cording to his Ma ties commands in his letter of the 22*! 1 of 
Feb : 1665, I had consultation with the Gouerno 1 ; & Coun- 
cell of his Ma*? 68 Colony of Massachusett and S r Thomas 
Temple, of which I gaue an account by Captaine Chris- 
topher Clarke, whose ship sayled hence before winter, and 
I heare is safely arriued in England, so as I haue not to 
doubt, but those letters are come to your Lordships hands. 
I have allso now receiued his Ma" 68 gracious letter of the 
28 th : of August last, directed to the Gouern r & Councell of 
his Ma*! 68 Colony of Connecticut, as allso your Lordships 
letter of the same date, wherewith the favour of a double 
of his Ma 1 . 168 former letter before mentioned, and the true 
& perfect Narratiue of the great and signall successe of a 
parte of his Ma" 68 fleet. The ship by which these were 
sent did not arriue at Boston (the porte towne of Massa- 
chusett) till March last, & thence were sent by the Gou- 
ern r to my selfe with all possible expedition. Thereupon 
I did repayre to Boston, w th M r Willys, one of the Coun- 
cell of the colony of Connecticutt, by the direction of that 
Councell, & haue had conference w th the Gouerno r & 
Councell of that Colony of Massachusetts according to his 
Ma ttes commands in that letter. Wee should all be vnani- 
mously willing to releiue our deare countrimen of those 
Caribee Hands if we had ability & means to doe it, being 
very sencible (to our great sorrow) of their sufferings, & 
danger, & of the augmentation of hazard to these his 
Ma*? 6 8 Colonies, if those our comon enemies should further 
preuaile there. But wee see a great necessity of all our 
endeauours & the best strength we can make heere to 


be ready for the securety of these his Ma*?* Colonies. For 
besides what enemies from remoter parts may intend 
against us, we are surrounded by great nations of the 
heathen in respect of whome we must alwaies be upon 
our guard though they be not in open hostility against 
us. And the French we heare are in armes upon the 
lakes behind us. We are informed by letters from Colonell 
Eichard Nicolls, Gouern!" of New Yorke, that the French 
haue a considerable number of veterane soldiers at Can- 
ada, that they haue built forts all a longe the lake, for 
garisons & magazines, to facilitate their attempts, that 
they haue by good computation 2500 men, & credible 
Indians reporte that they had seene 3000 soldiers in Que- 
beck & other garisons. He writes allso that there were 
in the winter flue French & two Dutch ships of force, 
which he supposed would be imployed in the spring at 
sea to infest the coasts of the English plantations, & men- 
tions these as matters worthy consideration to all the 
colonies, that they may not hold themselues secure ; we 
know the pretence of those French forces vpon the lake 
behinde us, is against a nation of the Indians called the 
Mowhaques, w th wdiom they haue warre. But we haue 
good cause to be jealouse of their greater designes, & we 
may well suspect the attempts of the French & Dutch 
also by sea. And the danger of the plantations is the 
greater in respect of the multitude of Indians whoe are 
enemies, & haue had warr many yeares with the same 
Indians whoe are enemies to the French, and upon that 
account we may doubt they may confederate with the 
French not onely against those other heathen, but against 
the English allso, which we labour to preuent with all 
posible speede endeauours. But there are multitudes not 
knowne to us, & those w th whome we are acquainted, 
many of them we cannot so farr trust them as to be secure 
otherwise then by due watch fullnesse and read in esse with 
all we haue to resist k defend our selues against theire 

1667.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 119 

attempts, if they should rise againe in hostility against 
the English, as formerly some of them haue done. But 
if we had any forces to spare from such our necessary 
defence, yet we know not of shipping to be had for their 
safe transportation. There hath beene also for seuerall 
yeares, & especially this last yeare, such a generall blast 
upon the corne, besides great destruction by wormes in 
many places, whiles it was greene, that it hath caused 
very great scarcity : and corne is not only the prouition 
for subsistance, but that which is in use amongst us for 
payements instead of money. I wish allso that we could 
say, that we had amunition to spare, or knew how to 
supply our selues with more. I beseech your Lordships 
fauoure to represent to his Ma tie the condition of these 
his plantations in reference to what shall appeare, upon 
the reasons before mentioned, of the incapacity of his 
people heere to send forces to those Caribee Hands. His 
Ma* 1 . 63 speciall grace to his poore subjects in this remote 
world in giueing them such timely notice of theire danger 
by theire enemies, & commands of defending themselues 
against theire assaults, is humbly acknowledged by them. 
And doe wish all abounding prosperity to his most excel- 
lent Ma" 6 which is theire continuall & vnanimous suppli- 
cation to heauen. 

I haue onely (my Lord) to add the humble acknowl- 
edgement of y e fauour of your Lordships letter to the 
councell of Coiiecticutt Colony, & to present most humble 
duty to your Lordship from them, & from, Right Honor- 

Your lordships most humble 

and dutifull seruant, 

John Winthrop. 

Boston in New England, 

May 7 : 1667. 



Gentlemen, — I had good hope that I should have 
beene now discharged from that publique service, by the 
freeme, but being informed by those gentlemen that 
came fro you this morning that it was otherwise, I am 
constreined to make knowne to your selves, that matters 
are now so fallen out, that there is an absolute impos- 
sibility, that I attend that imployment : therefore doe 
addresse my earnest desires to your serious considera- 
tions, that you would please to favour me w th your free 
leave, to resigne the same into your hands, that you may 
make choice of an other. According to that full power 
allowed by his Ma'f 8 charter, w ch may be also of vse for 
future that it hath beene tymely practised vpon so iust 
an occasion. If my assertion of a certaine incapacity to 
serve you doth not so satisfy that you may grant my 
desire, I beseech you to appoint a comittee to whom I 
may impart some such reasons of this request as I doubt 
not will give them a sufficient ground to beleive & con- 
clude w th me a very necessity of such your favourable 
dismission. There is nothing I doe assure you of want 
of incleared affection to the country or your selves that 
doth produce this motion, but really the aspect of the 
true portraicture of things in my present condition that 
gives me assurance that I canot be effectuall in y fc soleinne 
& weighty negotiation for future, as I have hitherto en- 
deavoured, and vpon any other occasion w tb in my power 
in heart & sincerity shall ever aply my selfe to be 

Your faithfull humble servant, J. W. 

May 11: 1067. 

To the Honored the Deputy Govern* and the 
rest of the General! Assembly of the col- 
ony of Conecticut at Hartford, dd. 

1668.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 121 


July 25 : 1668. 

Honorable S r , — I shall now make bold to mention 
only the sume of what I had written in former letters, 
& only what I can remember, as principally recomended 
to the favour of your pvsall, not knowing w ch of those 
before did arrive, being well assured (so farr as we have 
it by such reports as are heere sufficiently credited) that 
all letters, w ch were in capt : Ben Gillam his ship one 
yeare, & capt : Scarlett his ship the next yeare, were lost 
in the sea, of w ch (as I remember) I intimated something 
last yeare, in a letter, wherein I made bold to inclose, a 
short discourse about the blazing starr, by m r Danforth, 
the minister of Roxbury, where m r Eliot (who is knowne 
by his great labours amongst the Indians) is also a min- 
ister : it was printed at Cambridge in New England. He 
is also brother to that m r Danforth whose name is sub- 
scribed often in the letters fro the comissioners of y e colo- 
nies to your selfe and the corporation. I was then so 
streightned that I could only write those few lines to ac- 
copany it, but whether your Hon r ever had it I know not. 
To begin, w th the answer to that letter (received long 
after the date of it) wherein you pleased to inqtfire about 
the making of a precipitate, my thoughts were it might 
be fro some misinformation, for I doe now againe affirme, 
vpon consideration & w th much assurance, that I doe not 
remember that I did at any tyme administer any kind of 
£ precipitate to old or young of makind inwardly, nor 
(exept £ dulcis) other preparations of £ of what soever 
way of preparation according to authors or other experi- 
ments, wherein part of the substance of the £ redali ble 
againe to coraon £ doth remaine to sensibility of it. I 
may also exept a preparation of Hartma, if it may be 
called a precipitate after dissolution, and precipitation 



w th aqua [illegible] only dulcified by cohobation as to be 
seene in his booke, but if I have vsed it, it is so long 
since & so seldom y* I canot call to mind pticulars of psons 
to whom, or diseases, or effects of it : g dulcis I have 
often vsed, though I doe not much approve it, y* so 
great a dose as mast be of it (in strong bodies especially) 
should come into the stomach & passe through so many 
thin viscera. I am fearfull of £ al preparations inwardly 
for many reasons. I wish I knew any certaine safe ex- 
periments of it, eyther by precipitating or otherwise, 
beyond what is comon. Your Hon r should comad it, 
and I should willingly accomodate y e desires of those 
gentleme your freinds, the physitians, in whose behalf e 
w T ere pleased to signify to be the grounds of that in- 
quiry, had I such a £ ia11 preparation, as they might sup- 
pose vpon some mistaking information, w ch the sight of 
some other red powders vsed might produce. I once 
inclosed a few leaves, in a letter to your Hon r about such 
medicaments w ch I had vsed heere in want of better, but 
the waters had those paps & letters, as farr as I know r any 
thing further of them: and I have not a copy (exept 
possibly some scattered notes,) nor had tyme to copose 
the like since those were recomencled to your thoughts 
whether desirable for publiqe vse, &c. I mentioned 
also formerly how the afflicting hand of God had beene 
vpon this country for severall yeares, as first in a blast, 
w ch hath beene yearely vpon the wheat, & generally 
through all the plantations, both of y e Massachusett col- 
ony, Plymouth, & this also (the colony of Conecticutt) 
insomuch that the croppe of wheat hath failed divers 
yeares in most plantations. The corne flourished well 
till it came to be eared, and the eares also would at first 
appeare faire, and as if full, but no corne in them. There 
have beene thousands of acres in that maner every yeare. 
What the cause was, whether naturall, or a blasting fro 
heaven we know not. Our old husbandmen of England, 

1668.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 123 

some of them thought it a meldew, others that the origi- 
nall defect is in the roote : the peas, barly, rye & India 
come were not touched w th it, as was generally observed. 
Some have told me it was observed that where barly, 
& wheat were sowed together, that wheat was not blasted. 
This cropp now on the ground is hoped to be good, & 
much freed fro y* defect in this towne, & y e adiacent 
places : possibly the husbandmen in England have ob- 
served in the like cases, something in the ground, tillage, 
sorts of seed, temp of the aire for drought, or wett, or 
foggs, & other causes of such blasting, and it may be doe 
vse some remedies. It is observed, y fc sumer wheat is 
most subiect to y* hurt, though much winter wheat hath 
beene so spoyled also. That sort of wheat w ch is called 
sumer wheat is alwaies sown in the spring, its said they 
vse of it in some of the west parts of England and in 
the Azores, or Westerne Hands. If it be fro the aire, 
or celestiall influences, or such like vniversall causes, 
what remedy but fro heaven ? (nil nisi vota supersunt.) 
Whether in other countries have beene observed a cause 
in the ground tillage, seed or seasons of sowing, probably 
some old observing farmers could give light in y* question, 
if propounded. 

An other great detriment w ch hath fallen out, in a very 
generall way, is the destruction of the fruits of apletrees, 
w ch hath continued now every yeare, for at least five 
years together, in most orchards in many of our planta- 
tions in this colony, as also in y e Massachusett. There 
have beene no aples for y* space of tyme, or longer, in 
many orchards, w ch were formerly very fruitfull ; and this 
hath beene from a kind of black caterpiller, w ch some say 
is the Palmer worme. These breede in apletrees in such 
wonderfull multitudes that they eat every greene leafe & 
blossom in few daies. These wormes are bredd fro a kind 
of flye like a moth, w ch are also in such great numbers, 
that they leave a kind of flye blow vpon every bud, w ch 


groweth to that worme or caterpillers, w ch are vpon every 
leafe, and when they have eaten all the leaves & blos- 
soms, they hang vpon long cobwebs, by w ch they deseed 
to the ground, & goe into the earth vncler the tree, & 
further about it, & there lie all the rest of the sumer, & 
winter, & towards the spring creepe out of the earth in the 
forme of such a flye like a moth, into w ch they are changed 
by putrifaction of that insect therby altered into that 
moth, w ch againe goeth on the trees, & breedeth more of 
those wormes, w ch turne againe to such flies, & so in a 
continuall circuit of transformation, and hath continued 
thus for divers yeares, insomuch as many trees are kild & 
many have cutt downe faire orchards, though the trees 
were not dead, but dispairing of having them fruitfull 
againe. It hath beene to the great damage of many who 
had planted very large grounds w th such trees, & made 
much syder, but they now looke at all that charge lost. 
I have not heard whether ever the like hath beene 
knowne in England, though possibly it may have beene 
so, and it may be some remedy is there knowne. There 
are another sort of caterpillars, w ch breed in a bunch 
w th in a kind of cobweb vpon some bow of the aple- 
trees, w ch also doe hurt the trees, if they be let alone, but 
they can easily be pulled of before they come to perfec- 
tion. There hath beene also, some yeares since great 
destruction of the oakes, & some other sorts of trees in the 
woods by caterpillers, though more in some parts of the 
country then other, & some sort of oakes then other. 
There are thre sorts of oakes, white, red, & black, be- 
sides the shrubbed oakes w ch never grows to the height 
of timber trees. I have observed that when one sort of 
those oakes have beene eaten bare by such wormes the 
other sorts have not beene hurt by them : though it hath 
beene also seene not many yeares since, y* such insects 
have fallen vpon all sorts, not only oakes but other trees 
also, and eaten all the leaves, that the trees in sumer 

1668.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 125 

have appeared bare for many miles together, but I thinke 
it is not the same sort of caterpiller, w ch did so generally 
devour the leaves of those trees. I have wondered that 
in most parts there are but few very large old timber 
trees of oake, especially in the more southern parts of 
the wildernesse, but I can now be well satisfied that this 
may be one reason, that its likely that in some former 
ages there have beene such yeares, wherein there have 
beene a generall destruction of them, before they came 
to their fuller growth, for we see now yet standing mul- 
titudes of black oakes w ch have beene so kild. Many 
already rotten at the root [rest torn off.~\ 


For the Honorable S r Robert Moray Knight 8? baronet at his lodgings at 

White Hall, dd. 

Hartford, in New England, Aug. 18: 1668. 

Honorable S R , — It was in Decemb : 1667, when I 
received yours of the 19 th of Dec : 1665, fro Alberry neere 
Oxford. And Colonell Nicolls, by whose favour I had it 
not long after it came to his hands, wrote me y* he had 
received it from Virginia the 26 of Novemb : last, inclosed 
in a letter to himselfe of the same date. This was the 
only letter I received fro your Hono r , since that of w ch 
I had the favour by him at his first arrivall. I wrote 
severall letters, but heare not whether they were re- 
ceived, and have now certaine intelligence of the losse 
of all those letters of 2 severall yeares, w ch were sent in 
such ships as were most hopefull to passe safe in those 
troublous tymes : one was Capt : Gilhams ship, wherein 
Colonell Cartwright, one of his Ma ties Comissioners, re- 
turned. That ship was taken, & all the letters were 
throwne into the sea, and I suppose Colonell Nicolls had 

* This letter, from the files of the Royal Society, is also printed in the Proceedings of 
Mass. Hist. Soc. for June, 1878, pp. 232-234. — Eds. 


his letters, besides the letters, & writings of consequence 
from his Ma tie3 IIon bIe comissioners were all lost, of w ch you 
may be informed fro the Colonell himselfe : an other 
yeare since, Capt : Scarlett, an acquaintance of mine, 
in the winter tyme, going for Boston in New England, 
was cast away, his ship lost, and all his letters, as also his 
whole cargo and divers of his seame, and he escaped w th 
his owne life w th much difficulty. Being now assured, by 
his owne letter, of Colonell Nicolls his resolution shortly 
to returne to London, the sorrowfull aspect of the removall 
of so noble a freind doth greatly seize upon my heart : 
and indeed the people not only of that colony, both Eng- 
lish and Dutch, but of the neighbouring places also, are 
really sorrowfull at the report of his departure fro that 
place, being as sencible of their losse thereby, as they 
were of y e good effects they saw fro his wisdom & great 
abilities w ch have appeared in all his administrations. I 
shall not now repeat what was metioned in former letters, 
except some little about mineralls, though I may be as- 
sured that all w ch were sent came not to your hands. I 
have beene very inquisitive after all sorts of mineralls, 
w ch this wildernesse may probably affoard ; but indeed the 
constant warrs, w ch have continued amongst the Indians 
since I came last over, hath hinclred all progresse in 
searching out such matters, for some of them w ch have 
formerly brought any specimens of that kind were kild 
in the warr, and others, who pretend to know places of 
likely appearance, dare not goe up into y c country w tb out 
strong parties : those places w ch have beene for present of 
most hopes for 3>° and $ are best knowne to the Hon ble 
Colonell Nicolls, who, I beleeve, hath indeavoured much 
for the finding such places, and will tell you what hath 
unhappily fallen out to the hinderace of the full discovery 
of somthing that possibly would have beene of better 
worth then hath beene before knowne in these pts of 
America, and will also lett you know the impossibility 

1668.] JOHN WI1STHROP, JR. 127 

almost that full discoveries should be made, whiles these 
India warrs continue ; he hath laboured much (and I 
have not beene wanting therein) to settle peace amongst 
them, but all hitherto in vaine. Better tymes may pro- 
mote better discoveries, for w ch we must waite. Those 
shewes of mineralls, w ch we have fro the Indians, doe only 
demonstrate that such are in reality in the country, but 
they usually bring but small peices, w ch are found acciden- 
tally in their huntings, sticking in some rock or on the 
surface of the earth, on the side of some hill, or banke of 
a river ; but they seldom speake of any great quantity 
where they find it, nor can they in likelihood meet w th a 
solid veine of good mettall, w ch usually lyeth deepe in the 
earth, never opened by them, nor have they meanes to 
doe it, therfor cannot know what is in those bowells, ex- 
cept where an earthquake hath shaken downe the side of 
an hill, or made some rent among y e rocks. Somthing 
in that kind of good probability, I hope, hath beene fur- 
ther inquired into by the worthy Colonell since I heard 
fro him ; and I expect some further discovery about cop- 
per when I ca meet an India who I expect to find yf he 
be not slaine, and what shall further be in that kind dis- 
covered I hope to acquaint your Hon r , who am depely 
ingaged to be ever w th my cheife indeavours, & in great 

Your most humble servant, J. Winthrop. 

Postscript, Aug: 26, 1668. 
Concerning the iron stone of these parts and the iron 
works, I forbeare to mention any thing againe now about 
those matters, having written largely formerly, as also 
concerning lead and great probabilities of lead mines, and 
somthing about copper and some considerable expences 
bestowed rashly upon trialls of a stone that holdeth (as is 
supposed) some small quantity of that mettall: as also 
what trialls have beene made by digging into the earth, 


and through some rocks, in hope of good mettalls, of all 
w cb I may hope againe to recollect my thoughts about 
those perticulars, of w ch I have formerly written, that I 
may againe give your Hon!" a renewed collection of those 
matters, some other oportunity; and somthing I should 
mention concerning the tydes, but, living far up fro the 
sea side, I have wanted oportunityes to make fitt obser- 
vations my selfe, and have not yet obteined, after much in- 
quiry, such a satisfactory account of those very great tydes 
in the Bay of Fundo of Nova Scotia ; most seamen that 
have beene there differing so much in their reports about 
it that I dare not write any thing of the pticulars of the 
quantity of the flud & ebb, and swiftnesse of the current 
of those tydes, till I have had better satisfaction about 
them, w ch I doe indeavour upon all good oportunities, 
but it is certaine that the water floweth and ebbeth much 
in that sea, above all the other places of these parts, that 
I heare of. There is a place not far fro N. Yorke, w ch the 
Dutch call Hell gcet, w ch is a narrow passage betweene the 
rocks of the ilands by w ch the tydes have their course, 
fro whence the Sound groweth wide on both sides, and 
the tyde passeth there in that strange maner that it mak- 
eth it very dangerous for vessells to passe through exept 
neere high water, or low water ; w ch because I have not 
viewed it of late yeares, nor remember y no ugh to give a 
pfect account of the maner of it, I shall desire your Hon r 
to receive a more pfect description of it, then I can de- 
mostrate, fro our noble friend Colonell Nicolls, fro whom 
you will have such a full relation of the strange course 
and effects of the tides of that place that will (I doubt 
not) be to the good satisfaction of your selfe, and the 
Royal Society, to whom I beseech your Hon r , my faithfull 
huble service may be presented, who shall ever subscribe 
myselfe, Honorable S r , 

Your most Huble Servant, J. Winthrop. 

Aug. 26, 1668. 

1668.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 129 

As I passed on a journey towards Newhaven on Thurs- 
day last the 19 of this month, I am informed by credible 
psons, who were ey witnesses of the same, that the said 
Thursday an honre before sun sett there was seene at 
Wethursfeild, a plantation upon the River of Conecticutt, 
there passed over an incredible multitude of flies : they 
say they were like those flies w ch usually light upon the 
horses about their head & neck : they say they appeared 
to be in a continued flight about a mile broad & a mile 
an halfe in length, & flew fro the north directly towards 
the south downe the meadowes, as the course of that 
river tendeth. One who was coming to that place mett 
w th them a mile below, and the whole swarme, the last 
of it, was scarse passed over his head, when he was come 
to the towne : and its like their flight was swifter than 
his travaile. I shall make further inquiry about it. 



To Mr. Oldenburg, Sec 11 of Royal Society. 

Hartford, in New England, Nov. 12, 1668 

S R , — I have received your very acceptable letters w 
had passed from London to Amsteldam, and thence to 
New-Yorke, in the hands of Heere Peter Stiuvesant, to- 
gether w th the History of the Royall Society, and many 
sheetes of these phylosophicall transactions (the excel- 
lent fruit of your indefatigable industry, the worlds ben- 
efitt, that publication of the) {Dona mihi auro pretiosi- 
ora) : they were all, after so long a progresse, sent hither 
from Boston by the carefull direction of y* worthy gen- 
tlema, who had comitted them to a trusty friend going 
thither fro New Yorke. I am deepely ingaged to your 

* This letter is also printed in the Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. for June, 1878, 
pp. 234-239. — Eds. 



selfe for so great a kinclnesse : I had not received any 
letter nor intelligence fro you divers yeares, w ch made me 
feare some great change ; but have now the joyfull satis- 
faction of your welfare. I have written often, but I per- 
ceive y e accidents of these evill tymes have disapointed, 
(si bettu dixcris, omnia mala dixeris). It hath beene brought 
back to us for great certainty, that when Capt. Gil- 
lams ship was taken in the tyme of the warre (in w ch 
ship Colonell Cartwright, one of his Ma ties Comissioners, 
returned towards London, and in w ch most of the letters 
fro this country were w th greatest confidence for safety 
sent) those letters by that ship were all lost. I doe not 
heare fro any one freind of one letter that tyme received. 
It is said the seamen of y* ship w ch tooke them did throw 
overboard all letters & writings w ch they found, that they 
might be sure none of them should discover what goods 
were in the ship, that so they might impropriate to them- 
selves the more, & not be called to an account about such 
perticulars as might have beene knowne by letters, bills 
of loading or invoices. I have heard that the govern 1 " of 
New Yorke and his Ma ties other Honorable Comissioners 
lost all their letters & writings (some of them of great 
importance). This I have fro a confident report, but 
they may be spoken w th themselves about White Hall, I 
suppose, some of them, Colonell Nicolls the Govern 1 " being 
returned thither this last sumer* The like fate had all 
those the next yeare in Capt. Scarletts ship, w cb was cast 
away on the English shore by tempestuous weather in 
the way fro this country to London ; and he told me 
since that all the letters were also lost, together w th all 
the goods in the ship, and w ch is most to be lamented 
divers of his men were drowned by that shipwreck. The 
capt : & some of his men escaped that dager of their 

* Nicolls went home in 1668, and resumed his place in the Dnke of York's household. 
He was killed, May 28, 1672, in the naval engagement at Soleliay, and his remains lie 
nnder the chancel of the church of Ampthill, in Bedfordshire. See Palfrey's History of 
New England, II. 624, note. —Eds. 

1668.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 131 

lives by the good hand of the Almighty. Had former 
letters beene delivered, they would have informed of a 
former disapointment also of a large pacquet w ch was sent 
overland towards Boston, the place of the usuall resorte 
of shipping, by a footma (who used often to travaile upon 
y* account), but, it being in the begining of the winter, 
was forced back by a great snow (w ch fell sooner then 
some other yeares). After he was gone part of the way, 
the snow began to be so deepe y* he could not proceed, 
but hasted back : yet the storme was so violent, and the 
frost so sharpe also, that he escaped hardly w th his life, 
his feet being much frozen : the letters so wet & torne y* 
could not be iitt for an other conveiance, if any had beene, 
but all passing was stopped till spring ; that pacquet was 
deferred to that late tyme of y e yeare, upon some speciall 
reason w ch would therw th have appeared, not needfull to 
be now mentioned. 

I have beene the more large in shewing you the very 
pticulars of the certainty of the miscaryng of letters so 
many tymes, that you may know my great disapoint- 
ments, w ch I may imagine may be the cause that freinds 
have deferred their comands for some tyme, yet hath 
now of late occasioned me that favour in your letter, to 
be putt in mind that I am a member of the Royall So- 
ciety. It was impossible for me to forgett the happinesse 
of y* station, when for that short time I soiourned in Lon- 
don they were pleased to permitt me to wait upon them 
at Gresham Colledge (unworthy I acknowledge of y* hon- 
our), nor can I possibly (though thus farre distant) for- 
gett my duty to that Society. It is my constant sorrow 
that (penitus toto orbe divisus) my great remotenesse makes 
[me] so little capable of doing them that service to w ch 
my desires & indeavours have beene and are greatly fixed 
& devoted. Had former letters & collections of such 
mean things as could be had in such a wilde place as this 
arrived, it might have appeared y* I had beene gathering 


fro many parts of this wilclernesse : and there had beene 
the relation of some observables fallen out in these parts, 
& of other matters \v ch were then thought of, as y t might 
have beene considerable : there were some sheetes in that 
ship, w ch was taken, I should not have beene willing they 
should have fallen into such hands, into w ch they might 
have come, repenting often that I had lett goe such 
writing out of my hands till I heard the story of that 
policy of the seamen before mentioned, and it was good 
satisfaction to my mind to be certaine that the sea had 
those papers & letters, rather than that they should have 
beene so otherwise disposed of then I could have desired ; 
and since those discoragmets, I have thought it more 
expedient to reserve the mention of some hopefull consid- 
erations to an other tyine, of such oportunities as might 
helpe the theory into some usefull practicall accoplish- 
ment. As for those collections, it is but as the tyme of 
transmitting them adiournecl, for most (I hope) wilbe 
recruited, many I have already collected, and am adding 
more as occasions are presented, but it is my trouble to 
find so few in these colonies worth the notice of the 
Royall Society. I wish I could tell you some certainty 
of any good mines in this North America. I have made 
as carefull and diligent inquiry as I could, and might 
have travailed further hopefully therein, had not the 
continued warres amongst the Indians wholy hitherto 
disapointed all such discoveries, two of the cheifest na- 
tions of the natives being in so great a feud, that it hath 
ingaged all the inferiour sachems & parties of these 
heathen on the one side or the other, fro the easterne 
sea of New England & Canada through the whole conti- 
nent almost as farre as Virginia, ofw ch I had w T ritten be- 
fore more largly, & pticularly to an honorable gentlemfi, 
a meber of the Royall Society. There lieth this no small 
discouragement about inquiry after mines here : w T e may 
suppose y fc if rich they lie usually deepe in y e bowells of 

1668.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 133 

the earth, and although some # pregnant signes upon the 
supficies may give hopes and probabilities, & possibly 
scattering pieces may be casually found of metallic sub- 
stance, yet there may be great uncertainty to find a 
continuing veine. Great sumes may be expended, & 
yet misse thereof, as hath beene in England & other 
parts, in knowne minerall grounds, w ch have round about 
them good veines, w ch are dayly wrought upon to much 
profit, as where they have the lead, &c. Some (I have 
heard) spende much & misse, others hitt upon a profita- 
ble discovery : it would not be likely to induce psons, 
especially our planters, to adventure much upon such 
probabilities, w ch they canot looke into by their owne 
iudgment: there have beene some attempts, but profitt 
not presently appearing, soone discouraged & given over : 
it may be God reserves such of his bounties to future 
generations. Plantations in their beginnings have worke 
ynough, & find difficulties sufficient to settle a comfortable 
way of subsistence, there beinge buildings, fencings, cleer- 
inge and breakinge up of ground, lands to be attended, 
orchards to be planted, highways & bridges & fortifica- 
tions to be made, & all thinges to doe, as in the begin- 
ninge of the world. Its not to be wondered if there have 
not yet beene itinera mMerranea. And all matters hith- 
erto have been carried on by the planters w th their pri- 
vate estates, without any such aids as Virginia had to 
assist them in their beginninge, — very large contribu- 
tions, as I have heard. Might the twentieth part of such 
a stocke be imployed heere about minerall discoveries, 
I should hope it would not be fruitlesse. 

I find in your letter an inquiry about salt workes, w ch , 
had a former writinge come to your hand, might have 
beene in some measure satisfied. I had made preparations 

* This letter as far as this word is from the Archives of the Royal Society. The 
remainder, being missing from their copy, has been supplied from the rough original 
draft. — Eds. 


presently after I came over for experiments, but, havinge 
found another way to my better satisfaction, I thought 
it needlesse to spend tyme & charge about further trialls 
of any formerly mentioned or intended, considering that 
old maxim, frustra fit per phira, &c. ; * & being well sat- 
isfied of the certainty by such small trialls as I could 
have oportunity to make, I intended & aplied myselfe to 
preparations for a large worke, yet had writte some lines 
upon these small trialls, w ch too suddenly perished with 
other papers, & since, upon further consideration, I think 
it not so suitable to mention more againe about it till by 
the experiment of a great worke, well compleated, &c, 
a true estimate of the profitt by the effects may answer 
all doubts. I had prepared, moreover, for such a com- 
pleat triall, w ch , if it could have been attempted, the Royall 
Society should have had an account of it, but it hath 
beene hitherto constantly retarded by some unavoidable 
remoraes. One is my necessary absence fro the sea side 
most part of the yeare, & every yeare since I came last 
from England, my usuall habitation beinge at Hartford, 
upon the river of Conecticutt, up high into the inland 
country, somewhat remote fro y e sea coasts, about 130 
miles fro Boston. I am much endeavoringe a vacancy fro 
other occasions, that I may spend more tyme neere the 
sea coasts, to improve some former preparations, w ch , if 
effected, may be practically demonstrative. I need not 
mention other concurring diversions besides one very 
grave & serious, w ch is some extraordinary losses I have 
had: for, besides severall to the value of 2,000 pounds, 
1 had a particular losse k great disappointment thereby 
in a Londo ship taken by De Ruiter at Nevis, when he 
was there w th his fleet, in w ch ship goods to a considerable 
quantity were shipped upon my account for London, & 
all a booty to him, to my great detriment farr beyond 

* The old Latin maxim is, " Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora." — 

1668.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 135 

the worth of the same, though too much to loose {pacem 
te poscimus omnes). My brother* also, who had shipped 
that upon my account, & w th whom my future correspond- 
ence should have beene usefull, was ruined by the French 
& driven from his plantations, loosinge a great estate, 
both at Christophers, & in his goods & sugar-works at 
Antigua, & his negroes there, having settled his chief 
plantations there ; but who knowes the Issues of Divine 
Providence ! Possibly I might have buried more in an 
uncertaine mine (w ch I fancied more than salt), had not 
such accidents prevented. The ordinary estates w ch we 
have in plantations cafiot readily be converted into such 
as may suit with correspondence w th Europe, or carying on 
such works as require the labour & helpe of such artifi- 
cers & workmen, who expect pay of the comodities of 
England, or such as will presently procure them ; but I 
hope I may notw th standing proceed to the copleatinge of 
that I had intended, if tyme & oportunity may suit. I had 
also written formerly some new notions about findinge 
the longitude at sea, having had experience often of the 
danger & inconvenience of that defect in long sea voy- 
ages, w ch had put me sometymes upon that study ; but, 
that writinge beinge also perished, I am thinking it best 
to be silent about that matter at present, it being yet but 
in the theory, especially as to an experiment by prac- 
ticall observations in a long sea voiage, w th out w ch it were 
not fitt to affirme a certainty: — yet because I clnot 
thus conferr w th you every day, I may presume to lett 
you know that I am still seriously meditatinge of that & 
some other desiderata (of w ch I may possibly give a better 
account hereafter), & may tell you of my hopes that a 
plaine practicable way may be found for the longitude as 
well as the latitude at sea. Our vessells from these ports 
have great disappointments ; sometymes havinge no cer- 

* Samuel Winthrop, some of whose letters will be given in another part of this vol- 
ume. — Eds. 


tainty of their longitude, fall to leeward of their port, w ch 
because of the current is irrecoverable, & their voyage 
overthrowne. The findinge Barmudas is more difficult 
by the same defect of that knowledge. I have knowne 
some return from their voyage thither intended, who, 
after long tyme beatinge every w T ay for it, could not 
find it. 

I had written also some additions to what I left for- 
merly with the Koyal Society about y e Indian corne, as 
also about a new way of making tarr, w c . h was directed to 
the Honorable Mr. Boyle (besides about many other mat- 
ters to him), as supposing there might be a good employ- 
ment for Indians therein, together w th an experiment for 
making charcole by y e same labour, & an addition about 
a new way for charcole of any & all sorts of wood, re- 
specting chiefly the furtherance of iron workes. There 
was besides these in another letter a new w r ay of making 
potashes directed to Mr. Breerton, who I heare lately 
is now Lord Breerton, as also concerninge a speciall kind 
of the Indian corne, maies, w c . h may be planted very late 
in y e sumer, above a month after the ordinary sorte, & yet 
be ripe as soone as that, — w c . h may probably ripen well 
in England, if planted there, — this also directed to the 
Bight Hon ble the now Lord Brereton, & another to the same 
effect directed to the Hon ble Mr. Charles Howard, & some 
of the eares of that corne intended to be sent to them 
pticularly, who I know would plant it if they had it, be- 
sides a good nuber more of these eares intended w th other 
collections before mentioned to y e Royall Society. I had 
procured an eare or 2 of it from a remote northerne pte 
of the country, & every year since had it planted to 
preserve the seed of it. I had also written pticularly to 
Dr. Goddard, Dr. Merret, & Dr. Whisler, Dr. Beniamin 
Worsley, & Dr. Keffler, concerning some vegetables of this 
country, & one especially w ch might be accounted a kind 
of jalap, but that it cause th to vomit as well as purge. 

1670.] JOHN WINTHROP, JK. 137 

Some dried roots also intended for your triall of them. 
All these writinges put a drift in the water, so far as I 
know any thinge further about them, since they were 
delivered out of my hand! those above named experi- 
ments were there mentioned as tentamina, &, when opor- 
tunity of further trialls hath added more perfection to any 
or all, there may be a better account about them. 

Yours, &c, 

J. W. 


Whereas very important occasions have necessitated 
my absence, of w ch I gave notice to the Generall Assembly 
of his Maties Colony of Conecticutt, for their consent, 
when such occasions should require it, and doe now find 
a necessity, eyther of a voyage into England, or much 
longer stay in the Massachusetts, then I intended, when 
I came fro Hartford : Therfore least the occasions of the 
colony should be any way disapointed, or any incoven- 
ience fall out, I thought fltt heerby (w th the leave & 
approbation of the Generall Assembly of the said colony 
of Connecticutt) to make this my free resignation of the 
government & office of Governour, to the said Generall 
Assembly, that they may be therby in a full capacity, 
if they please, to elect, make choice of, and constitute 
an other Govern r for the supply of that place, & in 
confirmation thereof I have heerto sett my hand & 

John Winthrop. 

Boston Octob : 7, 1670. [Seal.] 




RiGnT Hon ble , — I was at Boston in the Massachuset 
colony when M r John Pell arrived, by whom I had the 
great favour of your Lordships letter of the 23 of June 
last. He came into that harboure very oportunely for 
his advantage in the expedition of his businesse ; for 
M r Bankes, a neighboare of M r Pell deceased, & one of 
those whom he had intrusted w th the estate, was in a 
vessell of Fairfeild (the place where M r Pell lived) return- 
ing thither & mett the ship, coming in and came back 
w th M r John Pell to Boston, where I spake w th them both : 
and vpon the reading of your Lordships letter, informed 
M r Bankes that I had full assurance fro your Lordship & 
divers others, that the pson then present was M r John 
Pell & he to whom M r Tho : Pell deceased had given his 
estate. And that very day M r John Pell imbarqued w th 
M r Bankes, & sailed towards Fairfeild, carying also w th him 
my letters to the magistrate, & others there, certifying 
as before, w th desires of all loving respects, & helpfulness 
to him in his businesse, and y* order might be taken for 
his settlemet in y* estate and quiet possession thereof. I 
heard since of his safe arrival there, & y* he is accord- 
ingly possessed of those lands & houses & goods to w ch he 
had right both at Fairfeild, & Westchester, w ch is a place 
neere N : Yorke, where his vncle had also a cosiderable 
plantation. My Lord, the relation y* I am now presenting 
to your Lordship is of a very strage & prodigious wonder, 
this last siimer in this part of the world : that the like 
hath beene knowne, for y e whole meanes of it in any 
former ages, I doe not remeber y e I have read or heard. 
There was an hill neere Kenebunke river (a place in the 
province of Meane, the easterne part of N: England) w ch 
is removed out of its place & the bottom turned vpward. 

1670.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 139 

The tyme is not certaine when it was done, but y* it is 
so is certaine, & it is cocluded by those who lived neerest 
to it, that it was removed eyther the later end of June 
or the beginning of July last. The relation w ch I have 
fro credible persons concerning the maner of it is this: 
That the hill being about 8 rods fro Kenebunke rivers side, 
on the west side of the river about 4 miles fro the sea, was 
removed over the drye land about 8 rods, and over the 
trees also, w ch grew betweene the hill & y* river, leaping 
over them into y* river, where it was seene placed, w th the 
upper part downward, & darned vp y* river for a tyme 
till the water did worke it selfe a passage thorow it. The 
length of the hill was about 250 foote, the breadth of it 
about 80 foote, the depth of it about 20 foote. The sit- 
uation of the hill, as to the length of it was norwest & 
southeast. The earth of it is a blew clay w tb out stones, 
many round bullets of clay were w th in it w ch seeme to be 
of the same clay hardned. I have not yet seene the place 
my selfe but sent purposely to inquire into the truth of 
it : and had this relatio from Maior Willia Philips, who 
dwelleth not far fro the place, and M r Herlakendine 
Symonds, who was also at the place, & tooke very good 
notice, & brought me the same report of the truth & 
manner of it w ch I had before received, & told me y* the 
earth of the hill did not lie betweene the former place 
and the river, but was caried over the topps of the [trees ?] 
into the river, w ch seemes to be as if it were blowne vp 
by such a force, as caried the whole body of it so far to- 
gether. I had fro them some few of those round bullets, 
& small peices of the earth in other formes, w ch were 
found vpon that now vpper part w ch was before the lower, 
or inward bo wells of y e hill, as also a small shell or 2 
of a kind of shelfish, vsuall in many places of the sea, 
but how they should be w th in y* hill is strage to cosider. 
I have sent all y* I had of the amongst other things to y e 
Royall Society for their repository. I vnderstand fro 


some of those pts that there was not any notice taken 
there of any earthquake about that tyme ; nor did I 
heare of any in any other pt of the country. I give 
your Lordship only the relatio of this prodigie, as I had 
it vpon the best inquiry I could make, leaving the dis- 
cussion of y e naturall causes w ch might cocur, a matter 
too hard for ma to coprehend : but the power of his 
Almighty arme, is heerin manifest to all, who weigheth 
the hills in a ballance, & at whose presence the heaves, 
drop, the hills are melted like wax, Sinay it selfe is moved. 
I hope to have an oportunity to see the place, & if any 
other matter cosiderable, vpon my observation or further 
inquiry, shall appeare, I shalbe obliged to give your Lord- 
ship further account thereof, & for present make bold to 
subscribe my selfe Right Hon b ! e 

Your Lordships most obliged huble servant, 

J. Winthrop. 

Bosto, Oct : 10 : 1670. 

To William Lord Brereton at his house in 
Deanes yard in Westminster. 


Honorable S r , — I am againe greatly obliged, by your 
letter of the 8 th of Apr : last, and the most acceptable 
intelligence therein, concerning that admirable invention 
of turning iron into Steele found out by his Highnesse 
Prince Rupert. I believe it wilbe of wonderfull benifite 
to the world severall waies, & especially y* cast iron, as 
well as other iron, & tooles of iron can be turned into 
perfect Steele ; possibly by the like artifice, or some 
decree of it, or addition to it (and the more exellent, 

to v 

if in shorter tyme, & w th lesse charge, then by y e ordi- 

1671.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 141 

nary way) bar iron, might be made out of cast iron, w ch 
I am supposing from that w ch you were pleased to expresse, 
as a consequence of it, viz (that it is probable it will 
render refining of iron vselesse) bar iron being vsually 
accounted the refined iron out of sow iron. That some 
seeds of those silke podds have beene given to freinds 
there to be sowed, makes me suppose there may have 
beene good triall, whether y* vegetable may grow to a 
full ripenesse in y fc clymate. Concerning y* doubt of the 
silke downe loosing its springinesse vnder pressure, it 
may probably be so, if long continued, & not often & 
well stirred. I have spoken w th some who have vsed 
bedds & bolsters of it many yeares, w ch they say continue 
good & serviceable still, w th out much decay, but have 
beene carefully turned & stirred often & kept fr5 wett ; 
concerning y* question whether it be spun I have heard 
of some have tried it, but never saw any but some grosly 
spu for candle wieke, for w ch it may serve well ; I have 
tried it w th wax, & it burneth well. That silke downe 
is exeeding good for tinder : hunters, & travailers in the 
woods (who seldom goe w th out their fireworkes) find it 
very vsefull, & better (some of them say) then touchwood, 
or tinder made of linnin or cotton wooll, or any other 
materiall of y* kind w ch they have tried, being more 
certaine, & ready (they say) to take fire from their flint 
& Steele. In the preparation of it, they doe not burne 
it to tinder, but fill a broad bandaliere or small rond 
box w th it, & scorch the top of it a little & vpon y* 
strike fire, & having kindled something by it, stop the 
box close, & it is presently extinguished, leaving the 
next vnder it sufficiently scorched to take fire vpon 
the next occasion. I have thought it might be good for 
match, if there be not that inconvenience y* it would burne 
away too fast. These parts affoard little of novelty worth 
your notice ; the warr betweene those 2 great p ties of the 
Indians (w ch was mentioned in some former letters) con- 


tinues still, w ch hindereth the discovery of the remote 
inland places, where seeme to be probabilities of lead 
& copper also, vpon what may be coniectured by stones & 
marcasites w ch the Indians have formerly brought downe, 
but they dare not now goe farre into the woods, a few of 
them together; but it seemes very probable there may 
be such mineralls in the inland countries, for there hath 
bene good lead found in some places not far from the sea, 
and at one place in the Massachusetts [colojny where the 
iron workes are & neere a plantation called Lin, [the] re 
were great lumps found, of such minerall of lead, as 
when it was melted might yeild above halfe so much 
good lead, w ch incouraged divers of the planters to be at 
cost in digging a good depth at the place where most was 
found, but finding only loose peices, & no veine appearing 
after some expences about it, they were discouraged. 
I saw also a peice of sparr to w ch was adioyned a peice of 
minerall of copper, w ch was found neere the same place. 
Of these & other the like discoveries I wrote more largely 
formerly : but I have not heard y* such letters came to 
your hands, & we know of some ships formerly lost in 
w cb were severall letters sent. This yeare some went 
vp to a place, w ch was not a full daies journey fro the sea, 
where there had beene some kind of minerall discovered 
by one who had beene digging vpon an other occasion ; 
w ch minerall was somewhat ponderous, & in some parts 
of it toward the colour of brasse. Those who went to 
see it brought of it and shewed me severall peices, w ch 
when I saw, I knew I had seene the like from other parts, 
& fro an hill not farre fro the same place. It appeares to 
be only a sulphurous marcasite, of w ch there are divers 
sorts & in severall places. It is sometbing like the stone 
vsed for wheele firelock, but not so hard, but much like 
one kind of such stones of w ch copperous is made but doe 
not dissolve as they doe. I wish I could present the 
notice of the best of mineralls, or that there were any 

1672.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 143 

occasion heere whereby it might appeare how much your 
comands should oblige 

Your most huble servant, John" Winthrop. 

Indorsed " Copy to Sir Robt. Moray, 1671." 


For Capt. Fitz-John Winthrop at N. London. 

Hartford, Ap : 7 : 1672. 

Son, — I received your letter by John Lewis this morn- 
ing, w th the other letters inclosed and papers. I came 
last weeke fro Milford, where I heard that the Gov r of 
N. Yorke, & Capt : Nicolls & others w th 30 horse were gone 
overland to Delaware, about setling matters w th the In- 
dians in those parts ; but no ship yet come thither fro 
Europe. Since I returned hither some are come from 
Boston, but I have received no letter fro any, but they 
say your brother was well. They speake of letters come 
fro M r Deane and others in London by way of the Hands, 
who mention the arrivall of M r Fairwether, and y e other 
ships w ch went away the beging of winter, and that the 
ships for New England, or some of them intended to set 
out thece the middle of Feb. They report also of war 
twixt France & Holland, as declared already. Brother 
Richards writes to his brother heere that the English, 
have peace w th Argier vpon honorable termes, &c. M r 
Gardiner and others may be expected shortly, & there 
was hope to heare fro Salem also and those pts. We are 
all heere well (God be praised). Tyme pmitts not (they 
hasting to be gone pt of their way before night) to add 
now, besides the reinbrance of my love and your mother 
and sisters to your selfe and brother and sister, as also to 
M r Broadstreet and M rs Broadstreet and all friends there 
and rest Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

Your mother desires you to reserve what you will of 
those cheses for your owne vse. 



For Mr. Wait Winthrop at Boston, dd. 

Hartford June : 4 : 1672. 

Son, — I received yours by John Hale, and am glad to 
heare of your welfare and the rest of our friends ; heere 
is much sicknesse, of agues and feavers cheifly. M r 
Whiting died yesterday in the afternoone, having beene 
pretty well recovered of a long ague and was about the 
house, but fell very ill the last weeke againe, & dayly 
weakened irrecoverably. We are well in our family (God 
be praised) and heard lately fro friends at N: London 
that they were welle. M r Willis, Capt Talcot, M r Kichards, 
&c, are gone thither this weeke, as M r Gardiner can inform 
you, by whom also you may heare of all matters heere. 
If M r Allyn be yet at Boston, remeber me to him & lett 
him know that M rs Allyn hath had a tertia ague w ch be- 
gan the day he went hence, & we hope the worst of it is 
over. I was w th hir this morning, & hir fitt was shorter 
and more moderate then former. I am surprised, y* I 
canot have tyme to write to him pticularly. There may 
be a providence in y t business of M r Harwoods motion in 
his letter, & I should be willing it might be that way acco- 
plished, therefore you may (if you thinke fitt) treat w th 
M r Usher about it before I come. You will doe it better 
w th him then I can and may advise w th your brothers or 
whom you thinke fitt about it, but I leave it wholy to your 
best apprehentions what way to deale w th him about it, 
w ch you will best know what way, & probabilities when 
you have sounded his mind by some speech w th him &c. 
These are staied for and I must no longer deteine M r 
Gardiner fro his journey ; therefore shall add no more 
only the remebrances of my love & your mothers to your 
selfe & all friends at Boston, Salem, Wenham, &c, as 

1672.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 145 

occation, not having tyme now to write to any of them 

and rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

I send some Rubila, but its not ground enough. 
Rember to J. Want, and let him know his wife came safe 
vp and is well and sends hir love to him and his friends. 


For Mr. Wait Winthrop at Boston, dd. 

Hartford, July 3 : 1672. 

Son, — I omitted writing by John Hale, supposing his 
journy by N. London might occasion as long a passage 
as those directly hence, though severall daies after : they 
went downe w th your brother Palmes,* who then returned 
fro our Gen : Court w ch had beene called vpon some sud- 
daine occasions, the receiving y fc copye of his Ma ties letter 
fro the Secretary at Boston M r Rawson by order to them, 
and the issuing of that business about the comissioners 
wherin you were imployed, w ch is accepted by the court 
heere, as M r Allyn & you had agreed it w th them. Those 
matters occasioning that meeting did necessitate my 
deferring preparation for a journy to Boston, w ch I am 
now indeavouring, but canot yet be certaine of the tyme : 
& I could gladly have knowne if there were any likeli- 
hood of M r Vshers agreeing for M r Harwood about that 
purchas, before I had been vpon my journy thither. We 
have dayly more taken sick w th agues in these pts and 
most in this towne, as you will understand by those y t 
are gone & these now going, David Bull, & his freinds. 
Cousin Richard his wife is now newly taken, this is the 
3 d fitt as I take it, tooke Rubila the former fitt, also En- 

* Edward Palmes, of New London, married Lucy, daughter of John Winthrop, Jr., 
about 1660. She died in 1676. See Savage's Genealogical Dictionary. — Eds. 



signe Omsteds wife is likewise and many others, as others 
are freed of their fitts, etc. We continue well in our fam- 
ily (God be praised). These are hasted, being staied for, 
w cb makes me, to adde only our remebrances to your selfe 
and all friends at Boston, Salem, Weiiha as occation, and 

Your loving father, 

J. Winthrop. 

Doe not forget to get 6 or more ounces of Opiu whiles 
to be had. 


Hartford: Mar: 24, 1672[-3]. 

Honored S*, — I have waited a while for an oportu- 
nity to thank e you for that very affectionate & consola- 
tory letter of Feb. 11. I acknowledge my selfe deeply 
obliged for y fc favour. It is good to be stored w th those 
great & solacing truthes therm mentioned, & to be often 
minded of them. The Lord be praised for any allevia- 
tions by those & such like comforting Scriptures, wher- 
w th he is graciously pleased to support in such accumulated 
afflictions & sorrowes ; to be put in remcbrance of such 
consolations by deare Christian freinds is very helpfull, 
the desirable fruite of sympathising amity. Just before I 
had yours (w ch also reported that afflicting providence 
vpon our ancient freind, M r Richard Parker, in the sud- 
deine death of his wife & his languishing condition by a 
gangrein), I had the sad intelligence of his death also, 
w ch it seemes was after your letter. It is a further addi- 
tion to those bewailed bereavements (not long before) of 
y t exellent patriot, Governor Bellingham, & the worthy 
Maior Archer, come mo rated in yours. This colony is also 
deprived of a good man, M r Fen, of Milford, one of the 
Assistants of this place, who died a little before winter. 

1673.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 147 

The Lord will have his choice of whom & when he pleas- 
eth ; but he often taketh the righteous fro evills to come, 
w ch we may iustly feare, but may he please in mercy to 
avert. I am, through God goodnesse, receveing more 
degrees of strength dayly, but have not yet adventured 
abroad. It is a reall refreshing to me to have the good 
tydings of the health of your selfe & family. The Lord 
hath now (deare S r ) by his owne disposall comitted to 
your care the guidance of y* good people. If you shall 
looke vpon the burden & trouble redoubled vpon your 
selfe, it may appeare discouraging ynough ; but our God 
hath a very mighty arme, & will vphold & strengthen, & 
will guide you by his counsaile for his owne glory & y e 
good & prosperity of his servants. The intelligence you 
pleased to comunicate was wholy new to me. I know 
not what to inferr vpon it, but we may suppose y fc these 
tymes are not for such a voyage. I have no returne of 
newes fro these parts ; what is rumored fro N : Yorke we 
heare hath beene w th you a good while, & we have yet no 
certainty of y fc same. M r Willis came fro N. Haven a few 
daise since, & spake w th M r Roswell, who came newly fro 
y* place, & told him (he saith) he could vnderstand nothing 
of certainty about it. I shall only add my service & cor- 
diall respects to your selfe & good lady, w th M r Cooke & 
all yours, & am, in great sincerity, 

Your affectionate friend & servant, 

J. Winthrop. 

I have not had oportunity to speake w th M r Chapma or 
other Say-brooke me about your cocernes ; but M r Alyn 
tells me there wilbe no trouble about it. 

To the Hon ble John Leverett, Esq., Gover r 
of the colony of Massachusetts, in Boston. 



Hartford, July 15 : 1673. 

Sox, — I received yesterday a letter fro M r Bryan who 
sent one purposely to certify that Govern 1 " Lovelace would 
be at Milford by water the beging of this weeke, and 
sendeth his horses to meet him there, and then he intends 
to come vp hither, w ch may be about the middle of this 
weeke as he supposes. Cousin Sam : Eps was resolved 
to goe w th this bearer, Sam : Gibson of Cambridge, last 
weeke, towards the end of the weeke, but the wett 
wether prevented, and now he plaiieth to goe w th some y* 
speake of next weeke, the weather being so hott this 
weeke, y fc discourageth. I have received y e letter wherein 
you metioned the way of M r Nicolas cure. I shall quickly 
be out of aloes againe, if you canot supply me w th 2 or 3 
ounces : over a weeke or 2 or 3. If you could light vpon 
some way of procuring a barrell of good gunpowder it 
might be well, but doe not ingag e mony for it. We are 
all well, God be praised. The bearer staieth only for 
these lines, and therefore shall only add the reiiibrance of 
my love and your sisters and to all friends and rest 

Your loving father, 

J. Wixtiirop. 

Old M rs Bryan, M r Whitings mother, died at Middleton 
Sabath day was seven night, where she was buried the 
Tuesday following : had not beene sick above a weeke. 
Friends at N. London were well all lately, but Sam : Ches- 
borough was dangerously sicke. I heare your brother 
hath caused a mill to be built at Mistick River, w ch they 
say is about finished. 

1673. J JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 149 


For Mr. F. John Winthrop at N. London. 

Hartford, July 23, 1673. 

Son, — I wrote a few lines last weeke by one of Nor- 
wich, whereby I mentioned what I had fro M r Bryan con- 
cerning the intentions of Gover r Lovelace to come hither : 
but we have yet no further notice, only a further report that 
he intended to come all the way by land. My cousin Eps, 
w th M r Giles Sylvester & Jonathan Bull, went downe, but, 
not hearing any certainty at Milford of the tyme of his 
coming, returned last Saturday morning, having travailed 
at night fro N : Haven : bat we heere, y* iust at the tyme 
w ch they had apointed to set forth, captaine Manig, who 
should (its said) have come w th him, fell downe fro the wall 
of the castle there 16 foot high, and was bruised and hurt 
much, & taken to his bed, so as it is supposed y fc accident 
might divert, or retard his journey. This vncertainty 
makes vs at a great losse about providing againe for his 
reception. We have had no intelligence fro Boston since 
I wrote last. A Salem vessell newly come vp hither mett 
w th a ship of Pascataway belonging to M r Cutts, and an 
other ship going to Boston, both from Barbados, they 
say there is no news at Barbados, no ship having come 
thither fro England, since the fleet w ch came out in the 
winter. We are well heere (God be praised). I shall only 
add my reihbrance and your sisters and to your brother 
and sister there, and am 

Your affectionate father 

J. Winthrop. 

The inclosed is from Capt : Sylvester. Last Sabath old 
M r Gailer of Winsor died, above 80 yeares, divers yeares. 



For Mr. F[itz John] Winthr\op at] N. [London.] 

Son, — I received yesternight by a post sent expresse, 
a letter fro Gov r Lovelace, who was in his returne to- 
wards N. Yorke, as far as M r Richbells (when he wrote y fc 
letter) about 40 miles fro N : Yorke. He went hence on 
Tuesday last and was at N. Haven y* night, and next 
morning had the first intelligence of the fleet appearing, 
before it was knowne who they were. I send you the 
full extract of that letter, & know nothing more then 
what is therin conteined, only by a letter fro M r Gold 
of Fairefield, of the same day, am informed y l he had a 
report that the Dutch had landed 3000 men vpon Man- 
hatas Hand, but heard not the certainty. Just now M r 
Wilson and an other fro Boston and your brother writes 
that he intends w th your sister, cousin, & cousin Joseph 
Winthrop # to be at N : London next weeke on their way 
to Hartford, intending to come that way : & that M rs Elis : 
Curwin was to be married to M r Peter Sergeant last 
Thursday : and that they would not let your sister come 
till y* was over, otherwise had beene on y t journey be- 
fore. We heare also that a sloope newly fro Virginia to 
Boston bring ill newes that such a Dutch fleet have beene 
at Virginia and there burnt six and taken six of the 
English merchant ships. I have not to add at present 
but my loving remebrance & your sisters to your selfe and 
brother and sister w th M r Broadstreet, and rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 
Hartford, Aug: 2, 1G73. 

Capt. Sylvester desires your helpe in y e delivery or 
convieance of the inclosed. I have sent poste to the 

* One of the sons of Samuel Winthrop, of Antigua. — Eds. 

1673.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 151 

Gov r of Boston yesternight the same intelligence : & the 
Magistrates desire j* that to M r Smith may be posted 
away, it conteining some to be hasted to Road Hand and 
Plymoath. It is desired y fc you would shew the copy of 
Gov r Lovelace his letter, to your brother Palmes and M r 
Broadstreet, and if there be occation to some of Norw ch 
and Stonington, as you see cause. I send you also a copy 
of a letter I newly received fro Govern 1 " Leverett, w ch is 
concerning y* action of y e Duch fleet at Virginia, as 
breefly before metioned. 


Hartford, Sep r 11: 1673. 

Honored S r , — We received yesterday a letter sub- 
scribed by M r Rawson secretary, by order of your selfe 
and councill, certifying y fc your Generall Court is appointed 
to meet y e beginning of next weeke to consider what is 
meet to be done in reference to the contents of a letter 
and another writing fro some of South Hampton, & im- 
parts your desire of our consideration also, &c, & what is 
y e duty incubent for the safety of the colonies, & securing 
his Mat ies interest in these pts. Our Generall Court hath 
already very seriously considered of the premises, as also 
the comissioners of the colonies when they were heere, 
we having had the like representation fro y e easterne end 
of Long Hand, a copy whereof was presently sent to 
your selves, before the honred gentleme, your commis- 
sioners, came vp hither, who w T e might suppose had your 
full sence about those matters, and would, at their re- 
turne, informe you what y e considerations were cocerning 
the same when they were heere, & what was concluded 
therevpon of the necessity of joynt indeavours for the 
preservation of these his Ma ties colonies. We now thought 


fi tt to remind, y t (w ch was also w* the comissioners, when 
at this towne) how necessary it is vpon y e consideration 
of the present emergencies, by the speediest way, eyther 
by Ireland or France or any other meanes, if a present 
direct oportunity to England doth not appeare, to repre- 
sent to his Ma tie , how matters stand in these remote pts 
of his dominions, the suddaine surprise of N. Yorke and 
thervpon the inevitable difficulties vpon the English of 
Long Hand, so seperated by the sea fro y e other English 
colonies, who have noe sea forces to releive them. We 
likewise considered that to be nextly as a duty incubent 
to vse all diligence & endeavours to secure his Ma ties in- 
terest in all these colonies, and to preserve them fro the 
violente incursions and depredations of the enemies, im- 
ploring the assistance of the Almighty, and trusting only 
vpon his alsufficient power to defend ag* the most potent 
adversaries. To his good guidance we recomend your most 
weighty consultations, and are 

S r , your affectionate friends & John Allyn, 

By order of the Gov r and magistrates. 

Indorsed, "Copy fro the Magistrates to the Gov r & Councell of Massa- 
chusetts The Secretary hath also a copy." 


Hartford, Sept: 15, 1673. 

Son, — The same day you went hence there came 
newes fro Stamford that y e Dutch fleet are all gone to 
sea, on Saturday the 6 th of this month. We give creditt to 
y e report, being come to Stamford by 2 severall waies, by 
one Gray, who lives on Long Hand not above 6 or 8 mile 
fro the towne of N. Yorke, and another credible pson 
who lives about East Chester. It is not knowne whether 
they are gone ; but by a word that passed fro one of the 
comanders it is beleived that the principall ships are not 

1673.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 153 

gone fair, and may quickly returne thither : for Molines 
ship being bound out for Holland a little before, and 
Collonell Lovelace being proffered passage in y fc ship, he 
refused to goe, chalinging a promise of the Heere Bunker 
that he should goe w th him in his ship, and therevpon 
he told Col : Lovelace y* he would pforme his word if he 
desired it; but told him also that he was not then to goe 
to Holland, but to another place & must returne thither 
againe before he went to Holland ; and it is thought that 
Col : Lovelace is gone to sea w th them. But Capt : Nicolls 
was expected shortly at Fairfield where his wife is at 
present. We have written to M r Gold of Fairfeild for 
further certainty, w ch may be expected shortly. There is 
notice fro Boston by one of Stratford now heere in his 
way home that there hath beene 2 ingagemet w th the 
Dutch in Europe, but there are no certaine pticulars of it 
yet. I shall only add my loving remebrance and rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

The latest intelligence is by M r Blowar of Cabridge, 
who is come fro Ireland, though there is also an English 
ship fro France. They speake of the continuance of the 
war betweene Eng : and Holland, and y* the French Army 
had beseiged Maestrick, a principall towne of y e Dutch. 

For Mr. F. John Winthrop, at N. London, dd. 

Hartford, Sept: 25, 1673. 

Son, — Yesterday about 3 in the afternoone your 
brother & sister, w th cousin Joseph, & cousin Eps went 
towards Bosto. We heard this day by one y* came this 
morning fro Springfeild, y* they came thither safe, about 
10 at night or before, and were about going early this 



morning on their further journey. I hope they will have 
good weather all the way. John Hale went w th them & 
Tho : Bradford who was going w th his vncle Richards the 
Monday before, & they were as farr as Winsor beyond 
the meeting house, and M r Richards bridle the snaffle 
breaking, the horse ran away w th him above a mile, and 
then threw him of & he hath hurt his right shoulder bone 
much, w ch caused him to returne y fc night in a canoe (for 
he could not ride). The bone setter came not to him till 
next morning, and then set it as well as he could, but he 
had much paine all y fc day and y fc Tuesday night, but yester- 
day being againe opened by the Farington bonsetter, who 
continueth yet w th him, he hath had more ease and this 
day also hath more ease. From Boston we heare that a 
ship is arrived fro Ireland, the 17 of this month, & an 
other fro Scotland, were but 6 weekes at sea. In y e Scotch 
ship is come one M r Middleton, who, they say, is the Earle 
Middle tons brother. They bring newes y t there have 
beene 2 ingagements, as is more pticularly in y e paper in- 
closed, w ch is transcribed out of a letter fro M r Pynchen 
fro Boston of Sept: 17, & is so reported both by the rela- 
tion of such as came over and by letters y fc it is much cred- 
ited. I am hasted & shall only add my loving remebrance 
& your sisters, and referr to what I have written besides to 
your brother, of Col : Moris arrivall at N : Haven, & any 
other matter y fc may be mentioned, & rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

Your sister desired me to write about some beife they 
want if any could be had there. My respects to M r Broad- 
street & his ; pray tell him also and your brother and 
sister the newes, & if you have oportunity to send a copy 
or extract of it to M r Smith & who else you will. Let 
M r Smith know that the report about the arrivall of the 
Ginny fleet at N. Yorke is contradicted. There are no 
ships arrived there. 

1673.] JOHN WlNTHROP, JE. 155 


Copy of letter to M r Amos Richardson. 

Sept: 25, 1673. 

Loving Freind, M r Amos Richardson, — M r Jonathan 
Gilbert spake to me of your desires of accomodating you 
some land, neere the river of Pacatuck adioyning to your 
land there, for the convenience of your son, who maried 
his daughter, for setting his house there. I thought fitt 
therfore to certify you heerby that I shall willingly, and 
freely accomodate you therein, according to such right or 
interest as I have therein in resignation thereof to your 
selfe : and therfore you may goe on in y* building, for 
your son there as is intended, not doubting of any kind- 
nesse y t I can doe for your covenience therein. The 
oportunity is hasted, and therfore shall only add my 
loving remebrance to your selfe & your wife, w th your 
son & daughters, & am 

Your assured friend, 



Hartford, Sept: 27, 1673. 

Son, — I am glad the weather proved so good for the 
whole tyme of your journey. I hope you may be well 
on your iourneys end by this tyme. I shalbe glad to heare 
of your safe arrivall there. The bearer, M r Sharpe, being 
newly come fro N. Yorke, hath in writing a narrative of all 
y fc action ; I suppose his own collection ; the best I have 
heard. I may referr to his narrative of all matters fro those 
westerne pts. We heard before his coming a little y* the 
report of y* Ginay fleet was fro the fleet, w ch went out, re- 
turning after 2 or 3 daies towards the Sandy Hooke as it 


was since thought to be ; those having had but bad winds 
for many daies, it was vpon sight of a fleet coniectured to 
be the Ginay fleet. Deaco Graves was buried this after- 
noon. M r Whiting w th his bride returned home on Thurs- 
day last. We heard lately that freinds at N. London are 
well. I am hasted, the bearer going this evening to Win- 
sor, because of copany thence the Monday early, and shall 
only add the remebrance of my love and your sisters and 
to all friends, and rest 

Your loving father, 

J. Winthrop. 

Cousin Richards had a day of much paine yesterday, 
but taking one of y e black cordiall powders at night had 
presently ease, and the best night rest w ch he hath had 
since his hurt. I forgot to mind you of a stick of wax 
and to procure me some corall and vitriolu album if to be 
had. If you remeber me to M r Chickering and vse my 
name to him he will sell you some; the potecary below 
M r Bellingham had corall, if not y e other. 


A copy : to the Gomdder of y e Dutch at Mdhatoes. 

[Oct. 21, 1673.] 

S R , — It being not the maner of Christia or civill na- 
tions to disturbe y e poore people in cottages and open 
villages, in the tymes of warr, much lesse to impose oathes 
vpon them, but to suffer them to goe on w th their hus- 
bandry, and other country affaires, we canot but wonder 
to heere y fc some of yours (notw th standing a caution for- 

* This letter is also printed in the Connecticut Colonial Records, 1665-1677, pp. 564, 
565. — Eds. 

1673.] JOHN" WINTHROP, JR. 157 

merly to the sea comaders), having beene lately downe 
towards the easterne end of Long Island, have vrged his 
Ma ties subiects there to take an oath contrary to their due 
allegiance to their sovereigne, and to vse many threat- 
ning expressions towards them in case of refusall of such 
an oath ; we thought fitt therfore heerby to let you 
know y* we can scarce beleive y* such comission could 
proceed fro your selfe, who we have heard to be a soldier, 
and well acquainted w th martial affaires, and may suppose 
you vnderstand better the law of nations and the cus- 
tomes & vsages of psons of honor, in their preteces of 
warr: and we canot guesse at the reasons should move 
to such molestations towards poore planters, exept it be 
to atteine some plausible pretence for plundering and 
pillaging, w ch if it should be done, we know very well 
there may be easy reparation among your boores & open 
dorpes ; but the English will scorne such vnchristian 
designes, exept barbarous depredations fro yourselves 
should necessitate retribution to the iniured. You may 
be assured if you proceed in provocations to constreine 
the rising of the English colonies, they will not make 
it their worke to tamper w th your paisents about swear- 
ing, but deale w th your head quarters (w ch yet if reduced 
to obedience to his Ma tie may certainly expect therby 
much more happinesse & larger immunities w th out such 
imposures then can be inioyed by them in the station 
wherin they now are). M r John Bankes is the messinger 
by whom we send these, who ca further informe you how 
tender we are of effusion of Christian blood, yet canot 
but resent w th great indignation if any malicious op- 
presion shalbe forced vpon our deare neighbours, his 
Ma ties good subiects. These animadversions are repre- 
sented to your serious cosideration fro 

J. A., 
In the name & by order of the Gov r [torn'] Assembly. 



For M r F. John Winthrop, at N. London, dd. 

Hartford, Oct: 23, 1673. 

Sox, — You will vnderstand by your brother Palmes 
more fully then I can write the pticulars of the severall 
motions fro Southampton & other towes of the easterne 
end of Long Hand for helpe, & that Capt : Young, Capt : 
Howell, & M r James were heere lately, & y e considera- 
tions of the Generall Court heere about their addresses, 
& y fc thervpon Capt : Young & M r Howell went towards 
Boston the end of last weeke, & may be expected back 
the end of this, or the beoniiino; of next weeke : & since 
those there was last Sabath an other expresse, one M r 
Whaly sent with letters, came hither fro Southampton, 
& returned Muday night, & yesterday Thomas Reeves 
arrived also thence w th other letters, certifying the inten- 
tions of the Dutch at N: Yorke to send their small vessell 
of six guns w th 300 men to copell them to the oath, w ch 
they refused, and M r Coop and M r James when they were 
heere did mentio for your selfe to goe over; and now there 
is by this bearer a letter fro M r James, since his arrivall 
it Southampto, metioning their desires for your pmission 
t)r comission to goe [torn] over to the w th 50 or 60 me fro 
those pts, if none ca be sent hence, w ch because of the 
straightnesse of tyme I doubt canot be got ready. M r 
Willis is very forward & willing to goe and is now pre- 
paring to goe downe in the whale boat. His businesse is 
only [to] be joyned w th your selfe for a treaty w th such 
edmaders as are sent fro N. Yorke, if they come : possibly 
some fitt way of treaty, w th out arguments, of the vsuall 
way of all nations, especially Christian & civill [torn] not to 
meddle w fh open villages, [torn] but to leave them to their 
husbandry & [torn] businesse, & not to impose oaths on 

1673.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 159 

them, &c. You may consider also whether it may be 
needfull to carry over w th you that pticular comission or 
instruction to your selfe only directed, or to leave it in 
your chest or some safe hand at N. London, the maine vse 
of it being in reference to this place and the heads of it in 
your mind may instruct how to act there, &c, but how- 
ever not to shew it the Dutch, as you may doe the other, 
wherein M r Willis is joyned for treaty, &c, if he goes ; and 
by any meanes doe not carry over the copy of those let- 
ters fro Southampton, &c. You may acquaint your brother 
Palmes and M r Broadstreet and who you thinke fitt w th 
the premises, and my remebrance to them and your sister. 
The Dutch will pretend their subiection by their delegates, 
but that the people of those places can best answer, &c. 
Gaining of tyme till the returne of those fro Boston, is that 
w ch may be in this exigent desirable; and to that purpose 
we have dispatched a letter to the comader at Yorke [torn] 
a copy whereof M r Willis hath w th him w ch you may se, as 
also M r Whaly carried over a copy to Southampton : and 
possibly by Capt : Sylvesters helpe the comander y* shall 
come in y* vessell may be pswaded to a forbearance, or w ch 
is the very law of nations, and a civility that is among all 
conquerours, to give them a fit tyme for transportation and 
removall if they cannot yeild to oathes, &c, w ch is the last 
may be propounded, if other considerations doe not availe, 
nor feare of the rising and assistance of this and other colo- 
nies, &c. And this I would advise to Capt : Sylvester, that 
he would declare before some fitt testimony his manifest- 
ing his allegiance to the king, in such way as may be a 
good safety to him ag* any y* may, &c, as its said some pri- 
vateere at Bosto and others doe give out what they may 
doe, &c. What may be done before you and M r Willis, and 
his brother, though no other, may be vsefull in that [torn] 
and not to be made knowne to y e Dutch, or other y* may 
suddainly acquaint the Dutch w th it, &c. But this is only 
to your selfe, if I forgot to speake to M r Willis of it. 


I know not what to advise in it, not seeing a way for men 
to be fitted so suddainly, any fitt nuber, but vpon those 
meere occasions of inquiry, and especially in what M r 
Willis is joyned, w ch was motioned after the former to 
your selfe only was agreed, there may be no difficulty, and 
may be as a preparation for any future action, w ch will 
require more tyme. But I must leave the consideration 
to your owne inclination, and desire the Lord direct your 
thoughts therein, to whose good guidance I comend you, 
desiring his present and continuall blessing vpon you, and 

Your affectionate father, J. Winthrop. 

It may not be covenient to keepe this letter, especially 
to carry it w th you, nor will it be further vsefull the what 
you may have impression by memory in your thoughts 
vpon y e reading of it to a full retention of the pticulars ; 
and the copy of M r James letter sent for your pvsall and 
the other will neede no more but one inspection, &c. 


For M r W. Winthrop, at Boston, to be left for him at M r Beniamin Gibs 
his house or shop nere the Dock. 

Hartford, Oct: 27, 1673. 

Son, — The inclosed was intended by M r Gibbons, but 
was gone before it came to his quarters, & what was 
at the bottom was a word to Capt : Young, who now I 
suppose is returning. Vpon a new motion fro the east 
townes of Long Hand for your brother to come over to 
them, the magistrates heere have sent to him last Thurs- 
day, & M r Willis went downe that day also to goe over in 
a whaleboat wherein Tho : Reeves came over. w rth those 
letters for your brothers going to them, & M r W T illis should 

1674.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 161 

eyther goe to him, or meet him at those pts, but whether 
they be certainly gone we have not yet heard. Your 
brother F : had order to take what men he thought neces- 
sary w th him that would be willing to accopany him, but 
whether could in so short a tyme is doubtfull, &c. M r With- 
erell & Tho : Robinson in their vessell are newly arrived at 
N: London and fro them are come vp hither an Englishma 
& a Jew, the son of a very rich Jew of Barbados. They 
report of a very great mortality w ch hath beene there, many 
principall psons being dead w th in 3 monthes, & multitudes 
of others. Some pticulars of psons of most note, w ch was 
in a pap brought to me I have transcribed & inclosed, w ch 
you may shew the Goven r & brother Richards, M r Lines, 
M r Wharton & others, w th my remebrace to them. I ex- 
pect the returne of intelligence fro your brother and M r 
Willis, as also M r Banks fro Manhaten, every day, and so 
may have further to informe of matters of those pts. I 
shall only add my loving remebrance and your sisters, 
and rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

I expect Colonell Morris heere dayly. He is now at N : 
Haven. M r Bryan wrote he intended hither last weeke. 


Hartford, Aug: 15, 1674. 

Son, — I am very apprehensive of the necessity & vtil- 
ity of an handsome, true & full narrative to be drawne of 
matters y t have fallen out since the suddaine surprise of N. 
Yorke by y e Dutch, especially in reference to those famous 
townes of the East end of Long Hand by whose loyalty, 
prudence & valour the honour of the English hath beene 
maintained in these parts of y e world ; what I had thought 



of, & digested in y* kind, would not have beene wanting 
vpon a fitt occation, but I foresee some imperfection or 
mistake w th out the helpe of the gentlemen of those parts 
& Capt : Sylvester, & though I have acquainted the gen- 
tlemen heere, & found them approving as above metioned, 
yet this oportunity by M r Bulkly being very sucldaine, there 
is not tyme for further consideration w th them, nor of 
writing to those gentleme concerning it : therefore m fc 
recomend it to your selfe to take the first oportunity you 
ca to confer w th the and advise about that businesse, as 
fro my serious motion to the vpon divers considerations, 
w ch is not possible now to pticularise, & let my loving 
respects be presented to them all, & my desires that they 
would by any meanes request the helpe of Capt : Sylves- 
ter therein, to whom also w th his I desire you to mention 
my reall respects, and hopes to receive the good newes 
of his welfare & all his. I am much hasted, & shall only 
add my loving remebrance and to your sisters, and rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

It is certified fro M r Bryan that a ship came to Milford 
fro London bound to N. Yorke, wherin was M r Samuell 
Wilson (who hath as I heare beene imployed by the east 
end of Long Hand formerly in England), by whom it is cer- 
tified for a certainty, that it is one Maior Andrewes, who 
is to come over Govern 1 " for N: Yorke, of w ch I certified in 
a letter to your selfe and your brother, and we heard 
nothing further of it, but what Capt : Nicolls hath written 
to the same purpose, and I may suppose may mention the 
same to your selfe in his letter now sent, w ch I suppose he 
hath by letters in that ship or M r Wilson. And there is no 
more expectation of those formerly said to be expected, 
M r Newport and Capt: Needa, w ch in his former intelli- 
gence were nominated. How it comes that there hath 
beene eyther a mistake or alteration of what had beene 
intended I heare not. M r Bryan wrote to me as having 

1674.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 163 

it fro M r "Wilson that all matters that have beene trans- 
acted since the taking of N. Yorke have beene fully re- 
lated at the councill table : but in what maner I doe not 
heare. There may notwithstanding, and the rather, be 
prepared a true narrative ready, if only fundametal should 
be prepared there, &c. It might be considered there before 
it be totally copleated, but Capt : Sylvester shalbe in vse. 

For my honored Sister, M r f Priscilla Read, at Mr house in White Hart 
Court, w th out Bishop Gte, in London, dd.* 

Hartford in New England, Sept. 22, 1674. 

Deare Sister, — By some expressions in a letter fro 
my cousin, your son, of Aug. 19, 1673, w ch I received 
long after the date thereof, I pceive you had not re- 
ceived my letters, nor any notice of my great affliction 
in \he irreparable losse of my deare wife, who died the 
first day of Dec. 1672 ; my selfe then lying very weake 
at the same tyme (having beene taken sick some weekes 
before hir sicknesse), & I doubt y fc might aggravate hir 
ilnesse, together w th the sorrow she had vpon the death 
of our deare Sister Lake, who died the September before, 
& the losse of o r son Newman, the husband of Eliz : our 
eldest daughter ; he died also a few weekes after Sister 
Lake. She had a deare affection to them both. These 
were heavy to vs all, putting much sadnesse vpon all 
relations & other freinds, and my sorrowes in my great 
sicknesse much augmented by y l bereavement at y fc tyme 
of so endeared a freind, the sence wherof remaineth very 
heavy vpon me ; but we must all submitt to the will of 
the Lord, & be comforted in the assured hope of y fc happy 
& glorious day when we shall have that joyfull meeting 
with all our freinds, never to be separated. I was before 

* Mrs. Eeade was the widow of Colonel Thomas Reade, whose sister was the second 
wife of John Winthrop, Jr. — Eds. 


my sicknesse vpon procuring bills, as I wrote formerly, 
but thereby & since hindered the effecting of it ; but 
hope to travaile to Boston in the spring, and shall vse all 
fitt endeavours for the accomplishment of that businesse 
by bills, though vpon the most difficult termes ; & my son 
Wait, being there, will vse meanes for preparation for it, 
being impowered to sell some lands there w eh are of good 
valew. I am very desirous at all tymes to heare fro you 
& of your welfares, having had no other intelligence 
since my cousins letter, w ch I may well impute to the 
vncertainty of coveiance in those tymes of y e late warr. 
I shall only at present add my most cordiall & affectionate 
respects to your selfe, w th my deare cousin Rawlins both, 
& desire you to present my respects to Cousin Lydia, 
your sister, as also to Cousin Reads, both of them, & 

Your affectionate brother, J. Winthrop. 

My sonns & daughters were well when I heard fro 
them, being in some other parts of y e country ; only my 
two youngest daughters, Martha & Anne, w th me heere, 
& present their service (though vnknowne) to your selfe 
& all their cousins. Please to present my service to Sr 
John Banks. 


Hon ble S R , — Vpon the 14 th in the evening I received 
yours of the 4 th Instant, & may presume y* before that 
tyme there might be by M r Willis such a representation 
of those necessary trasactions fro this colony in reference 
to the plantations on the east end of Long Hand as might 
be much satisfactory as to what hath passed betweene them 
in the former yeare. Those people eminently manifested 
their loyalty to his Ma tie w th the hazard of their lives, 

1674.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 165 

wives and children & all they had, being very neere a 
to tall mine vpon that account, and that they might be 
vnder the shelter of his Ma ties government (there being 
none neerer to them) petitioned his Ma ties court of this 
his colony of Conecticut for their helpe therein, as well as 
for assistance ag* the enemy threatning fire & sword and 
plunder : and therevpon some were impowred by the 
authority of his Ma t5 f s said court to settle those people in 
an orderly way of governmet vntill his Ma tj f pleasure 
were further knowne cocerning them ; and herein there 
was no pretended ingagement nor any other matter in- 
tended, nor could be intended, but for his Ma ties speciall 
service & maintening his royall prerogative rights & in- 
terest in those places, and the safety & peace of those 
his Ma^ 8 subiects, neither were there any complices w th 
them to any other end or purpose then for those great 
loyall ends of his Ma ties service as aforesaid. And it is 
well knowne, & very apparent to all, y* by the singular 
providence of God those good ends have beene atteined? 
& those his Ma ties subiects have continued hitherto in a 
safe & orderly condition, & I canot doubt but they wilbe 
ready to attend his Ma ties pleasure cocerning them, and I 
am bold to represent them as a people y* may deserve 
the greatest favour, having shewed themselves constant 
in their loyalty to his Ma tie , & of great resolution therein ; 
those few people of thre open villages standing out w th 
vndaunted courage ag* the dangerous assaults of such as 
were then their professed enemies & of much greater 
power, to the vindication of the honour of the English of 
this wildernesse. What is meant by disabusing of them I 
doe not well apprehend, not knowing that they have beene 
misled by any of this colony, nor disposed any way be- 
yound the forementioned limits, having vpon occasion of 
your letter convened such of the magistrates of these 
parts as could now come together. They all joyne w th me 
in thankful acknowledgement of that assurace expressed 


of a good freindly neighborhood, w ch I may assure you 
also is desired by them all & wilbe endeavoured by them 
to be reciprocall & constant, as also very studiously by 

Your huble servant, 

Hartford, Dec: 16, 1674. [Not signed.] 

S R , — Not doubting but M r Willis hath beene w th you 
before your letters were received, and his returne shortly 
expected, have deferred writing to those of Long Island 
vntill his returne, & most of the councill of this colony 
living remote from this place, I have sent to them to meet 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Copy to Gov r : Androes." 


Copy to Gov r . Androes. 

Hon ble S R , — I received your letter by M r Leet, & y e 
good ty dings of your welfare. I hoped by his returne to 
have presented some new intelligence fro Europe, some 
vessels being lately arrived at Boston from France & 
Spaine, & since, very lately fro England; but we have yet 
very little newes fro them, besides a report of an engage- 
met betweene the French & Spanish fleets in the streights, 
and it is said the French had the better of it, but we 
have nothing of the pticulars, nor have yet received let- 
ters, though its probable many are at Boston. The in- 
closed Gazets were newly brought thence, but its said 
came by way of Barbados, &c. I have a good while since 
declared my intentions of a voyage into England in ref- 
erence to my health, & some of mine owne occasions, & 
now againe metioned the same to the court heere, when 
they first assembled, and am putting my selfe into a 
vacacy fro all publiqe imployments, for atteding my 

1675.] JOHN" WINTHROP, JR. 167 

health and preparation for such a voyage, of w ch I thought 
fitt to give you this notice vpon my full resolution (if God 
please to inable me therto), & remaine 

Your huble servant, J. Winthrop. 

Haktford, May 17, 1675. 

To the Right Hon ble Edmund Androes, Esq r ., 
Gov r of his Royall Highnesse the Duke of 
Yorke his territories in America, at New 

It was delivered to M r Samuell Leet when he returned fro Hartford, 
May 18, 1675. 


Hartford, May 18, 1675. 

Honored S r , — I received yours by M r Martin, wherin 
I had notice of the determination of the honored Gov- 
en r w th your selfe of a journey to Delaware, on w ch since 
I am informed by the worthe Goodeme M r Leet and 
M r West you proceeded, before they came fro N. Yorke, 
& may hope these may congratulate your safe returne. 
Although we have certaine intelligence of the arrivall of 
a ship and some ketches at Boston fro England, yet have 
received little intelligence thence. Capt: Prentice, by 
whom we heard it, living some few miles fro Boston, came 
not lastly fro thence, where he had beene a day or 2 before 
at the coming in of those vessells, but going home y t night 
returned not thither, to have oportunity to gather vp any 
intelligence, but came on his journey the morning after, 
so as we are but still in expectatio of the newes by 
them, having yet had no letters, nor certaine reports; but 
what ever is heer sent thence you will have it fully by 
M r Leete, to whom I refer for your information thereof; 
as also of the sad accident y* hath lately hapned at Bos- 


ton, in a ship that came thither newly fro Virginia in 
their way towards Bristoll, shaking of 3 of there great 
giis at their coming to an anchor at the firing the third 
gii, part of a barrell of powder of about 50 or 60 pounds 
tooke fire and blew vp the quarter deck and all that w r ere 
vpon it, amongst whom was M r Freake, and Capt : Scarlet, 
w th Capt Motem and others had gone aboard before the 
ship anchored, one M r Smith, the merchant of the ship, and 
a boy belonging to the ship, who had divers bones broken 
and were much brused, and these foure died presently, 
and Capt Mosely and the master and the owner of the 
ship w th divers others were much hurt, burnt, and brused, 
but were yet living, and hoped might recover when the 
last intelligence was thence. I hope whiles you were at 
Delaware, might have certaine and pticular information 
about that apparition of the ma at sea, &c, w ch I yet 
much inquire about the truth of it. I thought fitt to 
acquaint you of my purpose of a voyage for England (if 
God please to inable for it) in reference to some of my 
pticular occasions besides something of consequence to 
my health, w ch I find my selfe now necessarily obliged to 
attend in more then ordinary manner ; w rCh is all at pres- 
ent, w th speciall respect fro your affectionate friend, 

J. Winthrop. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Copy to Capt. Mathias Nicoll." 


To the honored Generall Court of his Ma ties colony of Conecticut now 
assembled at Hartford. 

Whereas by reason of my present condition w th much 
troubles & paines of some infirmities, I find my selfe 
altogether vnable for the attending the publike businesse 

1675.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 169 

of the colony & management of y* weighty worke of 
governmet, and the vnavoidable necessity that is vpon 
me for the attending all fitt meanes for health, & having 
reall intentions of a voyage into England (if God please 
to inable me thervnto), I doe earnestly request that this 
honored Court would please to give me liberty to resigne 
the governmet ; and that no detriment may be in any 
kind to the colony through my infirmityes or absence, 
I doe heerby, w th the leave & good acceptance of this 
honored Generall Assembly, freely, willingly, & volunta- 
rily resigne vp the place & office of Governor, to this 
honored Generall Court, y* they may be fully capacitated 
(when they please) to chuse an other Governor for the 
suply of y fc place & managemet of the publike businesse 
of the colony, w ch and how acceptable it would be to my 
selfe is herby declared vnder the hand & seale of 
Your most huble faithful servat, 

John Winthrop. 

May 20, 1676. 


To the Honored the Deputy Govern r and Assistants of his Ma ties Colony of 


Having formerly declared my intentions of a voyage 
into England, & the necessity of attending meanes of 
my health, & being now resolved (if God please to in- 
able for it) to take the best oportunity & the soonest I 
can for that voyage, and there being a necessity of no 
small tyme of vacacy fro all publick businesse for sutable 
preparations for such a voyage, & attending such meanes 
of health as I find now greatly necessary w th out delay : 
and in these respects, & in respect of my present in- 
firmities, am vnable to attend the publick affaires of the 
colony. That no detriment may be to the colony through 


my absence or infirmities, I thought it necessary to renew 
the resignation of the govermet, & doe hereby againe 
freely and voluntarily resigne the place & office of Gov- 
ern*, according to that w ch I declared publickly on the 
day of the last election of magistrates, and according to 
the former writing of resignation presented to the hon- 
ored Generall Assembly in May last ; and this my volun- 
tary resignation, as aforesaid, is here declared vnder my 
hand & seale this 24 of Jun : 1675. 

John Winthrop. 



Hartford, July 9, 1675. 

Son, — I received yours fro Norw ch by Job Drake, & 
was very glad to heare by him of your welfare, & safe 
arrivall there w th all the copany, & to vnclerstand by your 
letter that your brother is getting vp againe. I am glad 
to heare there is so good issurance of fidelity fro Vncus, 
& the Pequots also, as we heare by other reports. Its 
good to cherish, & keepe them confirmed in y fc way by 
all fitt meanes. That w ch hath beene reported, as you men- 
tion y* Quabage was burnt, is vtterly falce : they have had 
no trouble there. Severall have passed that way to and 
againe, & are dayly passing. Capt : Lewis, Ens : Sterte 
and M r Wadsworth of Farm ton and others came last weeke 
and severall of Wethersfield and Good ma Catlin and his 
wife and divers others came this weeke, and Ed: Messin- 
ger is gone this weeke alone w th cattle, & yesterday Jon- 
atha Bull went hence towards Boston ; the Indias vp the 
river (as those have to vs) have assured Maior Pynchen 
of their fidelity to the English. Capt : Sprage is arrived 
fro London at Boston the later end of last weeke. I have 
received a letter fro your brother Palmes fro London 
dated the 7 th of May, and your sister had another of the 

1675.] JOHN WIOTHROP, JR. 171 

same date ; in both he only certifies y* he was just then 
come to London fro Southapt, where he arrived after 8 
weekes passage fro Barbados, had beene very ill of a great 
cold, and had had some fitt of his old distemp, but was 
then better of both, and intended a journey into the coun- 
try, and then to hasten his returne to N: England, &c. 
There is a report heere (but whether vpon any certainty 
is doubted) y fc Nenecret hath sent word to your selfe 
or some there y* divers of Philips me are fled to him or 
come to him, and y e he would doe as the English shall de- 
sire concerning them. I thinke it would not be good to 
have them sent back to Philip, nor to have them put 
vnder despaire, but to have them in hopes of good quarter 
if delivered to vs, &c. ; but being only a report, I ca write 
nothing positively. This being intended by way of Say- 
brook and not directly, I shall add no more by [but ?] the 
remebrace of my love and your sisters and both your 
brothers and all friends, and rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

Eemeber me to Leift. Omsted, and let him know that 
his wife and all freinds are well. M r Richards youngest 
son John was buried on Wednesday eving. He died the 
day before something suddenly. 


Hartford, July 12, 1675. 

Son, — I missed oportunity for the inclosed vntill now 
vpon the receiving of yours yesternight fro M r Smith. A 
deputy fro the Generall Court whiles I am writing to be 
ready for the post shewed me what they are writing to 
yourselfe, for advising your returne to Stonington w th those 
soldiers, and I thinke it may be of more consequence to 
the holding and securing the Naragansets in amity, espe- 


cially Nenecraft and his, & the English there vpon the 
frotiers are also therby the better strengthened and the 
totall helpe of the Pequotts at hand, & of the Moheges 
also if need be, & easier supply for provisions, &c. What 
my sence is about the matter of hostages and other matters 
in reference to the Naragansetts you will see by the in- 
closed to the comanders of the army, w ch if you see nothing 
considerable ag* it seale it, and let it be speeded to them, 
but may keepe a copy to shew M r Smith and M r Willias, 
if you see cause, &c. This exceeding hot weather makes 
me faint and hot, and were it not the consideration of the 
weather should doubt of hectick heats w th night sweats. 
Your sisters are well (God be praised), but much concerned 
at your motion to Naraganset, & desirous of your re- 
turne. To have an open breach w th Naraganset may be 
of worse cosequece then they are aware. Its best to keepe 
& promote peace w th them, though w~ th bearing some of 
their ill maners and conniving at some irregularities. I 
am hasted and not willing to delay the post, and shall 
only add the remebrance of my love and your sisters and 
to M r Smith and M rs Smith, M r Bull and Capt. Hutchenson, 
Leift. Omsted and all freinds as occasion, and rest 

Your loving father, J. Winthrop. 

Let Leift: know y* M rs Omsted and all his are well, 
and all at Capt. Bulls, and generally all the neighbor- 
hood, &c. 


Worthy Gentleme, — Vnderstanding y fc you are lately 
come neere to the borders of y e Naragansetts, & some of 
your forces already in the bowells of y t country, & are 
demanding of y t people hostages for their fidelity, I 
thought fitt to present a few considerations to your seri- 

1675.] JOHN" WINTHROP, JR. 173 

ous thoughts, viz. : That the Nahigansetts have hitherto 
continued in amity w th the English, and were voluntarily 
very helpfull to them in those warrs w th the Pequotts 
(w ch I can demonstrate to great satisfaction, though possi- 
bly not knowne to many of your selves, w ch may signify 
a propensity to good correspondence w th vs) ; that they 
are the greatest body of all the heathen neere vs ; that 
it were very good & necessary to have that freindship 
continued, & w th as much assurace thereof as may be at- 
teined in a fitt way; that if hostages may be had w tb 
their content that may probably be well (though never 
heard of such a thing required of newtralls) ; but if y fc be 
difficult w th them, & possibly not atteinable in any plausi- 
ble way, or not at all, they being a people not so ac- 
quainted w th such waies, nor the vsages of civill nations, 
nor probably can ingage fitt persons for such pledges, 
then please to cosider whether it be not far better to take 
vp w th such ingagements of amity as can be attained freely 
& willingly, then that the potetest of all our neighboring 
heathen should be made open, professed enemies because 
we may have suspicion of them or canot be so cofident or 
certaine of their continued fidelity : nor is y e tie by hos- 
tages to be depended vpon as so absolute ; it hath often 
failed among civill nations. Nor doth it appeare of much 
consequence to be too strict in inquiry about psons fled 
to them fro Philip, whether old men or soldiers, much 
lesse women & children (if fled its better then w th Philip) 
(vna salus victis nullam sperare salutem) : possibly there 
canot but be relations, & y* will make a difficulty, and 
afterward capitulations may be more vsefull & sutable then 
in this tyme of so great hurry. I beleive there is diffi- 
culty ynough w th that one enemy, & why to stir vp an 
other before an issue w th y e first. I would also recomed 
to advice whether some way of coposure may not yet be 
found out at least w th some part of them, & whether some 
of y e Nahigasets may not be instrumetall, w th the helpe 


of M r Smith & M r Williams. I desire the Lord to direct 
in these great & weighty affaires of such concerne to all 
the colonies, recomeded w th most cordiall & affectionate 
respects from 

Your affectionate freind & servant, 

Hartford, July 12, 1675. JOHN WlNTHROP. 

To the Honored Maior Savage, Capt : Hutch- 
enson, Capt : Mosely, Capt : Prentice, & 
the other officers of the arm}*, at or neere 
Nahiganset, to all or eyther of them. 


Copy to Maior Rob* Treat. 

Boston, Dec. 18, 1675. 

Honored S r , — I received yours of the 9 instant, & 
presently comunicated it to the honored Goven r & coun- 
cell, and the comissioners heere. Therin is certified your 
arrivall the day before at N. Londo w fch 300 soldiers, in 
copliance to the order and act of the commissioners of 
the Vnited Colonies. There were proportionable nubers 
of soldiers raised in this colony, & in Plimouth colony 
also, & Gover 1 " Winslow was appointed generall & coinader 
in cheife over all ; and marched w th those fro hence, the 
middle of last weeke, meeting those also fro Plimouth 
at Rehoboth, & thence marched presently towards the 
Naragaset country, & we vnderstand they are now at M r 
Smithes, waiting for your advance w th your soldiers to be 
in connectio w th them as soone as may be. I had also w th 
your letter intimation fro the generall of his pvsall of 
your sd letter, w ch came to his hands very oportunely in 
the way towards Naragaset, wherby having y t acceptable 

* Major Treat was the commander of the forces raised by Connecticut to serve in 
Philip's war. — Eds. 

1675-6.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 175 

intelligence of your arrivall at N : London w th those sol- 
diers, he presently dispatched post to N : London to pro- 
cure your advance : and I canot doubt of your ready 
copliance w th such orders as you have received fro him, 
he being constituted cheif comander & generall of the 
vnited army of all the colonies, as by the writings ap- 
peared, in those pacquets to Hartford, of w ch you re- 
ceived & opened one, as metioned in your letter. And 
as vpon those letters & writings to y e councill there they 
so speedily hasted your selfe & soldiers to y* rendesvous, 
so it is expected y* your attendance of the generalls 
orders for further motion wilbe as ready & effectuall for 
com actio against the como enemy. I desire the Lord of 
Hoasts to guide & direct all counsels & actions in this 
tyme of so much trouble & difficulty for the glory of his 
great name, the good & safety of his people in this wil- 
dernesse, w th victory over the barbarous enemies. And 
w th my affectionate respects to your selfe & all your co- 
pany I remaine Your affectionate friend, 

[Not signed.'] 
Supscribed : 

To the Honored Maior Robert Treat at 
N : London. 


Boston, 12. 12. 1675. [Feb. 12, 1675-6.] 

M R Stanton, — Amongst the many thoughts of heart 
referring to the publique safety, by issueing of this ca- 
lamitous warr, some do propound the improveing of Nini- 
craft, Mohegen, & Pequott Indians, either to a treaty of 
peace, or otherwise to endeavour to subdue y e enemy 
upon such encou'agem* as may be meet, and know no 
better person whome they may repose trust in for y e at- 
tempting such an essay then your selfe, of whose wise- 
dome & prudence they have had good exprience. This 
is therefore to signifie y* matter to you, as also to desire 

176 THE WINTnROP TAPERS. [1675-6. 

y t in case you judge that the thing is likely to succeed, 
to treat with y e above s d Indians conc r neing the same, & 
when you understand their app r hensions conc r neing it, w 4 
they are willing to doe, & y e termes they ppound, that 
you speedily signifie y e same to mee, but in all the trans- 
actio hereof, you must wholly conceale y is motion to you, 
but let y e Indians pposall come as at y r desire. Doubt- 
less they canot but judge y t y e lengthning out of the warr 
will be bitternes to y e Indians as well as y e English in y e 
latter end ; and it is surely a considerable opportunity 
y t both Ninegret & y e Mohegens now have to provide for 
y r owne futur settlem* & peace, & whether it be by a treaty 
of peace or force they do issue y e warr, the advantage 
will be very great to y m . S r , the above written was 
brought to me this evening from the gentlemen heere 
mett, before they parted, to be directed to your selfe, if I 
approved of it, w ch I doe recomend to your wise and care- 
full management according to the tenour thereof: and as 
you have beene greatly instrumentall to keepe Nenecrat 
fro engaging ag* y e English, so I doubt not but you will 
prudently endeavour to continue in fidelity to them, by 
representing to him the good fruit he hath and will have 
in it, and by acquainting him how acceptable his peace- 
able deportment is to them and of great benefit to them- 
selves. I desire the Lord to guide & succeed your good 
indeavours, & remaine 

Your assured freind, J. Winthrop. 


For the Honored Willia Leete, Gov r of the Colony of Conecticnt, fy the 
Councill at Hartford. 

Boston, Feb: 29, 1675[-6]. 

Honored S r , — Those letters fro your selfe & councill 
to y e comis^ioners of y e 16, & the other to my selfe of 

1675-6.] JOHN WINTHROP, JR. 177 

the 18 instant, were received the 23 by the re turn e of 
those two messingers sent hence the weeke before. In a 
letter then also from Stonington was a report that about 
two hundred Indians had sent to Vncus, signifying they 
were willing to come ihe, if might have assurance of their 
lives, w ch , if certaine, might it not be good y* Vncus be 
directed therein to draw of fro the enemy all y* will come 
ine & live quietly, & why Nenecrat also might not be 
allowed the like. Its probable he might bring off more 
then the other : many of y e comon people may have beene 
vnwillingly involved. It seemes to be an expedient to- 
wards peace ; such motions, though but fro a part of 
them, may be advantagious, & if the oportunity thereof 
not neglected may tend to more generall effects, & may 
produce some treaty, y fc may appeare to be originally fro 
themselves. When a party of them are reduced, they may 
by them be induced quickly to their termes. It may 
be also a sutable occasion for M r Stanton in reference to 
that w ch was motioned to him by y t letter whereof you 
had w th my former a copy. His helpe canot but be of sin- 
gular vse in these matters, especially as to what may be 
done by Nenecrat, Comma & the Pequots, & therin he 
must be capacitated & impowred fro your selves, though 
his acting be as fro himselfe. The Lord be pleased to 
direct in these weighty concernes, y* his people may be 
yet preserved fro the further outrages of y e heathen, who 
cotinue their mischevous machinations, as by the inclosed 
papers may appeare. These are intended w th the army 
now vpon their march towards Quebage, and w tb cordiall 
respect, &c, fro 

Your affectionate servat, 

J. Winthrop. 



" To his verie lovinge brother, Mr. John Winthrop, in Deblin 
in Ierlande — this." 

Most loying Brother, — My hartie love remembred 
unto you and to my ant. I have takinge occatione to 
write unto you to give you to understand that I aine in 
good helthe, as I hope you are — havinge not hearde of 
you of a longe time, untile my unckele came over ; & when 
I heard he wase com over I hoped I should haue sene you 
her, & if it sholde haue bene, I sholde haue bene verie 
glad, for I doeth make longe to see you, & I doe desier 
you that you wold not be offended that I haue not write 
unto you of a long time, for I do not doute but you know 
how it is w tb me that I haue dwelte with my cosin Bar- 
foot t this daie 5 monthes, and therefor my not riting unto 
you it is not for lacke of love, but of time ; & thus de- 
siringe to here of your welfare & that you [w]old take the 
paines to rite unto me sometimes that I mite here of your 
wellfare, & thus thankinge you for all your love which 

* Henry Winthrop, second son of the first Governor Winthrop, was baptized at Groton, 
Jan. 20, 1607-8, and was accordingly in his sixteenth year when the first of these letters 
was written. There is no record of his having received a collegiate education, and little 
is known of him until his emigration, in 1627, to Barbadoes, of which island he was one of 
the earliest planters. Returning to England in 1629, he married his consin Elizaheth, 
daughter of Thomas Fones, of London. An accident prevented him from sailing for New 
England in the same ship with his father, but he followed immediately after in the 
Talbot, and was unfortunately drowned, near Salem, July 2, 1630. For an account of 
his death, with the Governor's lament over his loss, see "Life and Letters of John 
Winthrop," II. 34, 35. He left an only child, Martha, who died young, and was buried 
at Ipswich. His widow married Robert Feake, of Watertown. — Eds. 

t See Life and Letters of John Winthrop, I. 194, note. — Eds. 


you haue showed unto me even from our bearthe, & 
thus committeing you to the protection of allmytie God, 
I rest, desiring you to pardon my brefe ritinge, for it was 
not for wante of paper, but of time. 

Your lovinge brother, 

Henry Winthrop. 

Ritene from London, the 4 of October, 1623. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Receyved Noveber 14: 1623." 


Most loyinge Unkell, — After my hartye commenda- 
tiones remembred to y r sellfe and to my Ante and Cuss- 
enes, thes are to let you vnderstand of my wellfare. When 
I parted w th you you did wishe me to keepe the see, and 
to learne experyence in maryneres affayres, in wich affayres 
I have implyed my studdye and industrye, by w ch studdye 
and industery I have attayned to much vnderstandinge and 
judgment in y fc bissnese, w ch knowlege I doe purpose, God 
willinge, to keepe by me, and not forgit, but this 3 yeres 
I do not purpose to macke much vse of; for I doe intend, 
God willing, to staye here on this iland caled the Bar- 
bathes, in the West Indyes, and here I and my servantes 
to joine in plantinge of tobaccoe ; w ch 3 yeres I hope 
wilbe very profitable to me, for my captine does offer 
me and otheres a 100 11 a yere apeece for o r labors, be- 
sides o r servantes sheres we are to have the benyfit of the, 
and I doe intend to have everye yere sume 2 or 3 ser- 
vantes over, and to have them bound to me for 3 yerres 
for so muche a yere, sume 5 lbs or 6 lbs a yere, and there 
allwayes to have a plantation of servantes : for the iland 
it is the plesantest iland in all the West Indyes, very 
stron[g] for any enemye interruptinge us, w th out any 


inhabytanse of any othe people of other natyones save 
Inglishe men, save a matter of 50 slaves, or Indyenes 
and blacks. We have a crop of tobacco on the ground, 
and I hope w the [Gods] blesinge the nex time I send for 
Ingland to send ouer 500 or a thousand weyght of to- 
bacco. I woold pray you, and if my father be not in 
towne, to paye Roberd Setone and Roberde Dixsone the 
^illegible'] the sume of 3 11 10 for sertane goodes y fc I reseyved 
of them in the Indyes. I pray bid them wellcom, for 
they are my very good frendes and I have bene much be- 
houlldinge to them. Time will not suffer me to wright of 
the cuntry now, but by my fathers letteres you shall 
understand of it. Thus hopeing y* you do remayne in 
helthe, you and youres, craving your prayers, I rest 

Yo r lovinge Cosene, 

Henry Winthrop. 

From the Barbathes, in the West Indyes, this 22 of August, 1627. 

Unkell, I pray pay unto Robert Dixson 12 more then 
the 3 1 ' 10 s . I pray pay it to themselves in person, or ellse 
deliver it all to Mr. Sandes, or Aliete who hou[l]ds my 
fatheres letteres. 


To the Wor 11 his Loving Father, John Winthrop, Esq 1 "., dd Jr . these. I pray 
leave this l re att M 1 Fones House at the Three Faunes in the old Bayly, 
in London, p a Frend, whome God preserve. Pay the Post. 

Most lovinge Father, — After my humble dutye re- 
membred to yo r sellfe and to my mother and grand 
mother, my loue to my brotheres and sisters, and to the 
rest of my [illegible] and frendes and acquentence, thes are 
to let you vnder stand y t I did wr[i]ght to you be [by] 
Captane Powell ; but least y fc you haue not reseyed my 
leter, I thought good to laye hould of an oppertunytye 

1627.] HENRY WINTHROP. 181 

profered to me by a Plimmythe shipe, tuchinge here to 
sertyfye you of my helthe and wellfare, so fare as time 
will giue me leue. I blesse God y* I was at see aboue 
3 mounthes, and had not one houres sickenes, nor 
science the time I was landed to this presente houre. I 
am here on this Hand of the Weest Indyes colled the 
Barbathes, setled for a plantatyon for to-backow, one w ch 
Hand here is but 3 score christyanes and fortye slaues 
of negeres and Indyenes, and here I doe purpoes, and if 
it please God, to stay 3 yeres : for the disscriptyon of 
the Hand I will leav it till you doe reseaue my letter by 
thes Captaine Poowell, in w ch letteres I haue wright to 
yow abought much bysynesse, for the sendinge of me 
sume men ouer, and clothes and othere thinges, and in the 
meane t[i]me afore you doe reseave these letteres,* and 
yf you here of a ship y* toucheyes here then y t you 
woolld send me ouer sum 2 or 3 men y* they be bound to 
searve me in the West Indyes some 3 yere or 5, w ch you 
doe thincke good to binde them for, and get them as 
resonable as you can, promy singe them not aboue 10 
p d a yere, and a chest of conveniensie for clothese and 
sum linynge clothes for my sellefe for shurte and stok- 
inges for them, and 30 peyre of stronge 3 solle shoos 
w th [illegible] and wex and thered, and 5 thousand of sparow 
billes, a dosen of kniues, and a rundlyet of cheese, bute 
of 10 galyenes, and sume other thinge y fc you doe 
thincke I haue nede of, and send me, and those thinges 
allso, w th all sped you can, I wright for by my letteres 
by Captane Powell, and w th in this hallfe yeere I hope to 
send you 500 or a thousand wayght of tobackow. Thus 
craving y r prayers I rest — in haste 

Y r obedyente Sonne, 

Henry Winthrope. 

From the Barbathes, this 15 of October [1627]. 

* The answer of the elder Winthrop to this letter is in the " Life and Letters of John 
Winthrop," I. 285-287. — Eds. 

182 THE WIXTHROP PAPERS. [1629-30. 


To the Wor 11 my very loving father John Winthrop Esq e dd. at M r Down- 
ings house in Peterborough Court over ag l the Conduit in Fleet Street, 

S R , — I and my wife rememberes o r humble duties to 
you. I thought good to wright to you to putt you in 
remembrance of providinge sume hallfe a 100 or a 100 
of dealle bordes for y r viage, w ch I thincke will be very 
vsefull both for the saeguard of y r goodes, and for other 
present nessessary occationes at y r cominge a shore. The 
saeguard of y r goodes will countervaille the charge. You 
may by them for 5 11 the 100, but they will be sume what 
more chargeable for the frayght of them then other 
goodes wilbe. Before y* you do by them, I thincke it 
ware good to speake w th the master of the shipp, both for 
the stowinge of them and the charge of the fraught ; and 
I thincke it ware good to by a furkine of buird lyme for 
the takinge of fowle, w ch you may bye for a small matter. 
I have provided those thinges y fc you left order w th me for, 
saue the wheate meale, w ch my mother could not spare ; for 
otemealle [torn] butter we must haue 4 firkins [torn] hog- 
sed ; for to cary it in firkins is far the worst way, for I 
have sceine the experyence of it, y* that one pound of 
hogsed butter is worth 2 of firkin butter when it comes 
ashore ; for the heat of the hould doth desoullfe it to oyle 
in furkines, and so it will not kepe, when as the other 
will cut firme, and if you do by any at London y* I am 
sartine wilbe the best way to put it up. My brother John 
did tell me y fc you had soulld the lande. My wife and I 
thanke you for it and are very gladd of it, for by this 
meanes I hope I shall wayght of you in y r viage to New 
England, and by Gods assistance thare to make pro- 
vision before my wifes cominge over. She is very willinge 
to have me go before hur. Therefore, S r , maye it please 

1629-30.] HENRY WINTHROP. 183 

you whilst that you are in London to take order for some 
cattell for us [as] many as you thinke fittinge for us to 
ca[rry] [torn] provisions as you shall [torn] thanckfull to 
you. Here is no nuse ; [torn] blessed be God, continue in 
health as you left us. Hoping that you doe the same, 
w th my prayers unto God for the preservation thereof, 
craving your blessing, I rest 

Y r obedyent sonne 

Henry Winthrop. 

Groton, this 18 of January, 1629[-30]. 

Pray remember mine and [my] wifes duties to my 
Uncle Downinge and ant, and o r loues to o r cosenes an[d] 
M r Dudly ; my sister Mary and my brother John, and the 
rest of my b[roth]ers rememberes their duties to you. 



To his very loving brother, Mr. John Winthropp, at Dublin in Ireland. 
God be Imanuell with us & Jesus, f 

Loving Brother, — I received youer letters the 19 
daie of Agust ; by which I doe understand youer singular 
love to mewarde, & that althou the distans of place hath 
severed us one from another, yet I trust that neither sea 
nor land can braek of na diminish our tru love and affec- 
tio one towardes each other w ch hath ever bene ; & I trust 
that the sune shall cease his corse before our love shall 
be abolished. And, as we doe thus love one an other, 
how unfainiedly shold we love God for his Sonne Jesus 
Christe ; he loved us when we weare enimies, not breath- 
ren.. How, how (I saie) shold we love him. Let us 
take heede that we lose not our first love, as Laodicea 
did ; or begin well w th the Galatians but shold not goe 
on well, but shold have cause for to feare w th the Apostell 
least we are turned from God : and I hope mountaines or 
hills shold soner be cast into the sea than that we shold 
lose our first love. Let us folio the thing w ch Solomon 
sayth in his booke : Remember thy Creater in the daies 
of thy youth, before the evil daies come. Let us do as 
Esaie the promt sayth : Wash you, mak you cleane. 

* Forth Winthrop, third son of the first Governor Winthrop by his first wife, Mary 
Forth, was born Doe. 30, 1609. He was graduated at Cambridge University, and died at 
Groton in November, 1(530. Some of these letters, of winch the first four were written 
before he was fourteen years old, are in the " Life and Letters of John Winthrop." — Eds. 

t It was a common practice, in the olden time, to write these sacred words as a caption 
to a letter, running them along the top of the successive pages. — Eds. 

1622 or 1623.] FORTH WINTHROP. 185 

Turne you from your evill waies ; &, thow your sines 
weare as crimsin, yet will I mak them as snow. If we 
belong to God, God sayth to us, The keeper of Israel 
nether slumbereth or sleepeth ; yet God will have his 
to suffer afflictions even as the church is alowed, for to 
mak us fitt. But I shall forget to wright to you of the 
things w ch I have to wright; for as concerning your 
wrighting to me about my going to Bury, I am not yet 
gone thither, but I purpose by God's grace for to goe 
about next Ester ; it may be soner or later. Abraham 
Caly is not as yet gone to Cambridg ; but he was ad- 
mitted at Ester. He is of S* Johns Colledge, & he pur- 
pos to goe the next spring. All our friends here about 
are in good helth. Thus desiring you for to writ to me 
of your welfare & of your frends, I rest 

Your brother in all love to command, 

Groton, this 2 of Sept., 1622. 

Charles Neuton is not yet gone to Cambridg, nether is 
admitted, but he hopes of great matters; but I think 
they will prove but vaine. Next Ester he hopes to get 
a place, which I hope may prove good for him. In the 
end he shall be a good scholar. 


To his verry lovinge Brother, M r John Winthropp, at Dublin in Ireland, 

at the College. 

[1622 or 1623.] 

Loving Brother, — You wroght to me for to send you 
word of my going to Bury, & I sent you word as far as I 
knew about Ester time ; but, having knowledge of my 
father, I now wright to you about that matter, for he 
tould mee about Michaelmas or soone after. The raeson 
I know not, but, as you know, nimquam sera est ad bonos 



mores via; so, althou it weare long before I goe, yet at 
leanth seein I goe it is sum comfort unto mee. And as 
you wroght to mee ons (which I thank you for) for to 
comfort mee & incorage mee to goe on in the corse of 
learning ; & shewed me the reason of it, nam sine doctrina 
vita est quasi mortis imago : w ch is a most true sainge ; for 
many men which in their youth have neclected learning 
& goodnes, in ther age, when as it should doe them any, 
na most, good & steed, then they crie out of all, ther 
parents, themselves, & all, & wish that they had never 
seene the sunne. Is not this a woofull cause & worthy to 
be taken heed of? I pray you to send me word, so soone 
as you have a good occasion, of the welfare of your & our 
frends. Thus having at this time no more to writ, re- 
membring our love to you, I rest 

Your loving brother, 


My uncle Fones is about removing, but he is not as 
yet settled there. He hath gotten him a place at Ips- 
wich, a house wher M r Ward dwelt in. I pray you 
remember me to my uncle & ante Downing ; also, to 
Richard his man. Finis. 


To his most hvinge Brother, M r John Winthroppe, at Trinitie Coll: 
neere Dublin, give thes. Ireland. 

Most lovinge Brother, — I received youer letters 
the 16 of Aprill, whereby I perceived your great love & 
respect towards me, which alwaise hath binne. I thank 
you for your good admonitions which you in your letters 
sent me for to alwaise goe on as I haue begunne ; know- 
inge that althow the waye to lerninge seeme verry hard & 
difficult, yet the frute & end is sweet & pleasant. I hope 

1623.] FORTH WINTHROP. 187 

altliow the distans of place hath set us one from another, 
yet nether sea nor land, nor anythinge else, can part our 
affections one from the other. I had an intention to 
have written to you by one of Bury that went over, but 
he went over so speedilie as I cold nott have time to 
wright ; but, having so fitt an opportunitie, I will wright. 
I wold I cold find matter wherin I might expresse my 
mind to you ; for sich are our sinnes to God as they 
dailie cry for vengans uppon us, & so littell love or chari- 
tie one to another in these daies as it is Gods mercy that 
we are nott consumed. But to retturne to the purpose : 
you wrote to me to send you word of what forme I am 
of, & how I like. I am of Tho : Chalmans ; for when as 
I came first M r Ward did putt mee to my choise whether 
I would be of Germin Wrights or the other; now Germins 
classe was so forward in Greke gramer as I cold verry 
hardly have overtaken them, so I wold be of the lower 
forme ; we came up into the hie ende last Christide. As 
for my likinge of it, who cold mislike of sich a place, 
havinge sich kind usage att schole ? & I giue most hartie 
thanks to Almightie God for that he hath disposed it so 
for my good & benefight. As for our borders, Tho : 
Wright k his brother are gone to Cambridge ; they went 
a fortnight before Ester. None else but Abraham Caly, 
of whom before I wrote to you. All our frends are in 
good health ; onely, our grandmother is nott very well. 
Our grandfather is departed out of this miserable life to 
a perpetual rest. When as I came last from my master, 
M r Dickerson, he was in good health & sent commenda- 
tions to you. So did M r Ward. M r Dickerson is married 
last Ester ; his wife is bigge w th child, reddy to be de- 
livered, if nott she bee already. William Harbone is 
gone to Cambridge ; he went that daie that Tho : Wright 
went. William Hall went to Cam : 2 monthes before ; & 
Edmund Maier went to bee admitted then too, but he 
cold not. William Smith went to Cambridge this Easter. 


The 2 Classe, as I suppose, shall be turned to the hye 
one. Charles Neuton is gone to Cambridge very latly ; 
but of what col : he is I cannott learne. Henery Bridon 
sendeth salutations to you. I am in good health, I praise 
God for it ; so are all our frends, so far as I can learne. 
Our new brother Deane is well, praised be God for itt. 
Thus, havinge nott more time, I committ you to the al- 
mightie Jesus. 

Your loving brother, Forth Winthroppe. 

Groton, April 17, 1623. 

As for the printed booke of quarters which you wroght 
word of, I cannott reddilie find it, nor how surely send it. 
But my father will find it, & send it to you by my uncle 
Gostling, who will come shortly. 

Remember me to my uncle & ante Downinge, & to 


To my verie lovinge Brother, M r John Winthroppe, at Trinitie College, 
neere Dublin, give thes. Ireland. 

Most lovinge Brother, — The longe absens of my 
wrighting to you may make you ether thinke the bond 
of brotherlie love is broken in me, or else that ungrate- 
fulnes, which to God is most detestable, hath possessed 
my mind, or rather that sum impediment of sicknesse or 
any other diseases, by Gods just judgment for my sines & 
offences, hath befalen upon me. But thankes be to the 
Almightie that, thow my sines hath caled for great pun- 
ishment, yet through his great goodnes he hath removed 
them from me. I could not therfore at this time, hav- 
inge so fitt an opportunitie & so honest a messenger, but 
take the occasion, not knowinge when I shal have sich a 
fitt opportunitie ; for, as the poet saith, — 

Fronte capillata, post est occasio calva. 

1627.] FORTH WINTHROP. 189 

So, if I should neclect this occasion, perhaps I might sel- 
dome or never enioy the like. I tharfore in hast wright 
to you, desiringe you that you will not be greved be- 
cause I have omitted & lett passe the time so longe, 
because I have nott had a fitt & good one to send bye. 
I wright now, tharfore, desiringe that you w T ould send me 
word of the wellfare of your selfe and of my ante w th you ; 
for w th us there is a verye great desease, & at Cambridge 
many of the scholers are sicke of another sicknes ; there- 
fore I the rather wright unto you to know whether it be 
so w th you also. Thus, I remembring my love hartilie to 
my ant & also to your selfe in hast, I rest. My host & 
my hostesse remember their love to you & also Abraham 
Calie, for he came from Cambridge a little while before. 
M r Gurdon the elder is departed verie latlie out of this 

Youer loving brother, Forthe Winthroppe. 

I praie, brother, send me word whether you received 
the letters which I sent you sins Whitsuntide or noe. 
Lastlie, I praie wright to me as speedilie as you can. 

Burie S NT Edmonds, August 26, 1623. 


Most lovinge Father, — I received your letters by 
S r Neuton, & doe thanke you for yo r good counsell & for 
yo r kinde token. I delivered your token to my chamber- 
fellow, whoe w th thanks retournes his servis. I had sent 
to you a fortnight agoe, but that, my tutor beinge at 
London, I hoped he had spoken w th you consearninge o r 
quarttridge. I spoke w th him about it, who saieth he sent 
you a bill of both o r expenses. He tould me y* we weare 
behinde w th him 3 lb 13 s , & now an other month is come 
in since, which maketh it up 4 lb . If you will send us 


money for him, you may safely deliver it to Hobson, the 
Cambridge carrier, by whom 1 send up now, markinge 
the letter for a mony letter. 

My tutor remembreth his love to you, whoe said he had 
thought to have come to Groton this Whitsontide, but 
his inexpected journey to London staid the other. My 
mother & grandmother are in helth, fro whome 1 heard 
lately. S r Harcoote senior (for the iunior is in the coun- 
try) thanketh you for yo r kind remembrance of him, & 
remembreth his service to you. Thus w th my duty re- 
membred to you, & my love to all my friends in generall, 
allwaies desiringe yo r blessings & praiers for a blessinge 
on my studies, I humbly leave you & yo r affaires to the 
blessinge of the Allmighty, & rest 

Yo r obedient sonne, Forth Wlnthrop. 

From Cambridge, May 1, 1627. 

I would intreat you to send me downe some stuffe by 
the carrier for a sute, for I have great neede of one. 


[1627 ?] 

Most lovinge Father, — Havinge such an occasion 
as the cominge downe of Tho : Archisden, my chamber- 
fellow, & S r Caly, I thought good, though in some hast, 
to wright to you by reason of the sooddan iourney of 
these 2. I hope you are all in health, as I am here, 
blessed be God Allmighty, whom I humbly beseech to 
assist me most graciously by his Holy Spirrit to run the i 
waies of godlyness & to shun the venomous & contagious 
vices of these outragious times, wherein I once was in- 
tangled, but hope by the good Spiritt of God to fly them 
more & more ; although by my selfe I am utterly unable, 
yet I will not cease to put up my humble petitions & 
praiers to Him y fc is the Keeper of Israel, & doe likewise 

1627?] FORTH WINTHROP. 191 

desire yo r praiers for the same. My tutor sent downe a 
letter to you, a while since, by one Devurux, who re- 
ceived it of Tho : Arkisden, I not knowinge of it. Now, 
since this Devurux sent a note to Tho : Archisden that 
he had forgot the letter, & his owne letter (for belike he 
sent one to you), I would desire you to send word 
whether you have received them or noe ; for that Devu- 
rux, as I heare say, doeth use to take in hand the cariage 
of letters, & opens them & not delivereth them. I sup- 
pose you have heard of the news of o r colledge businesse 
about the alteringe of a statute of the library ; also, y* the 
duke is about to make for the university. If not, these 
2, S r Caly & Tho : Ark : can certify you of them. 

Thus w th my humble duty remembred to yo r selfe & my 
mother, & love to the rest of my friends, allwaies desire- 
ing yo r praiers & blessings, in haste I rest 

Yo r dutifull & obedient sonne, F. Winthrop. 

I would desire you to send me the shoes for w ch I wrote 
you. I have need of some clothes, for these are worne 
out : wherefore I would entreat you, sometime when you 
shall see fitt, to send me up some stuffe for to make me 
clothes, or otherwise as you shall see most convenient. 


To his lovinge Brother, MC John Winthrop, at his fathers house in 
Groton, dl r . in Suffolk. [1627 ?] 

Quamprimum (frater charissime) velis remisq. e patria 
properabas, undiquaq. formidavi, ne Telemacho salvo 
nunquam visendus Ulysses : quamprimum autem ilia ista 
fortunse infortunia (ingrata novitas) accidere audivi, in- 
genti laboravi timore, ne quoniam Omne capax movit urna 
nomen, te quasi immaturum pomum infausta manu ceci- 

* This must have been written on the safe return of John Winthrop, Jr., from the 
unfortunate expedition of the Duke of Buckingham. — Eds. 


disse. Quamprimum vero te vela vertisse in meliora, et 
in patriam iterum rediisse audivi, risum (ut aiunt) Syra- 
eusium immittere valuissem ; imo tantopere gavisus sum 
at verbis non potui gaudium nee exprimere, nee recitare ; 
imo tanto sum impletus gaudio, ut lineam non possum 
producere ampliorem. Gaudeo te bene valentem audire, 
quod in hesterno die ad aures perveniebat meas ? et huius 
mei gaudii hanc brevem epistolam mitto ut testimonium. 
Vale. Tuus ut suus, Fortheus Winthropus. 

As soon, dearest brother, as you were hurrying away from 
your country with all possible speed, I was beset with fears lest 
Telemachus, though safe himself, should never again behold 
Ulysses ; but no sooner had I learned what misfortunes had 
occurred (unwelcome tidings), than I labored under an appre- 
hension lest, as every name is shaken in the capacious urn (of 
fate), you might have fallen, like unripe fruit, by some adverse 
hand. But when I heard that you had turned your sails on 
a better course, and had again returned to your native land, 
I could have given what they call a Syracusan laugh. Indeed I 
rejoiced so greatly that I could not tell my joy, nor express it in 
words. Truly I am so filled with delight that I cannot write 
another line. I rejoice to hear that you are well, which came to 
my ears yesterday, and I send this brief letter as a testimony 
of my joy. Farewell. Thine as his own, Forth Winthrop. 


To his very loving e Brother, M? John Winthrop, at J/'* Fones, at if Sine 
of if three Fawies, in f old Bailiffe, give theise, London. 

Felicem Superi tibi concessere salutem, 
Et talem posthac det Deus ipse tibi. 

Fratres nos sumus (frater aman:), et tamen quod 
mirum videatur, diversis matribus, diversa terra educti, 

* This was probably written when John Winthrop, Jr., was proceeding on his Oriental 
tour. Both these Latin letters were written from Cambridge, where Forth was a student 
at Emmanuel College. — Eds. 

1628?] FORTH WINTHROP. 193 

educati, atq. exinde forte fortuna evenit nos ex diversa 
disciplina diversos mores, diversum inquam vitse genus 
imbibere, et retinere. Ego enim Cant. Almae Matris 
alumnus, si forte ejus nomen mereor, tanto amore, tanta 
cupiditate, et tarn ingenti affectione, divina eius tecta et 
asdificia, sacrosancta Musarum praecepta, et illustres doc- 
trinae fontes prosequor et admiror, ut ibi inter divinas 
philosophoru sedes, naturae secreta, natura in tacito quae 
tenet ipsa sinu, scrutari et effodere, philosopbiae Laby- 
rintha enucleare, et obscuras saerarum literarum fontes, 
ut astrologus stellarum motus, ut agricola terra rum 
herbas, ut (Edipus aenigmatum nodos, ut infans matris 
mammillas, (nee inde mirares me post omnes istos in- 
fantem ponere : omnes enim cum ad scientiam theologiae 
perveniunt, licet non solum <£i\ocro</>oi, verum etiam 
vere cto^ol in caeteris omnibus, habeantur, infantes sunt, 
tyrones, et insipientes, atq. cum omnia fecerunt hoc 
tantum sciunt, se nihil scire), imbibere decrevi, et, inceptis 
meis studiisq. Deo favente, adipisci. Ubi tamen longius 
peregrinationis iter, quam tu, suscipio, inter libros tamen 
est, ubi brevi temporis spatio ad Constantinopolum, imo 
ad Indos, sicco pede liceat mihi navigare, nee per insulas 
redire infortunatas, nisi irato genio polus ingenii mei arc- 
ticus nebulis absconderetur, adeo ut navis meae inven- 
tionis contra scopulos barbari sillogysmi naufragium 
faceret ; ut Hispanus nescio quis, in non nulla historia, 
qui post longam peregrinationis explicationem, insolenti 
regnandi desiderio, contra imbellem Persian urn (?) bellum 
ferebat, et furioso verborum gladio caput ejus vulnerabat : 
nee mirum. Omnes enim Hispani tanto imperandi ferun- 
tur desiderio, ut null us to this terrarum orbis angulus 
suarum virium relictus est imperitus. 

Sed tamen amisso quaeramus seria ludo. Hie status, 
atq. haec est rerum fortuna mearum. Tu autem in aliena 
terra nutritus, relicta patria, incognitas gentes moresq. 
ignotos videndi, spectandi, cognoscendi laboras desiderio ; 


atque i pede fausto, tecum Deus inter maris scopulos sit 
dux, ad quem, tanquam ad asylum, et sacram vestrse 
salutis anchoram, confuge, ut confidas; confide ut salutem 
ab omnibus periculis vos omnes habeatis ; ad cuius 
benedictionem, conservationem, et providentiam pra3ter 
omnem fa3licitatem mitto et committo, idq. propter Iesum 
Christum servatorem nostrum, qui est Via, Vita, et 
Veritas omnibus sibi confugientibus. Vale, ut bene valeas 

Tuus usq. ad mortem, Forth Winthrop. 


We are brothers (beloved brother) ; and yet, what may seem 
strange, brought up and educated by different mothers * and on 
different soils, it happens that from our different discipline we 
have derived different habits, and pursue a different kind of 
life. I, indeed, an alumnus of Cambridge, my Alma Mater, — ■ 
if I may deserve that title, — cling to her hallowed halls and 
chapels, to her sacred precepts of the Muses, and to her illus- 
trious fountains of learning, with so much ardor and affection, 
and admire them all so greatly, that, there amid the divine 
abodes of philosophers, I have decided to search out and unravel 
the secrets which Nature still holds in her silent bosom, to 
penetrate the labyrinths of philosophy and the obscure sources 
of sacred letters, even as an astrologer observes the motions of 
the stars, as the husbandman the plants of the earth, as CEdipus 
his knotty enigmas, or as an infant clings to the mother's 
breast ; and with God's blessing on my efforts and studies to 
acquire what I seek. Nor wonder that I name the infant after 
all those other searchers for truth ; for all, indeed, when they 
come to the science of theology, though they may be esteemed 
as not only lovers of wisdom but even as already wise men in 
all other things, are but as infants, tyros, and simpletons, and, 
when they have done all, know only that they know nothing. 

* John Winthrop, Jr., went early to Ireland, and was educated at the University of 
Dublin. Forth was brought up in England, and was an alumnus of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge. This may have been his meaning when he speaks of different mothers and dif- 
ferent soils. They were both sons of Mary Forth, the first wife of Governor Winthrop. 
Forth, however, was but two years old when his own mother died, and he fell under the 
charge of another wife of his father. — EDS. 

1629.] FOETH WTNTHROP. 195 

When, however, I enter on a longer journey than you have 
undertaken, it is only among my books ; where in a little space 
of time I can sail to Constantinople, and even reach the Indies 
with a dry foot, not to return by any unfortunate islands, unless, 
by some angry fate, the north pole of my genius should be 
obscured by clouds, so that the ship of my invention should 
founder among the rocks of some barbarous syllogism ; even as 
I know not what Spaniard, in some book of history, who, after 
a long extent of wandering, with an insolent desire of a king- 
dom, made war upon a powerless Persian (?), and wounded his 
head with a furious weapon of words. No wonder; for all 
Spaniards are so carried away with a desire for dominion, that no 
corner of the world is left unacquainted with their strength. 

But, abandoning such trifling, let us turn to something seri- 
ous. Here I am fixed, and such is the fortune of my life. But 
you, nourished on a foreign soil, your country left behind, are 
laboring with the desire of seeing unknown lands, and of be- 
holding strange customs ; and so go on with a fortunate foot, 
and may God be your guide among the rocks of the ocean. 
To him fly as to an asylum and the sacred anchor of your safety. 
Trust in him that you and those with you may all be safe from 
every peril. To whose blessing, preservation, and providence, 
beyond all other felicity, I commit and commend you, for the 
sake of Jesus Christ our Saviour, who is the Way, the Life, and 
the Truth to all who make him their refuge. Farewell. Take 
care of your health. 

Thine until death, 



Most loyinge Father, — The consideration of that 
saying, Literce non erubescimt, hath moved me to cause you 
to understand that by letters w ch bashfullnesse would not 
suffer me to utter, but sealed up my mouth in silence. 
The heathen could say, Tu nihil invita dices faciesve My- 
nerva. I would be loath soe far to violate the lawes of 
nature, or infringe the praecepts of nurture & education, 


as to undertake any enterprize of moment w th out yo r 
leave, knowleclg, consent, & license. That therefore I 
may have yo r councell & direction, I desire that from me 
you may understand that I doe beare affection in such 
sort as God may approve, & w th yo r agreem* may in time 
blesse w th his holy ordinance of manage, to my cosen 
Ursula, my aunt Fones her daughter,* yet have I made 
noe mention of any such thing ; nor till I shall knowe 
yo r will, pleasure, & advice heerin, will I. To yo r wis- 
dome, therefore, doe I most humbtye submitte myselfe, & 
earnestly desiring yo r prayers that God may direct me 
for the best, I shall awaite the expectation of yo r coun- 
cell, instruction, & direction, what best you in yo r wis- 
dome shall see most fittinge for me to be done or lefte 
undone ; & soe committinge this to you & you to the 
protection of the All mighty, w th my most humble duty 
remembred to yo r selfe, my uncle & aunt Downing, w th 
my love to my cosens, I rest & remaine 
Yo r obedient sonne, 

Forth Winthrop. 

From Groton, Novemb: 17, 1629. 


Most loving Father, — S r , my uncle Gostling re- 
ceived a letter from Colechester to my brother John, &, 
thinkinge it had concerned some businesse about the 
carriage of yo r goods thither, brake it open ; wherein 
perceiving that there was declared the scearchers de- 
mande custome, & my Lord Chamberline his warrant, or 
else to search the goods (as you shall see expressed in 
that letter, w cb I have sent you enclosed in this); my 

* Ursula was daughter of the second wife of Thomas Fones by her first husband, 
Bezaleel Sherman, of Ipswich. She was step-sister to the wives of John Winthrop, Jr., 
and Henry Winthrop. For a touching letter from her after Forth 's death, see Life and 
Letters of John Winthrop. —Eds. 

1630.] FORTH WINTHROP. 197 

uncle Gostlinge desired me to write to you, to entreate 
you to send downe directions to us what you would have 
done in this businesse ; & if you have my Lord Chamber- 
line his warrant (if you shall see soe fitting) to send it 
downe, y* the scearchers may see it for there satisfaction. 
Thus hopinge of yo r wealfare, desiringe yo r prayers & 
blessinge, & beseeching Allmighty God to blesse & pros- 
per you in these yo r waighty affaires, entreatinge you if 
you can conveniently to send me downe an hatte, of w cb 
I stand in need, & to remember my service to my uncle 
and aunt Downing & my love to my brothers w th you. 
W th my most humble duty to yo r selfe remembred, I rest 
& remayne 

Yo r obedient sonne, Forth Winthrop. 

From Groton, Feb. 2, 1629. 

My aunt Fones desires to be remembred to you ; & 
my cosen Ursula, w th her duty remembred, beseecheth 
yo r praiers & blessinge. 


To his loving Brother, Mr. John Winthrop, at Groton, these. Suff. 


Most loving Brother, — The great desire I have to 
heare of all o r friends wealfare w th you, having never 
heard from you since I came downe, & the great love 
where w th I am bound to you for all yo r true brotherly 
kindnesses, makes me to neglect noe convenient occasion 
whereby I might understand the one & make in some 
poore measure apparent the other. We have certaine 
newes of my fathers safe arivall in N : E : the 13 of June, 
by a shippe that came to Bristoll from the plantation in 
New Plimmouth. We doe dayly expect more shippes. 
Thus being in some hast, desiring you to remember my 
duty to my mother, uncle & aunt Gostling, & uncle & 


aunt Downing, when you see them, my harty love to 
my sister Martha, sister Winthrop & sister Mary, cosen 
Jem, Tho. Arkisden, & all the rest of o r friends with you. 
Hoping shortly to heare from you, w th my best respects 
to yo r selfe, I rest 

Yo r ever loving brother, Forth Winthrop. 

My cosen Ursula is about wrighting to all her friends 
w th you. In the mean time she remembers her duty & 


Loving Sister, — You draw in the same-yoake w th us, 
you laboure under the same burthen, & are afflicted w th 
the same crosse. Be it therefore yo r wisdome (as I know 
it is) to let yo r demeanour soe clearly shine through this 
cloudy tempest, as o r distressed sister may read comfort 
in yo r eyes & consolation in yo r speeches. We are all 
well here (blessed be God), though very sorrowfull. My 
cozen Ursula remembers her affectionate love to you. I 
hope shortly to see you. In the meane time, w th my 
true love to you, I rest 

Yo r truly loving brother, Forth Winthrop. 

Exon, Septem. 25, 1630. 

Remember my love to my sister Mary, cozen Anne, 
the mayds, &c. Remember me to all at my uncle Gost- 
linirs, & to S r Arkisden. 

* This was written on hearing that his brother Henry had been drowned immediately 
after his arrival at Salem, in New England, and only two months before Forth's own 
death. — EDS. 



To my much honered mother, M r . s Winthrope, at Mr hoivse in Boston, 
these p r sent. New England. 

Deare Mother, — My humble duty rememberd vnto 
you, w th my harty love to my brothers. Havinge this 
ocation to wright by this first shipe, I thought it my 
duty to sende you word of my wealfeare, althowghe I 
shall not be longe behinde them. My vnckles & auntes 
are all very well. I have a letter for you, but shall not 
sende it now. Mony is very scarce here. You were will- 
ing that I should have had 100 1 for my owne vse, w ch I 
did reseve ; but I am forced to laie out againe to pay for 
somme thinges you sent for, w ch are bought, and will 
comme over with vs. I have browght yo r thinges from 

* Stephen Winthrop, fourth, son of the first Governor Winthrop, and oldest son of his 
third wife, Margaret Tyndall, was born at Groton, March 24, 1618-9. He came to New 
England with his father, in 1630, when a boy of twelve, and subsequently became Recorder 
of Boston and a representative. He made repeated visits to the mother-country, and 
about 1646 obtained a commission in the Parliamentary Army. His father's letters speak 
of him as in command of a troop of horse at Worcester, and as having done good service 
in Scotland. He rose rapidly to the rank of colonel, besides representing Bampff and 
Aberdeen in one of Cromwell's Parliaments, where he is recorded by Burton to have taken 
some part in debate. Roger Williams, writing to John Winthrop, Jr., in 1656, says: 
"Your brother Stephen succeeds Major-General Harrison." His health became impaired 
by military service, and he died in London in 1659, in his forty-second year, leaving a 
widow and several daughters. His will contains a conditional bequest of £100 to the poor 
of Boston. His wife was Judith Rainsborough, sister of Colonel Rainsborough of the Par- 
liamentary Army, and sister also of Mrs. Thomas Coytmore, the fourth wife of Governor 
Winthrop. At the date of the first of these letters he was evidently on a visit to his 
mother's family in England. " Chelmes House," to which he alludes, was a seat of the 
Tyndalls in Essex. — Eds. 

200 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1644-5. 

Chense howse, and put them in a chest. Yo r feather bed 
is left behinde. I know not y e reason. If [you] had 
pleased to acquaint me w th thoese thinges, I would have 
shewed my willingenes to doe you serves. I have noe 
newse to wright. I rest your 

Dewtifull sonne ? 

Stephen Winth. 

March 20, 1637[-8]. 


For my honered Brother, M? Jo : Winthrop, present these. Boston. 

Sir, — My vnckle Downinge promising to give you a 
full accompt of all buisnes y* concernes vs makes me in- 
tend to be breife in my relation. You will heare by all 
of o r safe arrivall, & y e losse of y e two shipps y t went to 
Maligo ; of o r troubles w th Aulderman Buckly, who ar- 
rested all o r goods & is at sute w th some of vs.* Yo r bill 
vp the iron mercha ts will not be accepted. Only they 
tell vs of 400 H w ch we shall hav ; but I know not yet what 
it wilbe. They will put out theire mony to be paid 20 
p cent in N. E. Heere is great complaint ag* vs for o r 
severetye ag* Anabaptist. It doth discourag any people 
from coming to vs for fear they should be banished if 
they disent from vs in opinion. Y e miserye of this king- 
dome increases : such taxes & excises y t people know 
not how to live. French & Dut[c]h declares them selves 
for y e kings, as y e Dutch embasidor did declare in open 
parlm* since y e treaty broke of. 

Major Sedgwick, M r Rusell, & M r Maverick & Trerise 
were they y* did informe ag fc y e country vnder theire 
hands. We are inquiring a chapm for yo r black lead. 

* Madame La Tour having gained a suit in our court against the captain and owner of 
the vessel in which she bad come over, they caused one of the jury and Winthrop, who 
was the recorder of the court, to be arrested on their arrival in England. See Winthrop's 
History of New England, II. 201, 248 ; Memorial History of Boston, I. 290. —Eds. 


There is some of it sent into France for triall. We hope 
we shall setle all yo r buisnes & o r returne in y e Cam- 
bridg shipp a month after this. My respects to my sister 
& all o r freinds ; & desiringe yo r prayer, I continue 
Yo r most engaged brother, 

Step. Wintheop. 

Lond., March 1, 44 [-5]. 


[Teneriffe, 1645.] 

S R , — It hath pleased God to give vs a saef arrivall at 
y e Teneriffe, although o rJ passage was somethinge more 
longe then ordinary, & the windes contrary & tempes- 
tious, in so much y t M5 Whetheridge was forced to beare 
vp for a time. We are come to a very badd markett for 
o r goods heere, never beinge knowen more plentye of pro- 
vision, nor y* so cheape. O r [torn] will yeeld not above 
five shillings a bushell [torn] fish hardly w fc it cost, or flesh 
will not yeeld so much : & y* w ch helps all is y* the 
wines proved not well this yeare ; but God knowes what is 
best for vs. I hope he will give contentation w th what 
portion of this world he please to bestowe vp me. 
Though things tends continually to my observation to 
bring me to a lowe condition, my greatest care (God 
knowes) is for my wiff & my other relations, & not for 
my self. God hath given me more then I could have 
expected, & I thinke some times & beleve, though weary, 
y* we shall not want what ever is good for vs. Heere we 
find many shipps of o r country [torn] (thancks be to God) 
brings good newes from England. The Parlem* still 
p r vaileth. The Kinge hath been once more beaten ; & 
Bristoll is taken, w th Basing Howse, Newarck, & Exeter 
streightly besedged. Sir John Mucknell his great shipp 
is taken by some of the Parlem*. Prince Rupert & Mau- 
rice have made their pease w th Parlem* & are going for 



Holland. Prince Eupert yeelcled vp Bristol to the 
Parlem , w ch occationed the breach. Heere are divers 
of the Kings pte come to this iland, twenty capt., & they 
begin to fly every where to all pts, & it is thought y e warre 
is at an end. Only the Presbeterian Goverm* is re- 
solved on, & y e other are at a losse & cannot tell where 
they shall find rest. Sir Ral. Hopton will not be pdoned, 
& therefore stands vpo his guard at Pende Castle. There 
are but fower excepted in the pease, as they say. West 
Chester is taken & Corke [?] Castle. Since I began to 
write this letter, here arrived ship from Plimouth, who 
saith the peace is not concluded nor expected.* 

If the peace be not concluded in England, there will 
certenly be warre w th Holand, & they like wise (as it is 
thought) will not agree amongst themselves. They did 
imbargo some English shipps before. Some of these 
came from London, & y e Parlem* were <pvidinge to fetch 
them by force. Y e Holanders likewise pvided for these 
masters y fc came last from London. [_Tom~\ verily beleves 
y fc there hath beene a fight betweene them. Capt. Bat- 
tan, who is admirall of the Narrowe Seas, had orders 
to aproch y e coast of Holond to theire succor, if need 
should be. 

The next thing I shall intimat to you, of wh* hath vnex- 
pectedly p r sented it selfe to my consideration, is a matter 
deserving yo r determination from more cleere vnder- 
standing then mine owne ; & if I have failed, it is accom- 
panied w th much care & diligence to y e contrary. We 
had not beene longe heare before my brother Samuell ex^ 
pressed to me some thoughts he had of staying heere, w th 
some merch* to be perfected in y* calling (w ch was y fc w ch he 
seemed most to close w th all) ; & resoluing not to trust to 
his study for his future maintainance, did thinke it his 

* Mrs. Hutchinson, in her Life of her husband, mentions the taking of Westchester, in 
connection with the other military events referred to in this letter. They all occurred in 
the summer or autumn of 1045. — Eds. 


best cource to setle to some setled callinge ; w ch reason I 
confesse I could not overthrow, espetially when I knew not 
how better to p r ferre him at London, where they would 
have looked for a some of mony w th him, & have had him 
for long time, & it may be to his small benifitt also. 
The man y* now he shalbe w th all is one M? Ferdinando 
Bodge, who is by all y fc know him reputed honest & re- 
lidgious, & y fc small aquaintance I have had w th him gives 
me to think so of him. He hath not beene longe heere ; 
but his employm* is as great as any mans in y e iland, 
& it increaseth much yearly. He seemes to be very 
desirous of his company, & providence hath so ordered, 
by reason of his new begunn trade w th New England, y fc 
both his cheife servents are sent to N. E. to order his 
busines there ; so y t my brother shall p r sently stepp into 
the best of his imploym* & be betrusted w th all he hath, as 
he hath <pmised me. And indeed he hath noe help for it ; 
for he hath only one servent more, w ch is a knights sonne 
of Kent, whom he finds not capable of any buisnes of 
trust or importance. I could say much more in this 
buisnes, but I spare till God give another opertunitye. I 
am well pswaded it may be for his good. Heere are more 
then one or two y fc have got in a short time good estates, 
who had nothing but theire owne diligence & faithfullnes 
to preferr them. It is a place of greatest liberty to 
Protestants of any pt in Spaine, though mens privat 
[torn] theire cheife helpe. I could wish these gentlm 
might find all incoragment y fc might be in this theire first 
enterprise. Although theire carrgo be y e most wine, 
they will y e next ye are furnish the country w th all sorts 
of comodityes from France & England for trucke of fish 
& corne ; but now it could not be, for this gentleman is a 
stranger, & I suppose will expect some speciall favour 
from you. I have advised them to come to my brother 
Adam, to whom I have written; & they doe wholly 
[illegible] vp my advice. It will not be best to [illegible] as 


they cannot be <pvided for in yo r howse, yet [illegible'] well 
accomodated in some other, it wilbe necessary that some 
care may be taken. I have sent you [illegible] of wine 
for your seP & my brothers. You may please to remem- 
ber my aunt Downing. It is redd Canary, such as is 
rarly seene in this iland. Y e whole iland doth not afford 
five pipes yearly. It is very good at p r sent, & I hope 
it will so come to yo r hands. I shall not say more at 
p r sent, but desire yo r prayers & blessing, & desire you 
will present duty & respects, according as I am bound ; 
& so I rest 

Yo r dutifull sonne, Steph. Winthrop. 

S R , — You may please to take notice of [illegible]. If 
you take occation to write to M r Bodclg, y* wilbe ex- 
pected you take y e like notice of Mf David [illegible], who 
is his ptner in all buisnes ; & my brother Samuell is 
equally ingaged to them both, who p r sents there service 
unto you. Verte si placet. 

M r - Stephens supposeth he may have a brother ther in 
one Capt. Strong's shipp, & desire you will doe him all 
lawfull favour* 

Indorsed, " Sonne Stephen, Teneriffe." 

To his much honered Brother, M. John Winthrop, at Boston, iV. E. 

Sir, — I rec'd yo r , for w ch I give you thancks. I am 
very glad to heer of yo r wealfear & my sister, w th all y e 
rest of o r deare freinds. God hath been pleased to give 
me a safe arrivall to London, were we find all o r freinds 

* The ink with which this letter was written was of so had composition that it has 
entirely destroyed the paper in many places, so that even the outline of the words cannot 
be traced. — Eds. 


in health & y e kingdome eased of many of theire feares in 
respect of y e Kings ptie. Only theire is other difference 
begin to arrise out of y e dust. Y e Parlm* & y e Scotts doe 
not well accord. They are to del. vp all theire strong 
hould of the English, w ch they refuse to doe but vp such 
high termes as will not be consented vnto. Y e like dif- 
ference is like to be betweene y e cittye & y e Parl mt , 
though not vp y e like grownds. Sir Ralph Hopton is 
come in w th all his forces in y e west, but himselfe is gone 
to France, y e Prince to Cilly. Sir Jackob Ashly is taken 
w th his w r hole army. Y e King hath noe forces left con- 
siderable ; but stands out, demands great things. Y e 
Parlm* hath given M r Petter # 200 1 p ann to him & his 
heires for ever ; & indeed his interest in them is great, 
& as litle in the citty vp y* respect. 

I am very much troubled with the Auldman,t w ch adds 
very much to my other troubles ; for a ptcul r account of 
yo r buisnes as yet I can not give you worthy the send- 
inge, only ashure you I will doe w fc I am able, though I 
shall never answere yo r deservings; by [my?] bills y fc my 
brother sent are not paid, nor wilbe, I suppose. I know 
not w fc to write more at p r sent. Capt. Hawkins is cast 
away againe in y e Cambridge shipp ; but y e psons are 
safe. Rember my respects to my deare sister; pswad 
my wife to be cheerfull ; tender my respect to M rs Lack, 
M rs Simond, &c. My she cosin Keane is growne a great 
preacher. Pardon my confused meathod, & ever comande 
Yo r much ingaged brother, 

St. Winthrop. 

Lond: 27 March, 46. 

Indorsed, " Brother Steven, p Capt. Leveret." 

* The Rev. Hugh Peter. He had married the widow of Edmund Reade, father of the 
second wife of John Winthrop, Jr. — Eds. 

t This must mean Alderman Barkley. See Winthrop, Hist, of N. E. II. 248. — Eds. 

206 THE WIXTHROP PAPERS. [1647-8. 


For his honered Brother, M r . Jo. Winthrop, thes, Boston, A 7 ". E. 

Hoxered Sir, — Although I am happy in this opertu- 
nitye of writinge to my freinds, yet I am more vnhapy in 
y t 1 cannot make vse of it so farre as to injoy them ; but 
I hope all wilbe for y e best in y e end. I have nothing 
to write, but to repeet w fc I have formerly writen, & desire 
you still to be earnest in sending me all the supplies you 
can, y* so I may disgag my selfe & you, then w ch disapoint- 
ment nothing could be more grevious to any y* are in- 
genious. They are all very well contented till the next 
returne. I have not yet mad one penny of all y e adven- 
ture I had to Spaine. This kingdome is yet much vn- 
setled, although heere be noe enmy appearinge, y e king 
will not signe y e <pprositions nor yeild to y e Parla*, w ch 
causes many jelousies. I know not w*. more to w T rite, 
but crave yo r prayers, & am, as 

Alwaies, yo r very much oblidged brother, 

St. Wixthrop. 

Worcester, Aug. 23, 46. 


To Ms much honored Father, Jo. Winthrop, Esq r , Governor of y e Massa- 

ches\_ets~\, These, in New Engl\_and~]. 

S R , — I received you" by my wif, who (through God his 
goodnes) is safly arrived heere w th her litle ones, for all 
w ob mercy I desire I may be fownd answerably thankfull 
We heard before of my deare mothers departure, w 
was very sad tidings to me, & my losse was as much in it 
as any sonnes could be in a mother ; but I know God calls 

* This letter is also printed in the " Life and Letters of John Winthrop," II. 
337. —Eds. 


1647-8.] STEPHEN WINTHROP. 207 

me to submission, & to drawe more neere to himsefe, 
whose pvidence over vs is instead of all relations, o r in- 
terest in him being only durable. Y e consideration 
wherof quiets my spirit, & y* w ch accompaned this sadd 
tidings (as if this had not beene more then nature could 
have submitted quietly vnto) was y e relation of yo r owne 
sadd & dangerous siknes ; but seeing it pleased God yet 
to continue you to vs, I shall say no more of y*, but re- 
joyce in Gods mercy & admire his wisdome, in y* he aflict- 
eth not but [by] measure & will not lay more up vs then 
we are able to beare. S r , it saddnes me when I thinke 
of remotnes from you & y e rest of my friends w th you, & I 
question not but evidence will so worke y* I may see yo r 
face againe, though I see a cleere pvidence likwise at 
psent in my stay heere, & I find God ownes me in my 
imployment, but my thoughts worke much toward N. E., 
& if I see a call of God, I shalbe very ready to obay it. 
This kingdom is in a very vnsetled condition, & it is 
wonder all falls not in peices in our day ; but at p r sent I 
cannot give you so pticular an acco* of it as I would, be- 
cause some occasion hinders me from being at London 
this six weeks, & y e shipp I vnderstand is goeing ; for w ch 
reason I shall write to fewe nor about any busnes, but de- 
sire you to rememb* me to all o r frends ; & so earnestly 
begging yo r prayers & blessings, I rest, Sir, yo r most obe- 
dient sonne, 

Steph. Winthrop. 

Rig at, 2 March, 47[-8]. 

Sir, I thank you for my mother's ring & Bible you were 
pleased to send me. My wife is at y e Downes w th hir 
brother at this time. I suppose she will p r sent hir duty 
to you in a letter hirself, y e shipp goeing that way.* 

* The body of this letter is in a different hand and in ink of a different color from the 
signature and the postscript. — Eds. 

208 THE WINTOROP PAPERS. [1647-8. 


For my honered brother Jo : Winthrop, Esq*, Junjor, These, New 


IIoxered Brother, — I received yo r , & am joyfull to 
heare of yo r & my sisters welefare, though all my coferts 
this yeare were mixt w th y e sadd newes of my mother[s] 
death. My losse in it is very much, & as much as could 
be in a mother ; but I know God cann make vp all to vs 
in himselfe, w ch is y e only durable comfort. Sir, for yo r 
matter of acco fc , I wish I were as able as willing to putt 
such an ishue to it as you doe expect. Y e matter in dis- 
pute, it seemd, is only about a suposed promt, w ch I ques- 
tion not but to make appeare to any mans judgm* y fc there 
was none made of it to this day, though this is come vp 
for y e care I had to save your principle, w ch is paid you ; 
for had I not vrged my vnckle Downing to have taken vp 
some goods for you, after he had receivcl & paid away your 
mony, & had them also mad over to me, you had had 
nothing. But I am sure I cannot gaine for every penny 
that I could make of my estate, since hath been imployed 
to pay those ingagm* 9 , & will not doe it. I am involued 
in such acco ts by it y fc I can[t] tell whither ever I shall git 
cleere or noe. I am very farre from y e least intention of 
doeing you any wrong, whom I am so related vnto ; sure, 
it is not possible I should doe wrong willingly. M' Peeter, 
I beleeve, will take care of y* you write about. He tells 
me he intends you much, & pceive he hath many thoughts 
of you, but noe returne nor answer to me. I [know not ?] 
what to say more at p r sent, but desire y e Lord to guid 
you & prosper you in yo r vndertaking, in whose filicitye 
I shall take much pleasure. For newes I must referre 
you to y e passiners. My cosin Parks remember his love 
to you & desires you to advise M r Bright w* were best to 


be done w th his farme he bought of you. He saith he 
would have it sould or put into some way he might make 
some (pffit of it, he having had nothing for it since he 
bought. Thus much he wished me to certifie you. 
Thus, desiring you to present my kind love & service 
to my sister & cosins, w th all my friends, 
I remain & shall bee 

constantly yo r faithfull brother, 

St. Winthrop. 

6 March, 47[-8]. 


To my honred brother Jo. Winthrop, Esq r TJiese. 


Honered Sir, — We have longe expected the happy 
howre wherin we might heere of yo r wealfarej but noe 
shipps comes to vs. The last was M' Trerise, but noe 
letters, but one from my father. Since, we have had 
many turnes of things, w ch I suppose you have heard of; 
some more latly it may be not, therefore I shall relate 
one or two, viz. the coming of the army out of the North. 
They p r sented the Parlm fc w th a remonstrance or peti- 
tion, w ch being slighted and not considered of by the 
Parlm*, the army marched imeadjatly vp to Lond., & w th in 
two or three dayes, in a morning, sett guards about the 
howse & w th held all those from coming to sett in the howse 
who were for a treaty w th y e King & y e calling in the Scotts, 
& y e rest voted the triall of the King, who is since be- 
headed, w th Duk[e] Hambleton, Lord Holand, Lord Caple, 
& more I belejve will suffer yet; but I canot inlarg to 
pticuler, passingers & bookes [of News] will informe best. 
I shall send my father some. They have voted the 
kingly goverm* downe, & likewise the Lords; & the 
Howse of Comons to be supreame. All is quiet, but I 
know not how long it will last. France are in warrs 



vpp the same quarell, but Parris is beseiged streightly. 
Rusha & Denmarck in broiles, & New England seems to 
be the only safe place, where I beleive we must come, 
good store at length if we cann. 

For the buisnes of account, I am sorry I must men- 
cone it, but wish rather I were in a cappassity to put it 
past disput an other way ; but truly, Sir, however any may 
judge, this I know to be true : I am noe ganer by y* buis- 
nes & vndertaking, w ch was between my vnckle & our. 
selves and it is poynte of proffitt only y* you claime, and 
not for yo r pticul r goods nejther, soe if it be, it is clue 
from him y t rec d them ; but in the whole there was above 
600 H worth of cordag, first penny ; y t doth not produce 
noe maner of way 400 1 . Besides, the disadvantage to me 
is considerable, y { I have paid for all y* in ready mony in 
London, or for other goods w ch paid for y* in N. E., w cb is 
all one in effect, & you know w* losse y* is : but it is be- 
yond disput y* buisnes hath swalowed vp all y t I had, 
except my land in N. E., & all is not yet paid heere, 
y t had I not some imploym* y* p r serves me, I might 
rott in prison. I have not had one penny out of N. E. as 
to my mayntainance since I cam. My thinks [Methinks] 
my vnckle y* brought me into these snares & vndone con- 
dition might soe farre consider, if he cannot or will not 
help me, yet might justifie me in point of creditt, when 
it is so evident to all y fc heare it w* wrong he hath done 
me, & how confessed by himselfe when he was heer 
pmising vnder his hand to pay 200 H heer, w ch still he left 
of my score. But He say noe more. I delight not in 
this discource, but sattisfied in y t I am your faithfull truly 
loving brother, 

S. Winthrop. 

Myn & wifes kind respects & love to my sister & 
nephew [&] neeses. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., u Broth. Steven." 


To my honored brother, Jo : Winthrop, Esq 6 ., these p r sent. 

Honored Sir, — I have not received any from you this 
yeare nor the last, but I vnclerstood by my brother Adams 
letter y* you are all well, for w ch I blesse God. My 
brother Adam writes me word of many letters I should 
receive by one M r Poulte, but I never received them. Y e 
mony my brother Raynborowe should pay for my mother 
will not be payd till he & his brother's widdowe are agreed. 
There buisnes is vppon arbitration, but till it be done I 
cannot gitt some monyes I layd out of my owne pursse for 
them. I haue sent M? Greenwood such word. The newes 
heere you will haue more new then I cann tell you, for I 
am in Wales, & am left w th some horrsse to keepe quiett 
these partts. My Lord Cromwell is made Lord Gen 11 of 
all the forces (my Lord Fairfax laying downe his commis- 
ion), & is marching into Scottland w th all speed, if not 
there by this time. Ireland is in a measure reduced, the 
Bishops army being beaten last week ; 3 or 4 thousand 
slane uppon the place. France very full of disturbance, 
w ch cannot be healed certeinly. The Prince of Orang & 
the States differences grow wider, and like to breake into 
a flame. Noe perfect peace in Germany, though the Prince 
Electer hath much restored to him. Litle isshue of the 
warre between the Turke & Venetian ; the Venetian 
feares he shall hardly hould out. Verte qnceso. 

Y e Portingale & o r State is uppon the matter brocken ; 
he refussing to lett o r fleet fight w th Prince Ruperts, but 
suffer his men to fall uppon o r when they come a shore. 
Gen 11 Blake hath seased on 5 shipps coming from Brasill 
of his, & tenn more y* were bowned thither. The Span- 
yard laughes at this, & though the Parlm* imbasidour was 
slaine, yet they haue done justice in it, & proffesse much 
hon r to this State. Gen 1 Deane took last week about 13 

212 TIIE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1650-51. 

shipps bound for Scottland, w th arms & horses ; yet heere 
is a rumor y fc Argile & the Kirke haue sent to treat w th my 
Lord Gen 11 , but I am not certaine of y\ These are the 
cheif passages I cann remember, being at such a distance 
from London. I shall not inlarg, but desire yo r prayers & 
off all the rest of my freinds. My kind respects & love to 
my good sister I pray present, w th my love to all my litle 
nephews & neices. My duty to my unckle Downing & aunt, 
& y* familly, not forgitting my mother, who hath lost so 
much w th us all, & God only can suply to us & hir. I pray 
p r sent my service to the mags ts , elders, & all o r ancient & 
deare friends, Cosin Tring, Major Gibbons, Major Sedg- 
wick, & Cosn Stoder. I pray advise my brother Adam 
what to doe w th my farme & iland * & howse, y* it may be 
repayed & yield me something to live on hereafter ; for I 
expect not to setle in England, but to returne amongst 
you when I may not be burdensome, but rather helpful. 
My wife is well, salutes you all very kindly, & loves Xew 
England well. God hath given us a daughter y* is well 
at nurss. I must take leave, though very loath now I 
am discoursing w th you ; but I trust the Lord will cast o r 
habitation neerer togither, y\ we againe see each other w th 
joy of hartt ; till when & always I shall remaine, sir, yo r . 
very faithfull brother & servant, S. Winthrop. 

[Wales,] 14 July, 50. 

Indorsed, " Stephen," by John Winthrop, Jr. 


To my horCed brother, John Winthrop, Esq r , present these att Boston or 
elsewhere, in New England. 

Hertford, Feb: 6: 50[-51]. 
De^re Sir, — I have latlye had the knowledge of yo r 
health & prosperitye, togither w th my sister & my deare 

* He owned " Prudence Island," in Narragansett Bay, and certain real estate in and 
near Boston, including " the Greene by the Springe," See Suffolk Deeds, Lib. I. — Eds. 

1650-51.] STEPHEN WINTHROP. 213 

nephewse & neeses, & allthough I had not the inteligence 
by any letter from yo r selfe, yet it gave me a great deale 
of pleasure & joy in the vnderstanding of it, it having 
such strength of reason to have a perfect influence vppon 
me, & truly, sir, if you did not heare from me last somer, 
it was not because I did not remember myselfe so farr as 
to write to you, but because they did some way or other 
miscarry before they arrived to you. I hope, therefore, 
you will not nurish any evill conceivm* of me, who I am 
sure cann never forgitt to love nor serve you in wh* I am 
able. For news I know not wh* to write to you ; for what 
is past every one cann relate to you, & what is to come I 
cannot tell, but to wittnes w th rest y* God hath done great 
things heare in England, Scotland, & Irland, the Parlm 4 
interest still gaininge, & the late differences amongst the 
Scott like to further it very much. What God will bringe 
out of all this, is the thing in expectation. Powers falls 
downe apace, & not any persecuting spiritt either in nation 
or person doth stand when discouered. God declares so 
perticulerly ag fc that spirite, y* it breaks any man to peices 
y* is fownd in it. The Lord in mercye keepe it from N. E., 
or else it will spoyle yo r farmes, shipp, & iron works, for 
this is certeinly the age in w ch y* spirit must be bruised. 
I have not to enlarge, but hartily to subscribe myselfe, 
sir, yo r faith, brother & servnt, 

S. Winthrop. 

I pray present my affecconat love & respects to my 
deare sister, my love to my cosin, my due respect to all 
o r frends. 

Indorsed "Brother Steven. " 



To my honored Brother, Jo : Winthrop, Esq r , these present, att Pequod 
or elsewhere in New England. 

Deare & Honored Brother, — I received y rs , & thanck 
you most kindly for it. It was much refreshing to me, 
though it repeated a great matter of sadnes to me, even 
the losse of my deare brother,* w th whom I was brought 
vpp so constantly ; but I know the Lord sitts in heaven, 
& doth what ever he will, & we must submitt to his 
pleasure. I should have writte vnto you before, but y t I 
knew not when the shipps went. Jo. Tinker promised 
to call on me, but failed me. I have sent a letter of 
attorny over to you. I am bould to put in your name 
y fc the others may the better take yo r advice, though I 
should not put the trouble of the busnes vpp you. Truly 
I doe valew what I have there ; for, could I be assured 
of my health, I thinck I should come away imeadiatly, 
for I have noe health heare, & I have beene this two 
years extreamly troubled w th the zeatica, & am just now 
goeing to the Bath to see if y* may remedy it. My much 
lying in y e wet feilds vppon the grownd hath brought it 
vppon me, as it hath vppon many others. It makes my 
life very vncomfortable. For newes wh* should I write 
to you? Every passinger will be able to tell you the 
latest. At present the warres betweene the Dutch & 
we contynue, though we have twice this somere beaten 
theire maine fleet, consisting off 120 of theire best men 
of warre ; and at last blocked them vpp in theire harbors 
for severall weeks, though we heare by reports they are 
gott out againe, & we expect a new engagement. 

The Dutch embassidors are yet heere ; but there is noe 
likelihood of any agreeni 4 . We demand three causionary 

* His next brother, Adam, had died in the previous year. — Eds. 

1654-5.] STEPHEN WINTHROP. 215 

townes of these, y e Brill, Flushing, & Midleborowe, 
& 400,000 1 sattisfaccon. They are not yet lowe enough 
to give it, & so y e case stands. O r owne state is not 
setled ; o r doubtes & feares many. All the comfort is, y e 
Lord is able to doe his owne worke & finish it. Mine & 
my wifs humble respects to you & o r good sister, & love 
to all o r nephewes & necees I pray present ; & be confi- 

I am, sir, 
Yo r most affectionat brother & servant, 

S. Winthrop. 

Kensington, 2 Aug*, '53. Verte queso. 

Just now a messinger is come from y e fleet, k brings 
letters y fc say y e two fleets have been eingaged three dayes, 
& now the Dut[c]h are flying & o r persueing, & y* already 
we have taken & sunck fortye of theire best men of 
warre. This is thought will putt an end to theire warre 
& make them submitt. 

Indorsed, "Brother Steven." 


To my ever honored Brother, John Winthrop, Esq., these present. Pequod 
or else where, N. E. 

Honored Sir, — My vnckle Downing his arrivall heere # 
w th divers others gives me ioy, in y* they bring a relation 
of yo r health, w fch my good sister & yo r whole family, w ch 
I pray God continue, w th the injoym* of yo r present bless- 
ings & what else may increase yo r happines. I would 
hartily wish my owne might be encreaced by yo r good 
societye, ejther heere or in N. E., if it could so bee; but 

* This fixes the date, heretofore uncertain, of Emanuel Downing' s return to England. 
He did not come back to America. — Eds. 

216 THE WIXTHROP PAPERS. [1654-5. 

we must be disposed of according to the good pleasure 
of the Eternall Beinge ; & it is best to be where we may 
be most servicable in o r generations, & doeing things 
tending to the best & vttmost ends, w ch alwajes brings 
comfortt w th it. For newes heere I shall not trouble 
you. The buisnis mainly considerable & to be taken 
notice of is his Highnes his designe into the West Indjes, 
w ch I beleive he will prosecute throughly & make dis- 
cource for all the world, if it please God to prosper it. 
Doubtless it will make much for the good of New Eng- 
land & the increace of trade there, for it is not the maner 
of the Lord Protector to doe things by halves. He will 
tugg w th Spaine for it, cost wh* will. I pray, if you have 
opertunitye, add a word of councell to Amos Richard- 
son about my buisnes, for I doe not give over thoughts 
of N. E. ; yet the cold weather is my greatest discour- 
age, & while I am heere I am troubled w th journyes into 
Scottland, w ch is as badd almost. I think I shall goe 
againe about a month hence, but then I hope to take my 
farewell of itt. 

Sir, I shall not be further troublesome to you. I shall 
be gladd to heare frome you when you have the leisure 
to write. I have sent my sister a small token amongst 
M r Peeters his things. It is 60 else of locherume, not 
worth the menconing. I pray present my kind respects 
to hir. My love to all my nephewes & neces. My wife 
allso salutes you hartily. I am indebted to my cosin 
Fitz for y e letter, w ch I thanck him for, & shall pay him 
w th one another time. 

I remaine, sir, 

Certeinly yo r most affectionat 

Brother & servnt, 

S. Winthrop. 

11 March, 54[-5], Westminster. 
Indorsed, " Brother Steven." 

1657.] STEPHEN WINTHR0P. 217 


To his much honored Brother, John Winthrop, Esq% These present, 
att Pequod or else where in New England. 

Honored Brother, — I received one from you by the 
last shipp as I supose ; but it was very long before it 
came to my hands. They came in a time when I was 
very sick, being forced to keepe my chamber & howse 
most partt of this winter ; w ch hindered me from attend- 
ing y* buisnes you writt about, of repaire of yo r losses by 
y e men of warre ; if they had beene any of those y fc be- 
longed to his Highnes heere, & y fc we knew theire names, 
I thinke sattisfaccon would easily be gained ; but if they 
were of y* iland, & y e comand rs not to be found, I ques- 
tion whither his Highnes will take any perticuler notice 
of it. Besides, his vsuall way is to referre such things to 
his councell or admirallitye, who wilbe very inquisitive 
into the buisnes. But I shalbe willinge to make triall if 
M r Peeters will appeare in it, as he saith he will, & I 
shalbe very gladd if we cann find away for it. For your 
other buisnes of pottashes, I cann yet find none y* will 
deale in it. I have lefft yo r propositions w th My Read, 
w h promiseth to inquire, & saith he hopeth he shall 
meete w th some y* may like the designe. I know not 
what to write you of newes from hence. Y e great buisnes 
in hand is the desire of the Parl mt y* his Highnes will 
[take] vppon him the title of kinge. He hath refused it 
once & twice, & the Parlm* still insist vppon therre votes. 
Wh* wilbe the issue I cannot tell ; but it will soone be 
resolved for or ag*, & the passenger will bring you the 
newes, though I cannot yet write it. 

Sir, I thancke you very kindly for yo r care & inspec- 
tion . into my pore litle buisnes in N. E., & hope I shall 
still bee behouldinge to you for your advice ; for indeed 



I valew those things more, it may be, then some doe, & 
thinke N. E. may have its times to florish againe, espetiall 
if they could gitt vpp some good manifactures. I hope 
the worst is past w th them, & y fc subsistance wilbe easier 
gained heerafter. Indeed, I had need hope well of it; 
for it is the best portion I am able or like to give my 
sonne,* who is yet but a litle one, not above two monthes 
old. I thanck God my wife & all of vs are indifferent 
well at this time, though I have not my health longe to- 
gither heer. [The] eyre is two moist for me, & breeds 
rumes & coughes. We all present o r respects & love to 
your selfe, deare sister, & cossins, & are exceedinge gladd 
to heare of yo r healths, & should rejoyce if it should 
please God to cast o r lotts to dwell togither againe, w ch I 
hope Providence may yet bring to passe in due time for 
o r mutuall comfortt. Brother Samuell is att S. Xtophers, 
& in health, I thanck God. I had a letter from him 
dated the 3 January, 56. In his former he writte as if he 
had thoughts to come into England & setle he ere, but 
say th nothing of it in this. My cosin Ben. Gostlin is come 
rich & safe from the East Indye, but he is goeing thither 
againe. Deare brother, I have nothing more to say, but 
y* I am, sir, yo r very affectionat brother & servant, 

S. Winturop. 

14th Aprill, 57. 

I am bould to present you w th five yards of fine cloth, 
by My Hairwood. 

Indorsed, " Col. Steven Winthrop." 

* This sou died, and Stephen Winthrop left no male issue. — Eds. 



To his very louinge brother, M r John Winthrop, liuinge in Conekticot 
Riuer, giue this, I pray. 

Louinge Brother, — I haue reseued your leter whar 
in you did exprese a grat dell of loue vnto me ; for wich 
I can not but thanke you that you wold take the payns 
to writ vnto me, youer vnworthy brother. Y r considara- 
cyon of this did sture me to lay hould of the first oper- 
teunyty that is ofred to me for the writing vnto you and 
sending the thinges that you sent for, wich is the Bachel- 
dor.f At your desiar I haue sent a turke koke and a 
hene, wich were brout doun from Inslik, allso ferkin of 
lime wich you did send for, allso sum turnup sede. I 
did ask Henry Tinkers boy whether he had bout any 
gotes for M r Jase. He tould me he had boute non, becas 
that thare was sum com from Ingland for him ; and theye 
he wold haue boute, but that thay ware both dere and apt 
to dye. Furder word tha tould me he wold send you 
thaerof. . 

Conserning shipes wich w T on did writ about, thare haes 

* Adam Winthrop, fifth son of Governor John Winthrop, was born at Groton in 
England, April 7, 1620, and, having accompanied his mother to New England when a boy 
of eleven, enjoyed few advantages of early education. He married, in 1642, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Rev. Jose Glover and sister of the wife of his brother Deane, both being step- 
daughters of President Dunster of Harvard College. She died in 1648, when he married, 
secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Captain Thomas Hawkins, who subsequently became the 
wife of Major John Richards. Adam died in Boston, Aug. 24, 1652, aged 32, leaving an 
only son by his first marriage. His father had conveyed to him the well-known estate 
of " Governor's Island " in Boston harbor, which was the property of six generations of 
his descendants, until sold to the United States Government, who built on it Fort Win- 
throp. At the date of this letter he was sixteen years old. — Eds. 

t The Bachelor, a bark plying between Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut River. — Eds. 


[1637 or 1638' 

com 15 all redy, 4 Duch men, 6 Londonars, grate stripes, 
besides ther west contry men. The Duch shipes brout 
shep and other catell grat store, and buter and chese. 
My sister is brout abed of a darter, thankes be to God, 
and is well. I pray remember my loue to my brother 
Steven and M r Gardnar and his wife and all the rest of 
my frindes, and to Frost. With my loue remembred to 
you, and thanking you for all your kindneses, 
Your louing brother while I [illegible] 

Adam Winthrop. 

Jeuly the 3, 1636. 


To his dere and louinge Brother, M r . John Winthrop, liuinge at Conekticot 

giue thes with spede. 

[1637 or 1638V] 

Louinge Brother, — The thoutes of youer loue and 
kindnes to me, youer vnworthy brother, does stir [me] up 
to writ vnto you, as I cold doe no les ; but it wold haue 
bene a sine of grat vnthankfullnes and disregard of so 
much kindnes wich I wold be very loth to doe, much 
blaming my selfe for my neklegentes and slouthfullnes 
that I haue not writen to you allredy, desiring now by 
my dobell [illegible'] for to amend my formar neklegens. 
Louinge brother, we haue hard ofen of your well fire, 
wich did much rejoyses us, and will doe, I hope, more and 
more. Thare haes com grate store of shipes this yeare, 
all redy to the nomber of fourten, and but litell neues, — 
only this, that the viese admarall of the kinges flet, as 
thay war riding in the Tames amaking meri, the ship 
svdenly sunke, and a grat many of thar men wer drouned. 
Allso the king gaue the sitsens too or thre brave peses 
of ordinans, wich thay for to gratify the king again made 
a grat meting in the feldes, and hairing grat store of 
poudere, thar pouder was fired and did bloue oup 30 of 

1642.] ADAM WINTHROP. 221 

them, that war killed and diues more hurted. Louing 
brother, I shuld be very glad to see you hear, if it pies 
God. If not, I shuld be very glad if I might hear from 
you, if it be not to much trubell to you in the multeteud 
of your busnes. I shall be very willing and glad for to 
doe any fafuer for you hear the wich does ly in my pouer. 
I desiar that you wold exept this as a finall token of my 
loue and mindfullnes of you ; and so I rest your loueing 
brother till deth, Adam Winthrop. 

I pray you remember my lou to Mister Gardner and 
his wife, and to all the rest of my frindes. 

My brother Dean does remember his loue to you. 


To his much honoured brother, John Winthrop, Esq r ., yiue this, I pray. 

Kind Brother, — I haue reseued toe letters from you 
this somer, wherin I can not but take notise of youer 
loue and mindfullness of me. It hath bene a great com- 
fort to us heer that in youer absence we haue heard 
somtimes from you, and did expct to haue sene you heer 
this somer, which was the caus that I and the rest of 
youer frends did neglect sum oppertunities of wrighting, 
but now we are informed to ouer grefe that we must 
waight still. My sister is very desiros to see you heer 
vpon any condition, and yet, thankes be to God, she is 
prityely cherly in expektation winter will pass away, 
and the time will aproch when she may more sertainely 
expek youer retturne. My brother Steuen, I thinke, will 
be the bearer of these letters. I suppose by this time 
you haue heard of my mariage with M rs Elizabeth Glouer. 
I haue sent a letter of atturny to my vnkle Tindall, M r 
Kirby, and Doctor Wright to take up those monies that 
wear lefte hir by hir fathres will and by sum other 

222 THE WIXTHROP PArERS. [1647. 

frendes. Now I haue giuen a letter of atturny to my 
vnkle Douning and youer selfe and my brother Steuen, 
wherm I haue giuen full pouer to take up the monies, to 
giue releses and discharges. I haue giuen sum diricon 
to my brother Steuen for the laing out of the monis, who, 
I think, will be at most laisuer. Of youer care and help- 
fullness to him I doe not doute. Thus with my many 
thankes for youer many favors and praier for youer safti 
in these trublesum times, I rest, 

Youer louing brother, Adam Wlnthrop. 

Boston, this 10 of October, 1642. 


To his much honored Brother, John Winthrop, Esq r , giue these, I pray. 

Much honord Brother, — My loue and servis pre- 
sented to you. Youer letter off the 2 off Desember I 
rec[e]aued, but it had a very longe passage. We weare 
very glad to heer off youer safe arivall, and that youe 
haue bene in health since. My brother Dean is sally re- 
turned. Conserning youer buysness in England, I did 
wright as efecktually to my brother Stephen as I could. 
I could gett very littell bever to send. I did send him 
youer acompt. As neer as I could draw it vp thare was 
95 1 then dew to you, if he will allow the accomt. I haue 
sent a hog sd of salt by Captane Smith, which he will 
deliver at Fishers Island. I thowght you might haue 
some need off it. For news, heer is littell stireng, but 
only thair has ben great a doe about the Pettision. 
Docktor Child has bene imprisoned and fined, and is still 
in prison.* I supose my father will wright you mor at 
lardge. My cosens are all weall, thankes be to God. 
Lucy rembers her duty to you and my sister. My wife 

* For a notice of Dr. Robert Child, see V. Mass. Hist. Coll. I. 148, n. — Eds. 

1648-9.] ADAM WINTHROP. 223 

allso remembrs her servise to you & my sister. I hope we 
shall see you heer shortly, and tharfore I shall spar fur- 
ther inlargment, only I intreat you to comand me in any 
ocation whear in I can doe you any servise [torn']. My 
servis and loue presente to your selfe. [torn] I comend 
you to God, and rest 

Your euer loving brother, 

Ad. Winthrop. 

[May, 1647.] 


To Ms honored Brother John Winthrop , Esq., at Pequod, these present. 

Boston, the 14 of March, 48[-9]. 
Heer being now an opportunity, I cannot omitt the 
presenting my love & servise, with thes lines. We have 
not heard from you since we heard by Providence Indian, 
but hope you are in health. I am sorry I can not write 
so to you of ourselves ; for my father indeed is very ill, 
& has bene so above a monthe. He hath kept his bed all 
most all the time ; he hath still upon him a feverish dis- 
temper & a coughing, & is brought very low, weaker 
than ever I knew him. The Lord only knows the event. 
We should be very glad if you could be heer. My father 
not being able to wright himself desired me to remember 
his love to you, my sister, & the children, &, although he 
hopes God will raise him up againe, yet he would request, 
as if it wear his last request, that you wold strive no more 
about the Pequod Indians, but leave them to the Com- 
missioners order. My brother Dudley, I hear, doth in- 
tend to come to you shortly. I cannot resolve now about 
any time to visit you, in regard of my fathers sicknesse, 

* This letter is also printed in the "Life and Letters of John Winthrop," II. 391, 
392. Governor Winthrop died March 26, 1649, — twelve days after the date of this let- 
ter. — Eds. 


but hope we shall see you heer. I pray remember me 
kindly to my sister, M rs Lake, & all my nephews & neices. 
I desire to couiend you all to Gods protection ; so, desir- 
ing your praiers, I rest 

Your brother & servant, 

Adam Winthbop. 


To his honored brother, John Winthrop, Esq% at the Plantation called 
Pequod, thes present. 

S% — My sallutations presented to youer selfe, my 
sister, M rs Lacke, my nephews & neeses. Youers from 
Providenc I recaued, and delivered youer letter to the 
maistrates. Since, we haue heard nothing from you. 
Acording to youer desire I haue lett the orchard to 
Amos and Goodman Gridly. Thay are to pay you ten 
pounds and move the fences, and weed and dress the 
trees. M r Child and I haue been allso att Tenhilles a 
treting withe the Goodman Gould aboute the farme. He 
is desirous to hiyer it for three yeers or more if you 
thinke fitt; but we can not agree vpon termes. He 
proffres only forty pounds per anum, and he to stand to 
all repairatios about the fences, and he will leave them 
in repaier, and for the houses he will stand to all repaira- 
tios about thatch and clabord, but nothing about the 
ground pining or shuch mattres, and besides he will 
make 20 perch off stone fenc every yeer. We did not' 
think fitt to agree withe hime vpon thes termes, vntill we 
heer from you. I promised him aunswer within thes 18 
rlaies. I pray send us your mind about it. He saies he 
is profferd many othere places, but he is willing to take 
this, if he can have it so as he may live vpon it. Thare 
is no other tenant presents at present. Their is a great 

1649.] ADAM WINTHKOP. 225 

hole in one of the stares in the bancke, which must off 
nessity be mended. I know not whither he be to doe it 
or you, and other repairatios to the ground pining of the 
house : the timber is much rotted. If you pleas to give 
order for it, we shall see to gett it done. Amosse has 
bought a maid servant for you, if you haue occation for 
one. She is for 4 yeers, & is to be paid for hir time. I 
pray, S r , if you doe not come downe, send as speedily as 
you cane. 

Our Eliktions are ouer. M r Endicott is Gouernor, Mf 
Dudly Deputy, the rest as befour; My Dudly and M r 
Broadstret Commissioners, Mijor Gibons Maior Genrall. 
No other newes at present, only Captain Cromwell is 
come in with some mony, but we know not what store. 
Thus w th my servs presented I tak leave, and rest 


Ad. Winthrop. 

This 3 of May, 1649. 

My M ris presents hir servss to you and my sister. She 
wold faine be onored by you ; but the journey is too long, 
so that I feare we shall not see you there yet. We are 
all well (thankes be to God) at present. 

Indorsed, " Brother Adam, about letting Tenhills." 


S* — My servise to youer self and my sister presented. 
Youer lettere by the way of Providence I rec[e]aued. 
But even now I had allmost made a bargane withe Good- 
man Goold ; but we shall now stay. Yet I think you will 
wante a tenat to your mind, for he will depend no longer ; 
yet I will doe what I can to perswad hime to stay till you 
come. Heer is now a London shipp come in that bringeth 


newes that the King is beheaded, the Lord of Holand 
and Capel and Duck Hambeletone, the vper howse of 
Parlament voted downe, and 80 of the louer house cast 
out. Great stires in France : thay follow the English 
stepes. I soposs my brother hath wroatte you at lardge. 
He comepleines much still about the acompts; but of 
that we shall speake when you come downe. My brother 
Samuell is at Antego, in the Indies, w th some thoughtes 
there to settle. He is imploied by one M r Rittch of Lon- 
don. His wife is allso there. Maior Borne is expcted 
frome London about a month hence, and Mf Alen after 
him. Most that I heer of, the Princes fleet troubles much 
the seas. I haue sent you a barrell of suger by this bark, 
Mihell Tainter being master. I could not tak the weight 
of it, the bark being in hast. I pray weighe it, and either 
give me lOd. a pound or eles let the market sett the 
prise : it can not be aford cheper, I soppos, cleliverd 
v ther. It is market with ink on one head, and 

I 9 \X/ on the other head w th an ould scrathe mark 
that M r Long vsed to mark with all. I pray 
rememb r me to all. My wife desires to be remebrd to 
your selfj my sister, and M rs Lake, with my cosens. I 
can not be longer at present; but hoping to see you 
shortly, I shall tak leave, comitting you to God's proteck- 
tion. I rest yours to serve, while I ame 

Adam Winthrop. 

Boston, this 3 June, '49. 


S* — Youeres by Josiphe Wisse I rec[e]aued, and allso 
annother letter datted 20 of Novembr. I and my wife 
give you many thankes for your kind tokenes. Consern- 
ing your bill of exchange I have spoken with M r Alene 
and some otheres. If the pay weer all wheat and malte 

1650-51.] ADAM WINTHROP. 227 

he wold vndertake it but not otherwise, but the but[c]her 
saith he is to pay a good quantity in peac and boter, which 
is not so curent at this time, but I suppose it will procure a 
bill by the way of Newfoundland, in the spring ; not with 
standing I shall doe what I can by this shipp, if any way 
may be that is shuer. M r Mathewes is intended to come 
to you by the first opertunity, and his family. I sopose 
he hath writen to you to that efeckt. I haue not else at 
present to wright, only desiring that myne and my wifes 
loue and servise may be presented to my sister, M rs Lake ; 
our lovs to the children. 

Heer is little late newes ; only by a vessell from Fiall 
we heer that Cromwell hast obteined some vicktores 
against the rebles in Irland, but no pertikulers mentioned. 
But I shall troubl you no further at presnt, the conveians 
by Providence being vnserten, only desiring the Lord to 
keep you and youers. I rest your brother and servant, 

Adam Winthrop. 

Boston, this 8 of Desember, 1649. 

My mother and grandmother desier to be remembred 
to you. 

Indorsed, " Brother Adam. Reed Dec. 27." 


To his honured Brother, John Winthrop, Esq 1 '., at Pequod, thes present, 

I pray. 

Honttr d Brother, — Youers I recaued and youer 
packeuts for England, but thay came the day after the 
shipp set saile. I sent them by the way of Barbadoss. 
Here has not bene any opertunity of writinge to you 
since till now by M r Alford, who thinkes to tutch at your 
plantation, and therfore I haue adventured thes lines to 

228 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1650-51- 

advertise you of our welfar here. Thankes be to God, our 
freinds are in good helth, only M rs Rodgers of Rowly 
with hir child latly departed this world. Conserninge 
the business you wroat of about Joshuas * portion, I haue 
spoken with my mother, related to hir your tender and 
the security you proffer. Shee hath confered with M r 
Nowell, and he doth aproue of it in cace the farme be at 
your disposinge to be mad ouer for security. He saith 
he thinks it is mad ouer to my sister and so not in a capa- 
sity to be any security. If that be clered I thinke you 
may haue it for eight per cent, yet I doubte it will be a 
yeer before it can be goten in from the cuntry, and then 
what pay it will be, whither it will turn to any acopte, I 
know not.f There has bene some about hiringe the 
orchard and Goodman Gould would haue it, but they 
offer so litle for it that I am ashamed to haue any hand 
in leting it. The most that is ofered is not aboue eight 
pounds a year. I hope you will, be heer shortly, which 
makes me defer till you come or send. Heer is no newes 
latly. No ship from any place yet come in. We thinke 
longe to heer from you and of all your welfares. My 
wife, mother, grandmother, brother Deane, and his wife 
desier to be rembred to you ; and my sister and Mr Lake 
and my cozens. I pray reniber me kindly to them all. 
So, with my servise and loue presented, I rest 
Your brother and servant, 

Adam Winthrop. 

Boston, this 25 of Feb? 1650[-51]. 

Josiph West hath paid M r Belcher, and so there is 
nothing to be done in that. 

* Joshua, only child of Governor Winthrop by his fourth marriage, died in his ninth 
year. — Eds. 

t After the death of Governor Winthrop the General Court made a grant of £200 to 
his youngest child, with a reversion in case of his death to Deane and Samuel Winthrop. 
The grant was not recorded at the time, or the record was lost, and it was inserted 
subsequently by order of the Court. See Mass. Col. Records, II. 274, III. 161, 226, 293, 
381.— Eds/ 

1652.] ADAM WINTHROP, 229 


To his honured Brother, John Wtnthrop, Esq% at Pequod, thes present. 

Honured Brother, — Youers of May I rec[e]aued. 
Since we herde by many of yower weallfar and my sis- 
ters, which is allwaies joifull tidinges. The Lord continue 
the same. I thought we should haue sene you heer befor 
this time, which has defered my writinge. Now here 
beinge an opportunity, I present my servise to you and 
my sister and cosens. Heer is little newes stiring. You 
have heer inclosed a letter from my brother Stephen. I 
soposs he informes you of his abode at Maribone Parke. 
He has purchased a house and parte of the parke. I have 
sent you allso a leter from my brother Samuell. He in- 
tendes to make a voiadge this way next yere. At S* Cris- 
tophers thir arived a shipp from Amsterdam bringing news 
of open warr between England and Holland. But 9 
weks now since the ship came from the Texell. Allso that 
2 imbassedors are gone for England to requier restitution 
of all goods taken from them by collors of reprisall 
granted by ther parlem*. This I had in a letter from the 
Gouernor of S fc Cristophers from Newfoundland. There 
is likwise newes of a fleet that was sent out by the 
States to mett S r Geordg Askew in his return from Bar- 
badoss, they cominge into the chanill (being in num- 
ber 45 saile, Yan Tromp admirall). Ther was ridinge 
ther Collonell Blake with 5 shipps. Yan Tromp com- 
inge into the chanell, Blake comands him to strick to the 
Stats of England. He refusinge, they fell to blowes. All 
the Duch shipps fell vpon the fiye shipp, and had much 
fighte, and had bene in great danger to have bene lost 
had not Captaine Moulton come in good time with seven 
or eight shipps more. He presently fell vpon the Yise 
Admirall and sunke him. The first broadsid 3 or four 
men of the Duch wear sunk and ten taken ; the rest dis- 


persed. The Admirall of the English fleet so was bat- 
terd that shee was forsed to run aground, hauing re- 
ceiued a [illegible] shott in his hull. A ship that cam to 
Newfoundland saw this light, and thus relats it ; and so 
proseded on his voiadg. This was after our shipps cam 
from England about a fortnight. This is all the news that 
is now stiring, and lik to produse much troble in the 
world. I shall not trouble you further, hoping now 
shortly to see you here. I thank you for your token, 
and so doth my wife, and desires to be rembred to you, 
my sister and cozens. Thus with my reall desirs for your 
prosperty, I remaine 

Your brother and servant, 

Adam Wintheop. 

This 2 of August, 1652. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Brother Adam, his last letter." 



To his very louing Brother, M r - John Winthrop, at Pequod, this deliver. 
From Boston, the first of Nouember, 1648. 

Sir, — I reseued your louing leter, therin vnderstand- 
ing of your wellfare & of my sisters safe deliuerence of 
a child, wherein I wich you much joye, reioysing in your 
prosprity. Sir, I would intrete you, if it mite not be to 
your predigeuce nor to the hendrence of your plantation, 
that you would save me that ground which was laide out 
for me, and I shall be willing to aloue ani resunabell 
mater for it. Sir, I understand that you did send me 
your gon, but the pinnis that should haue brogt it ded 
returne backe againe. If you plese, you may ceepe it, for 
I haue got me one ; or if it wantes mending, if you will 
sende it, I will get it don for you and send it you agin. 
So I rest, with mi servis to you & to my sister ; mi loue 
to my cusins. My wife presents her seruis to you & to 
my sister. 

Your louing Brother, 

Deane Winthrop. 

* Deane Winthrop was sixth son of Governor John Winthrop, born at Groton, March 16, 
1622, and named for his mother's half-brother, Sir John Deane. When his father emi- 
grated to New England, he was left behind at school ; but he followed in 1635, and was 
early interested in various plantations, one of which, on the Nashua Kiver, received the 
name of Groton, from the seat of his family in England. He subsequently built a house at 
Pulling Point in Boston harbor, then known as Rumney Marsh, and since incorporated as 
the town of Winthrop. Here he resided more than forty years, dying March 16, 1704, at 
a very advanced age, the last survivor of Governor Winthrop's children. Judge Sewall, in 
his Diary, gives an interesting account of his death and funeral. He married, first, Sarah, 
daughter of Rev. Jose Glover, and sister of the wife of his brother Adam. By her he had 
a numerous family, but his sons died unmarried before him. He married, secondly, prior 
to 1684, Martha, widow of Captain John Mellows, who survived him. — Eds. 



To his Very Lowing Brother, M r John Winthrop, this deliver at his 

hous in Pequod. 

May the 14* [?] 

Deare Brother, — I thought tell today that I should 
haue presented my person to you, insted of these lines ; 
but I could by [no] menes perswade Goodman Willi nor 
Goodman Lathem to helpe driue my catell nor your 
hogds, which is the reson that now I doe not com. I 
proferd them twenty shillings to hellpe driue my catill, 
besides what you would haue giuen them for driuing your 
hodgs. Pray, will you reserve that 40 s of Goodman La- 
tham which he owes me ? He is to pay it in commodi- 
ties, in shoues and stockines or cloth at the [same] prise 
as he bies them here. I have sent your iron which 
you bought of Goodman Osbin, and toe bares of stele 
which I had of M r . Leader by Goodman Trombal. Your 
hogds, I fear, will be lost. They will doe more herme 
then they be worth. So I rest 

Your louing brother, 

Deane Winthrop. 

There is a litill box of glasies for you in Goodman 
Trombles vessile. My mother remembres her loue to 
you and to my sister. Your chilldrin be all well. Pray 
present my servis to my sister. 

Indorsed, "Brother Dearie." 

For his honored Brother, Mr. John Winthrop, this present. London. 

Honored Brother, — Hairing an opportunyty, I doe 
present my seruis to you, with my thankfullnes to you 

1662.] DEANE WINTHROP. 233 

for your many fauors, leting you understand that I am 
in health, my wife and chilldren. I reseued your leter, 
for which I returne you thanks. I was in hopes to have 
sen you here before this time. My sister, your wife, did 
staye here in the Bay som part of this somer, hoping to 
haue met with you ; but now she is gon home. I hope 
she is well. I haue not herd latly from her. I haue 
som thoughts of remouing from the place that I now liue 
in into your coloni, if I cold lit of a convanet pleace. 
The please that I now liue in is to litel for me, — mi 
chilldren now groueing up. Haueing nothing elce at 
present to troble you with, 

Your louing brother, 

Deane Winthrop. 

The 16 of Desember, 1662. 

My wife presents her seruis to you and thanks you for 
your olifes. 


For his Honor d Cusin, Capt. John Winthrop. 

Honored Cosin, — Haueing an opertunyty by my 
brother Richerds, he going for England, I doe present 
my thankfullnes to you for your leter and your louing 
expretions there in exprest. I am glad to here of your 
intentions for New England. I was in hopes I should 
haue seen my brother and you here before this time ; 
but nou, the time of the yere being past, who can not 
expect you tell the springe. 

Louing cusin, haueing nothing elce to present vnto but 
my loue and respects which I allwais bare you, desiring 
your happines in this life and in the life to come, I rest 

Your louing vncle, 

Deane Winthrop. 

The 16 of Desember, 1662. 




Thenerife, Aprill 5^, 1646. 

Honored Father, — S r , by M r Peter Rickford, by 
way of the Barbados, I presented you my duty and tidings 
of my health and welfare, which God is pleased to con- 
tinue unto me euen at this present tyme, blessed be his 
name for it. This conueyance is in like manner by y e 
Barbados, by Captaine Peter Strong, which y e remem- 
brance of my duty and nere alliance would not suffer me 
to pretermit without expressing my filiall obedience and 
craueing yo r paternall blessing vpon me yo r unworthy 
sonne, who hopes it is not in anger but in judgm* and 
mercy that God hath distanced not only from kindred 
and fathers house, but also from the pretious meanes of 
grace, which God knowes, to my helplesse greife, I am 
depriued of, which though sowre at y e present yet I hope 
will prove sweet in y e end, and a tedious absence now 

* Samuel Winthrop, the youngest son of Governor John Winthrop who reached matu- 
rity, was baptized at Groton, England, Aug. 28, 1627, and came to America with his 
mother when a child of four. He was a student at Harvard under President Dunster, but 
did not stay long enough to take a degree. His father's estate being much impaired by 
the misconduct of his steward, Samuel went abroad at an early age to seek his fortune ; 
married, in 1648, a Dutch lady in Holland, and ended by permanently establishing him- 
self as a planter in the West Indies. In 1668 he was Deputy Governor of Antigua. He 
died in that island, where he was much respected, about 1677. He was a man of deep 
religious feeling, and, from some expressions in his later letters, it would seem that he 
joined the Quakers. Several of his sons were educated in New England, and three of them 
married and settled in the West Indies, but his male line became extinct in the next gen- 
eration. Among his descendants in the female line is Lord Lyons, long British Minister at 
Washington. — Eds. 

1647.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 235 

will produce a more conuenient presence for the injoym* 
of them hereafter. Concerning y e outward man, here is 
as great a likelyhood for y e raising my outward estate as 
in any place, considering the troubles of this age, & that 
with a little stocke, w ch I trust God will prouide for me 
by some meanes or other in his due tyme. The gentle- 
men with whome I reside are verry loueing vnto me, 
and seme desirous of my company, which my present 
resolution is to graunt, and yo r pleasure manyfested to y* 
purpose shall confirme. In the meane tyme I request 
yo r prayers to God for me that he would helpe me so to 
demean my selfe in the tyme of my stay that I may doe 
what may be pleasing to himselfe and to those to whom 
I doe belong. What spare tyme I haue, which in the 
summer tyme is indifferent, I spend in reading Gods word 
and in other good studyes, so that y e theory of my learn- 
ing may not be diminished, however y e practice be lost. 

Being not willing to be too molestsome to you unless 
I had busines of concernm* to transmit, I submissiuely 
craue yo r blessing and prayers, desire the prolonging of 
yo r many comfortable yeares, and desist. 

Yo r obedient son, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

I pray present my reverent and respectfull salutations 
to Mr Cotton, Wilson, Sheapard, Dunster, and y e rest of 
Gods ministers with you, whoes prayers and petitions at 
y e throne of grace for me I am bold to request. 

Indorsed by Governor Winthrop, " Sonne Sam : From Teneriff, Apr. 5, 


Barbados, 16 May, 1647. 

Honered Father, — S r , the respect I haue vnto my 
dutie towards yo r selfe and willing obseruance of y r pater- 



nail aduise, which take no lesse place w th me then a reall 
command, hath called me from Theneriffe vnto this 
goodly iland, where I purpose to stay, & expect what 
imploym* my freinds w th you and in other places will 
bestowe vpon mee here, serious <pmisses from the gentle- 
men whence I came to further me w th what busines they 
can, both of their owne and other mens. The reson why 
they sent not anie thing w th me was because the m r chnt 
that freighted the ship did it for his owne acc fc wholly. 
Wee went from Theneriffe to the Hands of Cape de Verd ; 
a diurnall of which voyage would haue sent, but haue 
not leysure at present. Here are some gentlemen would 
imploy me that way againe if they can light of a good 
ship ; whoes offer I will not reject if can agree vpon 
good tearmes, in which time I may aduise my freinds of 
my beinge here, who, I hope, wilbe willing to make use of 
me as soone as another, especially o r New England mer- 
chants. I am very much streightned for time, and, here 
being a vessell shortly bound to yo r parts, shall refer 
perticulers till then. In the meane time craue the frui- 
tion of yo r blessing and helpe of yo r prayers, present you 
my dutie (and likewise to my mother, whoes pardon I 
must craue at present), and rest 

Yo r obedient sonne, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

Pray, S r , remember my loue and seruise to my brother 
Jno., my brother Deane, and sisters, whose excuse I 
craue for not wrighting, which will doe at large, God will- 
ing, by next conueyance. I haue herew th inclosed letters 
to My Stephens & Mr Bodg. Pray, S r , let them not be 
forgotten, for they will import me. 

1647.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 237 


S T X t pors, August 30, 1647. 

Hono rd Father, — S r , my laste vnto you was from the 
Barbados, where I advized of my health and purpose of 
coming downe to this island w th a parcell of wines, w ch is 
now put in execution, &, blessed bee God, well sold. I 
thought to have remained at the Barbados, but want of 
a passage hath diverted my minde. I must now pfoarce 
see London or Holland : I must not lie still and begge. 
S r Thomas Warner hath used me verry kindely here and 
showne me a great deale of favor both in advice & assist- 
ance, being a stranger & like wise his Lady interteyned 
me w th a great deale of courtesy, who is now gon for 
Holland. Pray, S r , be not unmindfull in yo r next letters 
to returne him thankes. By Mf Payson I received the 
sad newes of my mothers death, w ch I thought I could 
have born w th a great deale more patience then now I 
finde I canne. Praie God so to season it to me that out 
of this greatest affliccon I maie receive greatest benefit. 
He hath promised that all things shall prove to the best 
to those that love and feare him. If all things, then the 
losse of a dearest mother, to whom I may goe but to me 
she neer can come. Greife cuts me offe that I cannot 
write either what nor as I would. Let these request yo r 
prayers to the Almighty for mee, that, though all freinds 
fayle & nerest relacons be taken awaie, yet that he would 
fayle me never. Pray, S r , remember my best respects 
to my Brother Jn°, w n you have opportunitie of writeing 
to him, & likewise to my brother Deane, whoes remote 
liveing shall excuse my not writeing. So, craveing yo r 
blessing, rest 

Yo r most obedient sonne, Samuel Winthrop. 

Praie remember me kindly to Goodman Child & his wife. 

* This letter has also been printed in " The Life and Letters of John Winthrop," 
II. 367. 368. —Eds. 

238 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1647-8. 


Fial, 10 Januarie, 1647[-8]. 

Honored Father, — S T ., by Mf Turner from S fc X fc pers, 
acquainted you w tb my condicon, & w th all the occur- 
rences of Gods prouiclence to me both by sea & land. 
Since that, Mf Starkie, o r merchant, comeing downe to 
reseiue what goods I had there reddy, was taken away in 
the sickness, & the next day after his buriall my selfe fell 
sicke of the same desease, whic was so extreme then in 
the iland that scarce a young man scaped it. If they 
rubed out 3 dayes, for the most part they recovered. 
Myne continued ten dayes in such extremity that every 
one despayred of my health not only, but expected when 
I should depart to another world ; but it pleased God to 
blesse extreame bleading and command it to be a remedy 
to so vehemet a feauor, from which, when it pleased God 
to recouer me, my cares & sorrowes increased vpon me in 
respect of o r marchant deceaseds busines, for S r Thomas 
requested me to administer vpon his estate, and so I did ; 
but comeing to looke for acco ts found none, but althings 
in a verry great confusion, which since I haue endeauored 
to rectify. Departing from thence, when we were in the 
latitude 25 we sprang a great leake, & much adoe we had 
to kepe her aboue water till we made this iseland. For 
further relacon in this busines I referre you to the bearer 
hereof, M r Augustin Waker, whom, I pray, thanke for 
his loueing assistance of me when I arriued. I cannot 
tellas yet what wilbe the ishue of the busines : at present 
it is verry troublesome. The Mr of o r ship being a verry 
crosse graine fellow, and seekes what may be to vnder 
mine me & y e estate in my handes, from whoes mallice 
& y e worlds troubles I hope God will deliuer mee. Pray, 
S r , if occasion presents that you write St. Xpors, giue Sf 
Thomas Warner thankes for his fatherly care ouer me, 

1648.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 239 

when he vnderstood the relacon I had to yo r selfe, & like- 
wise Capan Clement Everet, a justice of peace, who being 
o r country man & hearing o r name, vsed me verry cour- 
tiously, and assisted me much in my law suites, which 
were there verry many. Justice Froth, who was of yo r 
acquaintance in England (as he informes me), was his 
grandfather. I haue left in his handes my busines in 
S* Xpers. God send me an end of these troubles. I 
little thought my yeares should haue bin so involved. 
I hope it is for my good. I haue not at present to acquaint 
you w th , & my busines requiring brevity, desire yo r bless- 
ing & prayers, & rest 

Yo r dutifull sonne, 

Samuel Wijsthrop. 

Pray, Sf, remember my best respects to my brother 
Jn°, my loue to my sisters & to all o r freinds, quos mine 
prcescribere longum esset. Kemember my loue to Good- 
man Childe and my nurse. Busines prevents my writing 
to my president, W. Dunster, and the rest. 


To the Worppl Jn°. Winthrop, Usq r , these at his house present in 
New England. 

August 7, 1648, Rotterdam. 

Honored S*, — My last vnto you was in June, by way 
of Virginia, wherein acquainted you w th my proceedings, 
w ch I hope haue long since found you. I haue now (as it 
is the will of God) altered my condition, wherein I haue 
found manie occurrances of Gods prouidences, tending, I 
hope, to my good. I informed you p my last that I pur- 
posed to go to Barbados & setle there ; but since I am 
resolued to come & present you my duty first in New 
England, & take yo r counsell therein, w ch shalbe verry sud- 

240 THE WINTnROP PAPERS. [1648. 

daynly. M r Cogon is here. & I purpose to shape the same 
course that he doth and come ouer together, either direct 
if we can or elce by way of A T irginia. This conveyance 
is by way of London, & is vncertayne, w ch makes me 
contract my selfe, &, w th my duty presented, yo r prayers 
& blessing requested, coiiiend you to the protection of the 
Almighty, & remayne 

Yo r truelie obedient sonne, 

Samuel Wikthrop. 

I haue written my brother Stephen almost euery post 
since I came for Holland, w ch was 2 d Aprill, 1648, but cann 
heare no answer. 

Pray, S r , remember my best respects to my brothers 
& sisters. If the conueyance had bin certeyne I would 
haue written them. I would intreat my brother Adam 
to keepe w* consigned to him in Augustin Waker, in his 
handes, or imploy it for my vse till I come. 

My wife presents her humble dutie to yo r selfe, w th her 
tender loue & respects to my brothers and sisters, & pur- 
poses if anie good conueyance should preceed her owne 
comeing, to write both yo r selfe and them in perticuler. 

Indorsed by Governor Winthrop, " Sonne Sam 11 , 1648.'* 


To his honored Brother, Jn? Winthrop, Esq., these d h ' in Boston. 

Rotterdam, f| 7ber, 1648. 

Honored Brother, — My last vnto you was from the 
Canaries, where likewise I res d one from you w th the 
manie expressions of yo r loue to me vndeseruing. Pray, 
S% excuse me in that I haue not oftner written you as my 
dutie required. S r , I question not but my fathers letters 
haue acquainted you w tb the change of my condition, & 

1654.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 241 

w th manie. other passages to w ch referre you. I should be 
exceding glad that I might haue injoyed the compa of all 
my deare relacons, but want of meanes driues me to ad- 
uenture vpon manie hardships w ch I should be glad to 
avoyde if I knew how. I purpose, God willing, to goe to 
the Barbados, where in all probability I can Hue better 
then in other places. I hope o r New England freinds will 
be as willing to imploy me there in their busines as soone 
as others. My greatest strayt wilbe at my first setling, 
my stock being verrie small. What I haue is gotten by 
the swet of my browes ; & so I must Hue. I know not 
if my father hath anie thing for me. I haue rec d nothing 
yet, & if I neuer doe I am contented. I know God hath 
enough in store for all them that feare him, w ch is my 
comfort & my only support. Now, deare brother, my ear- 
nest desire is that you would not be vnmindefull to write 
to me, for I loue you dearely, & shall take it exceeding 
kindely. Pray present my kinde respects vnto my sister, 
my loue to my cozens, & pray for him who wishes you 
all health & ^sperity, craues leaue & remaynes 
Yo r affectionate brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

My wife, though vnknowne, salutes you, & desires you 
would owne her, as she is yo r respectiue & loueing sister, 
Elizabeth Winthrop. 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr., " Broth* Sam, fro Rotterda." 


For the Worpp 11 Jno. Winthrop, Esq% these present, in New England. 

Honored Brother, — I haue not any thing of busi- 
ness to trouble you w th , only my deare affections to yo r 
selfe & yo rs makes me take hould of euery oppertunity 



possible to salute you, hopeing tliat I shall receiue the 
good tidings of yo r health shortly from yo r selfe. By my 
last I did signify to you the cause of my remoue from 
Antigua to this island, & my being here will administer 
more often occasions to commune w th you by writing. 
S r , I haue not more at present then to signify you my 
owne, my wifes, and childrens health, — my wife hath 
brought me a daughter, — & to tender you o r reall affec- 
tion, & remaine 

Yo r most affectionate brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

S NT Xtophers, 17 th November, 1654. 

Excuse haste. 


St. Xtophers, 15 th June, 1655. 

Hoxo RD Brother, — I haue not of late receiued any 
letter from you, though by my sister Adams letters to 
me, receiued 6 weekss since, I was acquainted w th y e 
newes of yo r good health & my sisters, as also of yo r late 
losse, w ch must be borne w th patience. Children are but 
lent, as all other comforts are. My sister writes me 
she is intended a voyage to you verry shortly ; & when I 
read such intended meetings of my freinds it breeds in 
mee a two daies melancholy, that in all those frendly 
societyes of my nere relations I cannot make one. I 
haue lately wrot to you by two conueyances y t haue 
offered from hence to Boston. This is by my cozen Ed- 
ward Parkes. You must giue him a little after a hard , 
voyage. Being vnexperienced in theis partes, be hath 
found more difficulty in his businesse then other wise he 
mought. Deare Brother, I haue no greater felicity in 
my foerced exilem* from my kindred then to heare from 
them, & in perticuler from yo r selfe, being y e cheife piller 

1655-6.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 243 

of o r family, & my dayly prayers are for yo r preseruation 
& y e happinesse of yo rs . I pray present my hearty re- 
spects to my sister & yo r children, & as often as may be 
lay yo r coihandes vpon 

Yo r most affectionat brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 


Honored Brother, — Yo rs I receiued 30 th Decemb r , 
1655, w ch mentions a former by M r Laraby, & one by 
M r Jones, w ch neuer came to hand, nor euen heard of y e 
ship or Thom. Harris. S r , I am verry joyfull to heare of 
yo r health, & that of yo r family, & sorry that I haue bin 
so troublesome to yo r selfe & my freinds. I had prouid- 
ed, I thought, so suerly for the paym* when I engaged 
Kempthorne to carry my riging, w ch cost nere 400 1 , & 
bought upon y t assurance that I supposed it would not 
haue bin much trouble ; but since it is fallen out other- 
wise, I must craue yo r excuse, & remaine yo r debtor. 
Cap* Clarke wrot to mee that he would haue taken y e 
proffer, had it not bin for boards at Pascataway. I know 
not how y e billes can be protested, in regard paym fc hath 
bin profferd according to my bill, w ch was comodities & 
mony, not specifying w* quantity of mony, nor was euer 
any other quantity intended than y t w ch would suit w th my 
conueniency, nor yet the quality of the coinodity. Since 
it hath thus farre succeded, I question not but the end 
wilbe w th credit, there being no ground for any protest. 
I am infinitely ingaged to yo r selfe & M r Richardson, 
& so sensible thereof that I will not call any thing of 
w fc God hath lent mee mine untill I haue to y e utmost 
farthing discharged that ingagem* ; & if in the interim I 
may be found seruiceable to you, I shall w th all ready- 
nesse embrace yo r comandes. For M r Ghests business I 
will doe in it more then if it were my owne, and w th all 


possible speed. S r , exceding hast commandes me to 
breake off, in w ch respect let mee craue yo r excuse, & w th 
theis to accept the tender of my hearty & respectiue 
affection to yo r selfe, my good sister & children. S r , I 

Yo r affectionate brother & seruant, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

St Xtophers, 29th Jan'y, 1655 [-6]. 


For the Worpp 11 John Winthrop, Esq., at his house at Pequit. 

Honored Brother, — Theis serue only to giue you 
thankes for yo r seuerall letters & those loueing expres- 
sions receiued in them, as also to giue you an accompt of 
my long silence, w ch hath at seuerall times proceeded 
from seuerall causes compeling y e same, w ch too often 
happen to him y fc cannot at all times comand his own 
leisure. I haue sent my two sonnes to New England, to 
receiue their education there, demeing y* place more fit 
for it then this. I pray God send them his blessing, y t 
they maye growe up & increace in y e knowledge of him 
& his Sonne Christ Jesus, whom to know is life eternall. 
1 thinke their mothers fondnesse will one daye force us 
to follow them. I vnderstand by My Richardson y fc God 
continues health & blessing to yo r selfe, my sister, & coz- 
ins, for w ob I prayse him w tb you. If I may bee capeable 
of doeing you any pleasure in theis partes, I shall gladly 
receiue yo r coiiiandes. In y e interim, w th my owne & 
wifcs hearty respects to yo r selfe, my sister, & cozins, I 
coihend you to Gods protection, & remayne 
S r , yo r most affectionate brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

St Xtophers, 8 th Sepber, 1657. 

1658-9.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 245 


Most Deare & Honored Brother, — I finde my selfe 
verry much beholding to yo r kindnes, that takes opper- 
tunities of leting me hear from you. Yo r last was in 
June last, & came to me safe, but I know not by what 
conveyance. I shal be glad this may finde yo r selfe, my 
sister, & young kinsfolke in good health, w ch of earthly 
blessings is the cheife. Blessed be God, he continues it 
to me & mine in this hott country exceding well, w ch I 
intend not longer to experim* than I can fitt my selfe to 
come neerer to you, w ch now I hope will not be long. I 
spake lately w h one Cap* Aylett (who married Cap fc Haw- 
kins daughter) as he went to Jamaica, & he tels me o r 
Brother Stephen, when he came out of London, w ch is 
5 m°thes since, lay verry sick. God graunt him a good 
recovery. He hath bin a long time sickly. Perhaps you 
may haue had later newes. From London it is reported 
y t many factious heads are dayly cutt off there vpon y e old 
businesse, & that y e citty hath bin sett on fire severall 
times, & many other plottes discouered. Dens dabit his 
quoq finem sed erit sno tempore. Deare brother, I haue not 
leisure to adde more at present then my hearty loue & 
respects to yo r selfe, my good sister, & my loueing neph- 
ews & neces, & remaine 

Yo r truely loveing & respective brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

St Xtophers, ye 25 th daye of Octo., 1658. 


To the Worpp 11 John Winthrop, Esq% theis are in New England. By 
M: Shipway. q:d:g rde . 

Deare and Honored Brother, — Yo rs y e 18 th of June 
last I haue reed, & therein manifestacon of yo r great care 

246 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1659-60 

of my sones, for w ch I am heartily thankefull. I thanke 
God they haue found good friends there, to my great 
comfort. By a letter from M r Child, I vnderstand my 
nece Elisabeth is marryed to one M r Newman* God 
make it comfortable w th his blessing. My wife intendes 
for N. England this somer in M r Graftons ketch, w th y e 
rest of o r children, w ch are two daughters & two sonnes, 
Elizabeth & Sara, J°° & Samuel. I doe not finde this 
country good for children, &, being Gods blessings, 
desire to prouide y e best y t I can for them. This is by 
M r Shipway, who married y e sister of M r Cutt of Pascat- 
away, who, bound from hence, telles me he thinkes to 
touch at Pequit. I hope this will finde yo r selfe, my sister, 
& all yo rs in good health, of w ch I wish an increase of all 
spirituall blessings, & remaine in all true affection, 

Yo r loueing brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

18th March, 1658[-9]. 


To the Worpp 11 John Winthrop, Esq r , theis present in New England. 
St Xtophers, ye 13th daie of Februarie, 1659[-60]. 

Honord Brother, — It is now long since I reed a line 
from you, yett I haue lately heard of yo r well fare by 
others, & in perticuler by this bearer. I thinke his name 
is M r Hamlin, who, touching here by water, did me the 
fauor to lett me know he came from yo r parts & should 
return thither again. I am verry joyfull y t Gods bless- 
inge doth follow you & yo r family in so free a dispensa- 
tion. Through many hopes I am as yet but arriued at 
hope that I shall come to you that I may prayse him 
w th you, for suerly he hath bin verry good to me. My 
wife salutes you, my sister, & cozens. She now lyes in 

* Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Governor John Winthrop, Jr., married Rev. Antipas 
Newman, of Wenham, in 1658. — Eds. 

1660.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 247 

of another boye, that she brought me 4 dayes since. 
Blessed be God, wee are in good health, but want yet y e 
cheif good, a powerfull ministery, of w ch wee are of late 
more sensible, in regard of some great scandols in life 
discouered in him whom we called y e parson of Midle 
Island Parish, for w ch he is putt out of office. The benefice 
is y e best in y e island, & might content a reasonable 
minister, & y e people are verry desirous, if possible, to be 
supplyed from New England. You will much farther y e 
worke of y e Lord if you doe incourage any godly, able, 
graue minister to accept thereof, for it must not be a 
young man that must deal w th this people, nor one y fc will 
seem to winke at their madnesse, but a verry seveer 
reproover of their vices, & one y t will teach them by his 
example to walke soberly as in y e daye. I haue <pmised 
to write to you about it, & doe request yo r speedy answer. 
Oh y* it could be w th y e person of such a one as I haue 
said. Dear brother, I heartily wish yo r prosperity, &, w th 
my true loue to you, my good sister, & cosens, I rest, 
Yo rs in a true affection, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

Lett him not fear y e losse of his labor, if y e person 
hath a charge. Lett him come first alone, & try whether 
he likes or nott. Lett him also bring his certificates w fch 
him from some of y e churches & persons of quality. 

Indorsed by Governor Winthrop of Connecticut, "Brother Sam: Win- 
throp, fro Christophers. Rec. Apr. 8, 1660." 


To the Right Worpp 11 John Winthrop, Esq r ., Gouernor of Conecktocott, 

theis present. 

Hono rd Brother, — My last vnto you was by a man of 
yo r partes. He touched here in his way from Barbados. 
His name I haue forgotten. Since I haue rec d yo rs by my 


Couzen Dudley, who is w th me, & whom I will indeauor 
to leaue in my place here at my comeing awaie, w ch will 
not be long, & something y e sooner for a letter I rec d from 
Deacon Child, who telles me he hath acquainted you w th 
my desire to purchase yo r farme at Ten Hils, to w ch he 
vnderstandes you are consenting. It is true I did write to 
him to desire him by some sorte of waye to inquire if you 
had any disposicon to part w th it, in regard I thought y e 
conueniency of it might suit well w th mee, & 1 desired to 
haue it before another; & since you are pleased to giue 
me a graunt of it, I shall not trouble you farther herein 
vntill I see you, w ch caiiot be this yeare, I thinke. I hope 
this will find yo r selfe & my good sister, w th all my cozens, 
in health, & in as full an injoym* thereof as we are here, 
blessed be God. My wife is lately deliuered of another 
soraie, whom we call Thomas. In my last I desired yo r 
assistance in inviting to us a good minister. O r want still 
continues, & so doth my request. To y* purpose also 
o r Go r hath written to M r Endicott. I hope between 
you both you maye preuaile, & be an instrum* of inward 
& outward happiness to this place. If you want any 
thing from theis partes, vpon knowledge of it you shalbe 
furnished from him y fc truly loues & honors you, &, w th all 
hearty respects to yo r selfe, my sister, & cozens, remaines 
Yo r truely loveing & respective brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

26 March, 1660. 


To the Right Worpp 11 John Winthrop, Escf, theis present at Hartford, 
in New England. 

St Xtophers, y e 20th Oetobr, 1660. 

Honored Brother, — I am sorry you should take so 
much paines to giue mee satisfaction touching yo r non 
capacity to sell yo r farme, seeing one word from you hath 
power enough to make me beleiue a matter more difficult, 

1660.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 249 

& I question not but when it shall pleas God to bring me 
to you I shall finde contentm* enough. I know not by 
what conueyance yo r last letter, dated from Hartford, 
came to me, but it came very welcome, findeing in it yo r 
continued loue & affection to me & mine, & y e good tid- 
ings of y e welfare of yo r selfe & yo rs , & yo r recouery from 
so dangerous a distemper. You haue long before now y e 
newes of Gods great worke in bringing y e king againe 
into England. His great piety makes him welcome euen 
to those who did least desire his company. I thinke we 
haue lost yo r N. England trade, haueing had none a long 
time from y e Bay, so y* I can neither hear from thence 
nor send thither ; nor doe I know by whom I send this to 
you, for one of my seruants being at y e road mett a man 
who told him he should see you verry shortly, to whom I 
send this letter for conueyance. He asked him his name ; 
but he told my man y* he was a stranger to me, &c. I 
haue laid down my secretaries place, & am gathering in 
my debts as fast as I can. Wee expect a new Gof euery 
daye, after whose arrivall I shall certeynly know how to 
dispose of my selfe, & I thinke it will be for yo r partes. I 
haue taken much paines out of nothing to gett an estate, 
& it lying in landes & plantacons I cannot verry sud- 
denly so order them as to be a certyn <pfit to me in 
my absence. My Cozen Dudly is well, & shall not want 
for any thing, but as yett o r charges hath hindred his pre- 
ferment to any businesse. Fearing to misse of y e bearer, 
I pray for yo r prosperity, &, recommending my selfe to 
yo r good affection w th hearty salutes to yo r selfe, me deare 
sister, & cozens, I remaine 

Yo r most affectionate brother, Samuel Winthrop. 

The Brimston Hill you speak of is dirty stuff; but if a 
small quantity of y e other may pleasure you, I shall send 
my negros to bring down some, as also I will p r first send 
you some salt peter earth. 



To the Right Worpp 11 John Winthrop, Esq r , theis present in New England. 

Honored Brother, — I found a letter from you via 
Barbados, in w cb was yo r resolue touching yo r farme, w th 
w ch I am verry well satisfyed you may perceiue by a letter 
wrott you long since, if come to yo r hand. By a letter 
from Mr Richardson, I vnderstand you are intended for 
England suddenly, w ch giues me a despayer of seeing you 
yet a while. I hope it is not a remoue of yo r family, but 
yo r pson only. And, indeed, I thinke y e affaires of yo r 
country may want the interposicon of some discrete per- 
son, & that timely, least some irreuocable losse should 
happen. I pray God direct you in all yo r wayes. It was 
the regard Dauid had to his testimonies that made him 
wiser then all his teachers. To his grace & fauor I 
coin end you, &, w th an vnfeignecl affection to y r selfe, my 
deare sister & cousens presented, remayne 
Yo r truely loueing brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

S* Xtophers, 12 Feb. 1660[-61]. 


To the Worpp 11 John Winthrop, Esq', theis present in N. England. 

Honored Brother, — I much rejoyce at yo r safe re- 
turne to yo r family, & y t y e Lord doth blesse you & them 
w th health, praysed be his name. It hath been his pleas- 
ure to visit this island with much sicknesse this winter ; — 
a violent feuor & fluxe with most ; with others no fluxe, 
but great costiuenesse. A great many lusty young men 
are dead of it. My family hath escaped as yet ; only 
my selfe, I haue had it verry sorely, but am by Gods 

1663.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 251 

goodness recouered. I am in yo r debt a great many let- 
ters, not knowing where to write to you. When you 
were in England I was in constant expectacon of yo r 
return; & once in great hopes you might haue touched 
here, of w ch I should haue been exceeding joyfull. At 
last, I hope I shall be able to remoue from hence to you. 

1 am indeauouring of it, but cannot yet settle my busi- 
nesse so y* I dare leaue it. My Lord Willoughby is now 
come to Barbados, & wilbe w th us 6 weekes hence. His 
comeing wilbe beneficiall as to some things, but otherwise 
his absence were more to be desired, especially for those 
y t hold lands from Oliuers Gouerno rs , of w ch number I 
am one. As to Mf Kichardsons debts here, I haue had 
much trouble with it ; & last year, by seuerall discompts & 
changes, I brought y e debt into my hands. It was y e 
1° of Aug*, 1662. Since w ch here hath been no conuey- 
ance, nor I could not send a letter nor any releif to my 
children. It troubles me much he hath it not. My last 
to him was 27th Aug* last : in w ch I begged of him to 
order some vessell to call for it about June next, for wee 
make sug r only in y e spring & sumer; after July none. 
Capt. Clarke hath had sug r layn here in caske almost 

2 years. I know not what men would haue me to doe. 
I am glad my sunnes follow their learning. I haue had a 
great losse in Deacon Child & M r Euans death, & now can 
hardly tell what to doe with my sonnes. If I send for 
them away they wilbe great loosers. I trust y e Lord will 
finde them friends. I present my owne & my wifes 
reall & affectionate loue to yo r selfe, my deare sister & 
cozins, & remain 

Yo r truely loueing & obseruant brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

Antigua, 8^ Nov., 1663. 

I long to hear of y* effect of yo r N. E. businesse. 



To his Hon' 1 Brother, John Winthrop, Esq., at New London in 
New England, dd. 

Honored Brother, — I reed yo r kind letters from 
Boston, wherein I vnderstancl of yo r good healths, at w ch 
I much rejoyce, desireing, if it may be y e will of God, 
once more to see you, w th my dear sister & cozins ; to 
w ch , as to yo r selfe, I haue some hopes from y e bearer 
hereof, Mr Lane, who telles me you haue an intention this 
way in y e spring. I wish it may continue. I came this 
afternoone ten miles to see what this vessell was ; not 
knowing but she might belong to Boston, & that in her 
I might finde passage for M r Richardsons sug r , w ch I haue 
kept by me in a bin all this year, & as yet can gett no 
freight for it. He wearies me w th complaynts & publique 
raylings, when God knowes I would send it him if I 
knew how ; but it is so y* I can neither send his nor 
releiue my pore sonnes, who liue vpon y e charity of good 
people. I haue by M r Lane sent a packett to M rs Child, 
in w ch their mother sends them some mony & other 
things. I request you will please to giue it y e first con- 
ueyance, for I know they are in want. If I could haue 
persuaded Mf Lane to stay a little, I would haue sent my 
sister some of o r country fruites ; but I cannot preuayle. 
Wee heare nothing here of newes. My Lord Willoughby 
hath been here & confirmed o r lands, & setled a custom 
of 4.^ p C of all goods of y e growth of y e country y l shal 
be exported. I haue reed fauors from him more then I 
did expect. Dear brother, I haue a sincere affection to- 
wards you, & I trust God will in due time open a way 
for y e manifestacon of it. In y e interim, w th my hearty 
& reall respects to yo r selfe, my deare sister & cozins, I 

Yo r truely affectionat brother, Samuel Winthrop. 

Antigua, from aboard Mr Lane, y e 12 th July, 1664. 

Indorsed, " Capt. Sam. Winthrop. Rec. at Gravesend on Long Island, 
Aug. 27, 1664." 

1664?] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 253 


To the Worp 11 John Winthrop, Esq r , theis present, in New England. By 

M r . Shipway. Q. D. gde. 

[Sept., 1664?] 

Hono r . d Brother, — Since July last, y* I wrot to yo by 
M? Lane, I haue not had opertunity to send to yo, yet 
I had y e happinesse 6 weeks past to receiue one from yo, 
by w ch you were pleased to lett me know of y e health of 
yo r selfe, my dear sister, & cozins, of w ch I am exceeding 
joyfull ; as also by yo rs then I rec'd inteligence of y e new 
affaires in yo r country. I wish it may doe well. Theis 
are by M v . Shipway, who touched to the southward of this 
island & did me y e kindnesse to come & see me, by whom 
(I understand he was bound to New Haven) I haue sent 
my sister a barrell of brown sug r , such as I make, & should 
be glad of frequenter passages y* I might show y* I am 
not forgetfull of my kindred. M r Wharton hath been w th 
me, & is still at Neuis. By him I haue made a diligent 
inquiry of yo r parts, & o r relacons there. I wish I could 
order my businesse to dwell by yo y e remainder of y* little 
time I haue to line ; & it may be I may obteyne my 
desire, if it shall pleas God to open o r trade againe for 
England, y* I may w th security send home my goods for 
London. I haue last yeare & this lost a considerable busi- 
nesse ; last yeare by miscarryage of y e Antigua marchant, 
where Capt. Clarke had nere 30, thousand pounds of 
sug r ; and this yeare De Rutter his fleett tooke Cap* 
Brookes, in w ch I had an adventure, & M r Wharton also, 
for I shipt for him 758 7 lb in y* ship to paye money es for 
my Nephew Waitstill in London. Here is now a fleet of 
seuen sayle of Dutchmen wayting vpon us y fc wee cannot 
stirre. I haue here reddy for M r Wharton 20 odde thou- 
sand pounds of sug r for M r Richardson & to supply my 
sonnes. I expect his catch from Barbados euery day. 
I wish she were well gone w th itt, that M r Richardson 


might rayle no more at me. I hope when I haue stopt his 
mouth full of interest & allowance between mony & 
country pay (though mine hath all bin mony pay to him 
all along), that he will hold his peace. De Rutter hath 
taken a great many ships at Monserat & Neuis. He 
toucht not here, but is gone (as is reported) to y e Manat- 
tes, or Newfoundland. Wee haue not yett any newes 
of y e engagem* of y e fleets at home, but mighty prepara- 
con on both sides, as if they ment to plant y e sea w th 
pines before they begin, & turne it into a forrest. The 
great Gouernor of all things in his due time will show 
his seruants what he meanes to doe in theis latter dayes. 
Wee haue had a space giuen us to meet him in his mer- 
cyes, & now happy is y e man that is prepared to meet his 
Maker in judgnr*. I purpose to continue my sonnes still 
in New England, & I thinke by this time they may be 
fitt for y e Colleclge, & I shall giue order for their goeing 
thither, & doe heartily request y e President may receiue 
yo r recomiends on their behalfe, w eh I know will be much 
to their aduantage, for y e well composed aspect of a Presi- 
dent vpon his pupills hath a greater influence then vpon 
one person, for it reaches to all. I haue a great in- 
gagem* to my nurse, Mother Child, for hir great loue to 
my little ones, nor haue I reason (though it should be to 
y e disadvantage of my sonnes) to desire any other bodyes 
care of them ; therefore I am resolued to leaue them 
wholly to hir, & desire hir to aduise w th my friends y e best 
for them, & in perticuler lett me craue y l brotherly fauo r 
from yo r selfe, when you goe to y e Baye, to tell y e good 
woman what she shall doe. I haue tired M r Shipwayes 
patience to staye theis few lines, & therfore shall not in- 
large, but, w th my own & my wifes hearty loue to yo r selfe, 
my sister & cozins, I remayne 

Yo r truely loueing brother, Samuel Winthrop. 

If my Nephew Waitstill be not ingaged, I pray lett 
him come & see o r country. 

1667?] SAMUEL WIOTHROP. 255 


[April, 1667?] 

Deare Brother, — The differences in Europa between 
o r countrymen & y e Dutch gaue y e French oppertunity 
of molesting us here in y e Cariba Islands ; & being a 
people verry watchfull tooke hold of y fc aduantage (wee 
haueing no shipping in theis parts) to inuade y e Island 
Antigua, w ch they beganne vpon y e 25 th daie of October 
last, at Fiue Island harbor.* After some small dispute w th 
o r fortes, they landed their soldiers, & possessed them- 
selues of that place, burning first Go rs , & after y* all y e 
houses in y* diuision. Next morning they aduanced to 
Johns Harbor by land, where y e Go r w th a party encoun- 
tred them, but were presently put to flight, & y e Go r w th 
some others taken prisoners in Capt. Mugs house, w ch they 
plundered & burnt & so retreated. One shallop belong- 
ing to y e London marchants plantacon, bound for Neuis, 
called at my landing place, in w ch I ,sent my wife & chil- 
dren to Neuis, where they haue remayned euer since. 
Y e 27 th daie the French aduanced againe to L* Coll Bas- 
tiaen Bayers, vpon Johns Harbor, being about 600 men. 
O r islanders, not 200, rec d them. Y e contention was verry 
smart for about \ an hour, & o r men w th stood them verry 
resoluedly, but, being ouerpowered w th men, were put to 
flight, many slayne on both sides, but most on o rs , tooke 
many prisoners, plundered y e house, fired all y* was com- 
bustable, & retreated againe. This was their 3 d daies 
worke. O r soldiers repayered to my house, haueing now 
no other place left for defence, expecting y e enemy y e 
next morning. About noone came a trumpet w th a sum- 
mons importing y* if w th in 2 dayes y e island should not be 

* " In 1666, a French armament from Martinico, co-operating with a body of Charaibes, 
invaded the island, and ravaged the country with fire and sword. All the negroes that 
could be found were taken away ; and the inhabitants, after beholding their houses and 
estates in flames, were plundered even to the clothes on their backs and the shoes on their 
feet, without regard to sex or age." (Edwards's History of the West Indies, I. 474.) — Eds. 


surrendered to y e obedience of y e French king they would 
destroy it by fire & sword, & giue no quarter. Sub- 
scribed by Antony Lefebure de Le Barre, L fc Generall to 
y e most Christiaen King, both by sea & land, in y e West 
India. When y e officers & cheife of y e island had delib- 
erated vpon y e matter, they finding themselues not able 
to resist y e French & y e cruell Indian who lay burning & 
massacaring vpon y e windward while y e French were to 
leward, tooke into consideracon y e after part of y e sumons, 
w ch promised hansom condieons if wee would treat w th 
them. So that way seeming now y* w ch necessity com- 
pelled, they commissionated six persons to treat & articu- 
late w th them. Two dayes were spent in y e treaty. Y e 
articles (though many) were in short but this, y fc y e inhab- 
itants y fc would take an oath of fealty should injoye all 
their estates ; those y* would not should haue liberty for 
to sell in six monthes & depart ; or to leaue their estates 
to an agent, y* would take y e s d oath, to manage it for 
their use ; 200 thousand pounds of sug r to be payed in 
six monthes, for w ch y e islanders to be freed from guard- 
ing, building fortes, or takeing up armes against their 
country men. Whilst theis things were in action, a party 
of Barbadian souldiers, inflamed w th wine, impeded y e 
islanders complyance, whereupon y e French departed 
vpon y e 4 th of Nouemb r , & left word y fc , when they came 
againe, if y e islanders would stand to their articles they 
should haue them ; in the mean time they should take 
up their armes to defend themselues against y e Indians. 
The 23 d daie of Nouembf y e French fleet came againe ; 
vpon whoes appearance one Daniel Fitch, whom y e L* 
Generall, Henery Willoughby, had sent up from Neuis to 
be go r , called y e people in armes & drew them vp against 
y e French ; but seing them to be stronger then he 
thought for, & seeing y e Indians fireing on y e other side, 
he ran away from y e companies, gott into a little boat, 
& made his escape. When y e soldiers perceiued y fc , they 

1667?] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 257 

faced about & fled also. The French forces, comanded 
by Mon sr de Clodore, Gouerno r of Martinque, remayned 
still vpon y e baye, &, not knowing o r men were fled, came 
to some termes w th L fc Coll. Bayer & my selfe, to this 
effect, y* if y e islanders would submitt they should haue 
good quarter & faire treatm* ; whereupon wee went after 
them, &, finding some scattered people lurkeing in y e 
waye, not knowing where to hide themselues, acquainted 
them w th what was proposed, & they to y e rest, so y fc y e 
next morning most of them layed their armes in y e path, 
for y e French to receiue them. Clodore, vnderstanding 
o r people were fled, marched throug y e country to my 
house, where he sett vp his flag on y e top of my house 
& incamped round about it. He possest himselfe of 24 of 
my slaues, (y e rest escaped,) & of most of y e slaues in y e 
island, destroyed most of my stock, his soldiers plundering 
y e country round about. My coppers & sug r worke he 
medled not w th , nor fired any houses more in y e island 
except of those y* runne off y e island. Haueing encamped 
there seuen dayes, he imbarqued his soldiers, & vpon 
y e 1 of Decemb r sett sayle for Guardalupa. One mem- 
orable thing I omitted, w ch was : when he had conuened 
most of y e inhabitants to my house, he told them y* o r 
liues & estates were at his mercy : neuerthelesse such as 
would take an oath of fealty to his master should injoye 
their estates ; y e others he would carry away prisoners of 
warre to Fraunce. Whereupon all present, except 4 or 5 
of those called Quakers, tooke y e oath. The Barbadian 
soldiers he carryed away prisoners w th him. Thus y e 
French left Antigua. In this sadd condicon wee re- 
mained ; & y fc w ch added to o r afflictions were y e murthers 
rapes w ch y e Indians comitted vpon y e inhabitants after 
y e French departed, haueing, as they said, liberty so to 
doe for fiue daies. The 6 th of y e 11 th month came some 
eriaguas from Montseratt to my house, from whom I 
Understood y* y e French had taken y* island ; w ch proued 



true. Their next design being now ripe for Neuis, it 
pleased God to send 8 ships of warre, whereof two were 
frigotts, vnder y e comand of Cap* Jn° Berry, Admirall, 
who arriued at Neuis y e 25 th of y e first month, vpon newes 
whereof their ships haue hid themselves among y e Wind- 
ward Islands. The 5 th instand Cap* Jno. Thomson & 
Capt. Collier came to Antigua, desireing such as were able 
to come on board to be transported to Neuis for to doe 
y e King seruice. So y fc by that oppertunity I gott a pas- 
sage to Neuis, where I arriued 4 daies since, finding my 
wife & children in good health. A more full relacon is 
extant, of w ch I haue not a copy, & therfore I haue giuen 
thee this breuiate, least none of them should come to thy 
hand & thou not be acquainted w th Gods dealing w th us 
in theis partes. What wilbe y e issue wee know not. 
Here is great preparation against y e enemy : y e successe 
is from y e Lord. If wee preuaile, I haue yet wherew th to 
mainteyn my sonnes at schoole. If not, I haue desired 
my friend Wharton, w th thy aduise, to put them to some 
trade or imploym* as you shall thinke fitt. All theis 
things are warnings to us to depart hence, for this is not 
o r rest ; to seeke y* peace w ch is not of y e world nor can 
by y e world be broaken, to Hue in y* loue w ch knowes no 
enmity but to y e Serpent, & to be guided by that light 
w ch leads men out of strife & contention into y e union of 
y e Spiritt & y e bond of true peace. 

My wife and children remember their loues to the & 
my sister. Jno. Comes hath been verry friendly to them, 
& offered them transport, in my absence, for w ch I desire! 
thou wilt giue him thankes. 

Dear brother, I heartily salute thee & my kind sister! 
w th all my nephews & neeces, & remayne 
Thy affectionate brother, 

Samuel Winthrop, 

Indorsed by John Winthrop, Jr, " Capt. Sam. Winthrop, wherin th, 
relation of taking Antigua by the French." 

1667.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 259 


Dear Brother, — My last vnto thee was in Aprill last, 
in w ch I gaue thee a hint of Gods dealings w th us in this 
island. Since w ch y e L* Generall w th about 3000 men 
made an attempt vpon Christophers ; but y e Lord fought 
against them, so y* 300 were slayne & about 400 taken 
prisoners, whereupon he desisted from landing any more. 
Att his returne, he sent me up hither to Antigua, where 
I found a people much distresed by y e Indians, who (as 
they themselves related) were sent by y e French to 
destroy y e people, being unarmed, and they did accord- 
ingly kill & carry awaye 18. The 22 of Aug : wee had 
a cevere storme. My wife just then arrived from Nevis 
w th [blot'] children, & what goods wee saued from y e 
French. Their Hues were saued, but y e vessell & goods 
lost. I sent by George Paris to Richard Wharton 21 hog 
of sug r to pay my sonnes debts in New England ; of 
whoes arriuall I yett hear nothing. It is now all I have 
left besides my land & 12 workeing negros, w th whoes 
bare labor I shall not be able to keep my sonnes in New 
England ; nor am I willing, vntill I see y e Lords pleasure 
towards this place, to bring them hither, for if wee haue 
neither peace nor victory wee can expect nothing lesse 
than destruction after this fleet is gone for England. S r 
Jon Harman w th 7 frigatts did great service in June last 
at Martinique, destroyed 23 of their ships & killed many 
of their men. Most part of o r fleet are gone to Sarrenam. 
Their returne is dayly expected. I haue written my 
desire to Richard Wharton y* my sonnes may stay in New 
England vntill y e spring, & learn to write & cypher & 
gaine some knowledge in accompts; vnlesse newes of 
peace come, & then I care not how soone they come to 
mee. I meane y e two eldest; for y e other two I shall 
strive hard to giue them a little learning. I am much 
streytned, since Richard Whartons intention for England, 


whom to gett to take y e trouble of my businesse, w ch as 
yett is like to be verry small. I desire thee to be assist- 
ant to mee in this exegent by aduiseing y e needfull, for I 
am at a great distance from them, & altogether igno- 
rant what to doe. Great designes are on foot for y e re- 
setlem* of this island. If y e Lord blesse them I may 
quickly recouer a possibility to supply my children well ; 
if not, they must take their portion w th mee in want as 
well as in plenty. I shall not trouble thee farther at 
present. He is faithfull y* hath promised : I submitt to 
his will in all things. Dear brother, I wish thee well, & 
my loueing sister, w th all y e children. God in his mercy 
make us all obedient to y e trueth, y* liueing in y e loue 
of it wee may find a resting place in y e daye of trouble. 

Thy euer loueing brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

Antigua, ye 27* h daye of Sep**, 1667. 


Dear Brother, — Those many letters w cb I haue sent 
thee since y e warres, to none of w ch I neuer saw an an- 
swer, made me thinke thou hadst abandoned this wonted 
kindeness ; but haueing rec d thine from Salem by con- 
ueyance of my Couzin Curwin, I am much refreshed to 
finde tharein y e continuance of thy brotherly loue, & y e 
good tidings of thy owne & my sisters & couzins welfare; 
3 dayes after y e receipt of w ch I was strucken sick, & my 
sonne John, both in one day. The 3 d daye he dyed, & I 
verry narrowly escaped, but am still repreiued, I hope in , 
mercy, & for tryall whither I will stand in y e councel of 
y e Lord & be obedient to y e coiviands & dictates of his 
blessed light, w ch leades out of the darkenesse & death, & 
guides & directs to light & life eternall. Dear brother, 

1671.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 261 

my bowels [y]earn towards thee & all my kindred in y e 
flesh. Oh y t they might Hue before the Lord, y fc y e 
drawings of y e Father might bring them to y e Sonne, for 
he only that hath y e Sonne hath life & true freedom. 
All y e rest of y e world are in bondage to sin, & cannot 
witnes a power ouer itt, nor challenge any title to y e 
inheritance. I haue been much comforted to hear & 
read of thy tendernesse to persecuted Friends in New 
England, who haue taken up y e crosse & despised y e 
shame, to giue their testimony of y e light & to reproue 
y* w ch is euill ; to declare against all buildings y* are not 
sett vpon y e Rock, & haue lost their liues for y e testi- 
mony of Jesus. It is great wisdom to be cautious in 
theis matters, least a man be found to fight against God. 
Y e Bareans went home & examined whither y e things w ch 
they had heard were true ; & so it becomes euery one to 
doe, & he y* shall in y e humility & meekenesse giue him- 
selfe up to y e Lord, waiting vpon him for instruction, he 
shalbe taught of God, and made wiser with Dauid then 
all his earthly teachers. 

Wee haue here no certeyne newes from Europe, letters 
being seemingly contradictory. Some represent affaiers 
calme & as a faire day ; others write y* it is certeynly 
warres between France & Holland; others y fc y e French 
ingaged a Dutch squadron of ships vpon y e coast of Gui- 
nea, where y e Dutch did much worst them, & y t o r king 
stand es to his couenant in y e tripple league. So y* it is 
like y e quarrelling spiritt hath yett liberty to tyranize 
vpon earth, & make y e creation groane & y e creature to 
be deliuered from y e lusts & abuses of wicked men, & 
brought into & vnder y e sober, moderate, & mercifull 
power of y e sonnes of God. I heare also y* persecution is 
verryhott against Friends in England. God is a refining 
fire & fullers soap. He is trying who will confesse & who 
deny their master ; who are Jewes, & who are not. Dear 
brother, I comitt thee & thine to y e fear & loue of the 


Almighty, y fc his banner ouer you may be loue, & in 

whom I rest 

Thy assured loueing brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

Antigua, 30^ day of ye 2<* mo., 1671. 


For his Deare Brother, John Winthrop, Gouernor at Harford in 
Conecticot. By John Brown, iny e Catch Mar garett. 

Deare Brother, — I have reed thine from Salem, w cb , 
if my couzin Curwin had done well by me, would haue 
spared thy second from Boston & W? Bonds future 
trouble. But I perceiue by W m Bonds letter to me, y t 
my couzin had not then spake w th him, nor deliuered my 
letters to him. More, I finde by my brother Deanes let- 
ter y* he had also reed none from me. So y* my letters 
were all kept, except thine, to my great wrong. And 
now (since thou hast bin pleased to speake on W m Bonds 
behalfe, w ch I take kindly from thee) giue me leaue to 
acquaint thee w th y e trueth of this businesse. When 
Ephraim Child desired me to pay y fc 64 1 for him, I shipt 
in Saunders a great quantity of sug r , besides 10 tonnes of 
lignum vita3, then a very good comodity, but in both 
much more then would pay y* some. The said Saunders, 
as is supposed, found red in y e sea, — being to this day 
vnheard of, for ought I know. The second attempt I 
made in Capt. Brookes, loading in his ship a parcell of 
choyce sug r , fell into Mighill Derutters handes and was 
carryed for Holland.* A third time I sent sug r from hence 
to Neuis to take freight there for London, that came safe 
home to an indifferent market. The monyes I put into 
Jacob Lueyes handes, an eminent marchant their, vpon 

* The Dutch Admiral De Ruyter. See ante, p. 253. — Eds. 

1672.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 263 

whom I drew billes of exca. to pay said somme to W m 
Bond or his order. Theis billes I sent by Phesant East- 
wick for to be carryed to W m Bond. He sayld hence in 
y e winter, &, after many weekes beating at sea, returned 
hither againe & brought back said billes. In y e interim 
came to me a letter from W? Bond to acquaint me y* y e 
person concerned was come for N. England & desired I 
would send paym* thither. To comply where w th I sent 
w th p r j nc ipi e & charges consigned to my couzin, Jno. 
Curwin, in sug r & rumme, 7,1k) 1 sug r , desireing him first 
to offer it all to W? Bond, &, if he would not accept of it, 
then to sell it for reddy mony, & pay y e mony to him. I 
also, in my letters to W? Bond & my brother Deane, 
acquainted them what I had done. Jno. Browne telles 
me he reed mony for y e sug r , & gaue it to my couzin in 
Boston, 23 s per hind. Y e rum, he saith, was sould among 
a parcell of Barbados rum, for 30 d pr gall, w ch I may justly 
suppose was y e cause it was sould at such underual- 
lue ; for myne was not rumme of y* price, & could haue 
more a great deale for it here. All y t I heare from my 
couzin is y* his much businesse hindered him from speak- 
ing w th W? Bond as yett, but would shortly, & send me 
acc° by y e next. That is y e fourth assay y i I made to 
performe this paym\ Once more I send now, consigned 
to my brother Deane, in y e Margaret Catch of Salem, 
John Browne mf, 6 hogh sug r , conteyning 5725 1 , 4 hogh ts 
malasses, & 2 hog hts of rumme, 136^ gall. Once W m Bond 
wrott to me as if he thought I had forgotten, & sent me 
an abstract of my seuerall letters to freshen my memory. 
Truely, brother, it hath proued a debt more dear to me 
than y* I can so easily forgett it. I hope my couzin 
John hath found leisure to end this businesse before 
theise come to thee. If not, I request thee to aduise 
him to follow my order, & ace? therfore to my brother 
Deane, to whom I now send y e rest, y* by both he may 
be enabled once to finish those accompts. 


Our newes is from Europe y* all y e grandees prepare 
for warre. Some take part w th y e French, some w th y e 
Dutch, & o r king also setts forth a great fleet, but, it is 
hoped, to y e assistance of neither. I suppose thou hast 
heard y fc last ye are one S r Charles Wheeler by some 
meanes procured a comission for to be generall ouer theis 
leward Cariba Islands. His actions here haue so displeased 
y e King that they are disowned by publique proclamacon, 
to his great dishonor. Y e Lord Willoughby is comeing 
againe, a man of a much better temper. By his last let- 
ters to mee I suppose he may now be at sea. Euery thing 
preaches y e instability of y e creature. They only are 
'happy who haue an inheritance in y fc w ch is e tern all, in y fc 
kingdome in w ch dwelleth righteousness; it is an euer- 
lasting kingdom, & of its dominion there shalbe no end. 
The Lord of his mercy guide us by his councell, y' 
through obedience thereunto wee may be led into his 
eternall rest. 

My true respects are to thee, my sister, & all thy chil- 
dren, whoes welfare I vnfeignedly desire in y e Lord, to 
whose blessing I comend thee, & remaine 

Thy affectionate brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 

Antigua, 23 d day of y e 2& mo., 1672. 


Barbados, 3d day of ll«i mo. 1672 [Jan. 1673]. 

Deare Brother, — The Lord Willoughby haueing in- 
uited me vpon some occasion to this island, together w th 
y° lone of friends here, I yesterday mett w th y e m r of a 
New London vessell, from whom I rec a y e tidings of y e 
decease of my dear sister thy wife, for whom (did not y e 
true religion teach otherwise) I could sufficiently lament ; 
but seeing it is y e way of all flesh in theis ages, wee ought 

1673.] SAMUEL WINTHROP. 265 

not to mourne as those y* are w th out hope, but to be com- 
forted in y e Lord, who abide th for euer. 

I haue been now 12 dayes in Barbados, and am to- 
morrow intended, w th Gods permission, to returne to my 
family in Antigua, from whence thou shalt heare from me 
so often as opertunities present, & I thinke one may be by 
my friend Lewis Morice, who is among men knowne by 
y e name of Coll. Lewis Morice. By his brother Richard 
he made a considerable setlem* at New Yorke, whither he 
is going shortly (haueing reed newes of y e death of his 
brother & his brothers wife) to looke after his concernes 
there. From thence he purposes, w th Gods leaue, to 
visit thee. I suppose thou mayest haue heard of him 
(being a person verry eminent), though not of his friend- 
ship towards mee, w ch he hath in my lowest condition 
frankly continued, & still doth, by w ch I am obliged, as 
well as by his virtues, to recommend him to thy kind- 
nesse, of w ch I doubt not. I vnderstand by this bearer y* 
thou hast bin sick lately, but since recouered, for w ch I 
blesse y e Lord, & could be heartily glad I might haue 
time & oppertunity to see thee before y e curteyne be 
drawne betwixt vs. In y e interim, deare brother, I loue 
thy remembrance in y e Lord, &, w th my true loue to thee, 
my nephews & neces, I rest affectionately, 

Thy assured loueing brother, 

Samuel Winthrop. 




Bro., — The neatenes of your lines doe allmost forbid 
mee attempting to run the hazard of a Camebridg cen- 
sure. But the greate desire I haue to reuiue my self in 
your memory heartens my quill, tho wholy unable to run 
in such full carere with like complimentall straynes, to 
attempt an enlardged acknowledgment for y e good re- 
membrance you are pleased to continue of mee. Besides 
the continuance of your affible lines, which are enough to 
oblige y e merest stranger in the remotest country ; much 
more him who, being obliged by your fauours, dispaires 
of hauing opportunity whereby he maye with respectiue 
seruis in the highest degre of gratitude gratifye the 

* John Winthrop, fourth of that name on the family pedigree and always known as 
Fitz-John to distinguish him from his father and grandfather, was born at Ipswich, Mass., 
March 14, 1638. At an early age he obtained a commission in the Parliamentary army, 
became Captain in a regiment commanded by his maternal uncle, Colonel Thomas Reade, 
was at one time Governor of Cardross in Scotland, and, by tradition, a warm adherent of 
General Monk. 

Returning to New England, he became a Representative, served in King Philip's war 
with the rank of Major, was for a time of the Council of Sir Edmund Andros, and was 
second in command of the expedition against Canada in 1690. In 1693 he went again to 
England as Agent for Connecticut, and, returning in 1698, was elected Governor of Con- 
necticut, an office he continued to hold until his death, in Boston, Nov. 25, 1707. He was 
buried with his father and grandfather in King's Chapel grave-yawl, although his principal 
resilience had long been at New London in Connecticut, where he had a large estate and 
maintained great hospitality. He married, late in life, Elizabeth, daughter of George 
Tongue, of New London, and had by her an only child, Mary, who married Colonel John 
Livingston, of Albany, but died without issue not long after. Most of these letters are 
printed from rough drafts, or from copies kept by the writer. — Eds. 

1660-61.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 267 

greateness of your obligations. Deare Bro., the truth is 
I want words to express y e affection I retaine for you ; 
and I assure you y e remoteness of my present being shall 
not in y e least degree lessen my affection to you. Bro., 
my excessiue buisness for y e present forbids me to en- 
lardg, and in hast am forst rudely to take leaue, reco- 
mending you to y e Allmighty, and subscribe myself, as in 
reallity I am, deare bro., 

Yo r affectionat bro. & servant, 

John Winthrop. 

I beg a presentation of my seruis to Cosin Joseph 
Haynes, Lady Mabell, all y e rest of freinds. My cosin 
John Haynes is in good helth. As for y e things you wrot 
for, I shall not faile to send you them eyther by this ship 
or y* which sayles some tyme later. 

S r , I desire you will kepe me a good hors til y e next 
yere : you shall comand me as much at any tyme. 

From ye Rose in Covengarden, y e 8* h of Maye (1660), London. 


To his Hono r * Mother, Madam Elizabeth Winthrop, att Heartford in New 


Madam, — Euery opportunity w ch I haue of wrighting 
makes me hapy in the enjoyment theireof ; and as I am 
rendered vncapiable to tender any thing more then an 
humble acknowledgment for your greate loue and affec- 
tion to me, soe I will never forget to shew my gratefull 
remembrance. My greatest trouble w ch I haue met with, 
since my being in these parts of the earth, is my absence 
from you, w ch , though hetherto I haue bin depriued of 
the hapiness of being w th you, yet I hope Prouidence will 
shortly order my returne to you. I purpose to returne 


by Cap fc Woodgreane, who will sayle, God willing, the next 
month. In the meane tyme I beg yo r prayers for 
Yo r obedient son & seruant, 

London, March the Q% 1660[-61]. J- WlNTHROP. 

Please to p r sent my servis to all freinds with you. Our 
freinds heare are all well. Heare hath 3 shipps lately 
arriued, but I haue not reed, any let r , eyther from my 
father or yo r self, nor any freind, except one let r from 
M r Amos Richeson. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., at Mrs. Whittings house, next dore to y e church 
in Colman Street, London. 

Honored Father, — I had not omitted the returne of 
my humble acknowledgment for yo r last, bearing date y e 
15 th of this instant, had not y e opportunity of convey- 
ance bin y e next daye uncertaine. S r , I am soe well ac- 
quainted with y r scarsity of mony (as to myself), y* I could 
be well satisfied without it, did not pressing necessities 
many tymes require a supply. That som which I have 
receiued I confess was great, yet noe more than what 
former pressing and unauoydiable expenses did require. 
I haue hetherto bin soe carefull to auoyde all neadless 
expenses that I can safely justify myself from any false 
aspertion of y* nature, yet doe not question but eyther I 
am or shall be soe unworthily befamed with som melig- 
nant tongue ; but since I know how carefully I have 
indeuoured to neglect such expenses as might hapily 
render me blamiable, soe I shall haue y e less respect to 
such informations and reports as are giuen concerning it. 
What I haue spent since my foure yeare trauell maye 
easily be knowne, and whether I could haue sayled nerer 
y e winde than I haue don I refer myself to yo r owne cen- 
sure. I allwaies kept a just decorum betwene those 


extremes, and, as I did neuer prodigally spend, soe I did 
neuer basely spaire, which is most hatefull to my naturall 
inclination. S r , I am plunged into an ocion of trouble 
when I consider in what condition I now stand, and how 
difficult it is to raise my pooer fortunes, without which I 
can neuer frely resolue to undertake a settled habitation. 
To returne to New England before I can resolue vpon a 
continued settlement would proove inconvenient, since 
theire is nothing y* can imploye a man, or persuade to a 
contented dwelling, exept mariadg, which, though I could 
doe it to my aduantage, I should be most unwilling to en- 
gage myself to y e care of soe many troubles and inconue- 
niences as would incur theireby. This is y e best course I 
can take to raise my meane condition, and yet too bad 
to undertake. Y e remidy, in my opinion, is worse than y e 
disease, which doth allmost forbid me euer to hope for 
any assured settlement; and since theire is noe proba- 
bility of any certaine supply whereby I maye mainetaine 
my self e as formerly, I had far rather content myself with 
a meare competensye in a strange countrye than in a 
citty or place where I am knowne, and where euery judg- 
ment will pass theire virdict vpon me. My cosin hath som 
thought y* he maye goe into France this winter, and, since 
theire can be noe coures used by w ch I maye purchase a 
certaine continuance in any place, my owne inclination in- 
tices me to indeuour y e purchasing yo r willingness to allow 
of my absence, since by my staye I cannot be any waye 
servisable to you. The maintenance which will serue 
for my exp[enses] theire will be short of what neces- 
sity will expend here. I can content myself with far less 
abroade than at home, and should esteme myself more 
hapy with a small maintenance theire, then a certaine 
income here or in any other place, exept such as would 
afford me a handsom and competent maintenance. S r , I 
shall not farther trouble you at p r sent but y e tender of my 
humble duty to yo r self & affectionat loue to my deare 


bro., earnestly beging yo r prayers for a blessing vpon, 

hono rd father, v r , ,. , 

io r obedient son, 

Haddam, Decbr 19*, 1661. J « WlNTHROP. 

My cosin presents his humble service to you, and re- 
quests you would send him som pills such as are proper 
after y e small pox. 


John Winthrop, Esq., at M r$ Whittings house, next dore to if church in 
Coleman Street, London. 

Honored Father, — I can neuer sufficiently express 
the tender and fatherly care you are pleased to continue 
of me. My dew and strict observiance to such coinancls 
and directions as you shall please to order me to obserue 
shall be punctually obayed. I have soe perfictly learnt 
y e obediance of a child y* I dare not in y e least scruple y* 
ready performance of any imposition you shall please to 
laye vpon me. S r , what you shall please to direct for 
my waye of settlement I shall redily comply with yo r 
pleasure theirein, though if my owne inclination should 
have any share in y e disposall of myself, I would not as 
yet accept y e profer of a maried life, in which theire is 
soe many restless and inauoycliable cares and inconuen- 
iances attending y 4 y e very thought theireof forbids me 
attempting it. I am yet young enough to spend som 
few yeares more in trauell, in which y e cheife end of my 
acluenture should be y e attainement of much experience, 
which might hapily proove more aduantagious than what 
I could otherwise undertake. My owne inclination leades 
to that designe. Howeuer, my owne will and desires 
shall be subordinate to yo r pleasure and intensions con- 
cerning me, and shall not act anything theirein without 
your free and willing approbation in a case of such im- 
portance. S r , I shall not farther trouble yo r more serious 


occations at present, but y e tender of my humble duty to 
yo r self and affectionat loue to my deare bro. & remaine, 
honored father, 

Yo r most obedient son & humble servant, 

J. Winthrop. 

Haddam, Dec** 23*, 1661. 

S r , my cosin desires you would please to send him 
word if you heare anything of y e [illegible] comittment ? 
and whether he be yet released. We here of som exe- 
cuted, but not certainly. 

To M r Wait Winthrop, in Hartford. 

Deare Bro : — I haue indeuoured to get that quanti- 
tye of corne of Goodman Willye for Cap tn Marshall which 
you engaged to lend him, but cannot be supplyed by 
him this yeare, and therefore it will be best y* it be sent 
downe by the first vessell ; and if you can possibly get it 
I desire you to send to Bro. Palmes thre pounds, w ch is 
to be payde vpon M r Chesters accompt. G. Rogers hath 
got testimony from Amos Richarson y* Bro. Newman & 
Amos did desire Rogers to deliuer two mares to Cap. 
Clark for us if he could not get soe many of oures at y* 
tyme, and he should haue two more for them, and allsoe 
affirmes y* he hath order from M r Newman allsoe. Not 
elce at present, but remaine 

Yo r affectionat bro. 

J W 

N: L: Aprill, 1665. ° VV * 

Pray let my black horse be carefully lookt after, and 
not rid — Dragon allsoe — and giue him such a potion as 
was sent to Milford, for it was tryed vpon a horse there 
and did him good, Dragon being gon before it came 


thether. I desire y e y e thre pounds aboue written be 
payde to Jonathan Gilbert for My Wharton, or ellce sent 
to M f Wharton at Boston. 


For M' Edw d Palmes, merchant at New London. 

Deare Bro., — I am comanded by y e Gov r to attend 
his hono r to Boston, and am forst to leaue my buisnes, 
w ch I beesech you to take care of in my absence. I can- 
not now wright much nor vse any kinde of argument to 
persuade you thereto more then y e reall necessitye of yo r 
help, w ch , as I am forward to intreat, soe I shall not be 
wanting to expresse my resentments of soe great kindnes 
by my gratefull returne of reall thankfullnes. What you 
shall doe herein by putting a profitable issue to y e buis- 
nes with Rogers shall neuer be unrequited ; allsoe y e 
buisnes with Hall, and y t you please to order M r Lane to 
procede noe farther about y e buildings y n you shall think 
conuenient. I am sorry I cannot be more large, hauing 
not aboue one hower to prouide for this long journy, and 
therefore must conclude with my earnest desires to you 
to oblige me herein, and in great hast remaine 

Yo r most obliged bro. & seru*, 

Hartford, Aprill 18, 1665. '• WlNTHROP. 

I haue left all y e wrightings with my sisters. I desire 
you to give y e secretary notice of yo r conclusion, M r 
Clark allsoe ; it maye be best to warne Elderkin for 


S R , — I receiued a letter yesterday from Easthampton, 
w ch came post by M r Lord, wherein I had notice of y e 


two ships from N. York were intended for these parts, w ch 
put me vpon this voyage sooner then I intended, alltho 
I was hastening to settle my occations to come over in 
obedience to an order w ch I lately received from y e Gov r 
and Councell to visit y e townes on Long Hand. I am 
just now arriued here, and hope to kiss yo r hands at yo r 
farme about twelue of y e clock, where I will giue you an 
acco* of y e intelligence wee haue, and how much I am, 
with respects to yo r lady, M r Arnold, & all freinds, S r , 
Yo r affectionate freind & servant, 

J. W. 

Shelter Iland, Nov. 25 th , 1673, Tuesday night, past two of ye clock. 

I must intret yo r aduice for y e exprest way of passing 
to South Hampton, & if you have opportunity you may 
please to send a coppy hereof to Cap. Howell. [Remainder 

torn off.~\ 


Present to the Honorable John Winthrop, Esq., Governor of his Ma ts 
Collony of Conecticot, in Hartford. 

S R , — I haue not tyme to make my confession for the 
fauour of yo r letter and the newes enclosed, having but 
short notice; and am just now hastening to the iland, w ch , 
I hope, will allsoe pleade my excuse. I am forst to re[fer] 
the history of M? P. to M r Palmeses relation. Hailing 
now noe leasure and hope you will please to beleiue that 
I haue treated him with as much ciuillity and kindeness 
as you comanded, and offered him all the diu[fom]tions 
on the iland, but after [he had] beene there thre dayes 
winde bound, he told me that he began to finde a dis- 
temper twenty yeares old renew[ing] vpon him, besides 
many new ones w ch he thought were from the dangerous 
difference of the climate, and that he could not subsist 

274 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1673-4. 

without a present supply of such papers as formerly gaue 
him much ease. I was forst to humour his fancy and 
carry him ouer to Poquanock, the w r inde [being] against 
us, to goe to see John [jom~\. The enclosed is a coppy of 
the record of the grant by the townesmen for the peice 
of land and priuiliges of Paucatack riuer, w ch M r R. told 
me you ordered me to send vp. I suppose the clesigne 
is to lay it to some land w ch he intends to giue his son 
neare the same place. I suppose it is the peice [of] land 
w ch they most desire, being a very fine plane, and I 
beleive may deserue a little consideration (if you please 
to think fit) before you [disp]ose of it. The mill at Mis- 
tick is allmost finished, and I hope I shall satisfy all 
charges about it without much difficulty, onely am like 
to be disapoynted of a peice of serclg w ch I engaged in 
part, w ch I doubt will a little disoblige y e carpenter. 
What prouision they take must eyther be in quarters 
or liue cattle, here being not a bushill of sault to be 
procured ; and am at a great loss how to prouicle for yo r 
winter store. This is all at present but my humble duty 
to yo r self & affe[ctionate] loue to my sisters, and hope 
that you will [torn] beleive that I am, S r , your most 
obedient son, 

J. Winthrop. 

N: L: [torn] 7«S 1673. 


Present to the Honorable John Winthrop, Esq., Governour of his Ma u 
Collony of Conecticot, in Hartford. 

S R , — I haue not leasure from the hurry of our disturb- 
ance to wright much ; and hope I may be excused for 
my omision at this tyme. I haue wrot to Capt. Allyn 
what perticulers I could remember, of what has passed 
here, w cb he will present to yo'self & y r Councell it you 

1673-4.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 275 

please to think fit.* I haue not leasure to wright a 
handsome relation, & hope they will excuse it. I ear- 
nestly desire that I may haue some directions in this 
great affayre, and what hope wee may haue of farther 
assistance, being in expectation euery houre to be alarmed. 
I hope you will pleese to comand an express to me, as 
soone as this comes to your hands. I haue great reason to 
thank God for his assistance in y e management of this late 
action, w ch I may saye in this letter to yo r self has happily 
succeded ; and is the second tyme they haue been pre- 
uented from subduing these people. What may be y e 
effect of it God onely knows ; I cannot haue tyme to add 
farther, but my humble duty to yo r self, and affectionate 
loue to my sisters, to whom I cannot now wright, and 
humbly beseech you to beleiue that I am 

Yo r most obedient son, 

J. Winthrop. 

Southhould, Feb. 25th, 1673[-4]. 

I heartily wish the Councill would consider about re- 
ducing y e rest of y e townes on y e Hand, w ch may easily 
be done, and may be a meanes to kepe his men from 


Present to the Honorable John Winthrop, Esq., Governour of his Ma ts 
Cottony of Conecticot, in Hartford. 

S R , — By y e returne of y e barque I had opportunity to 
wright to yo r self and y e secretary, but was confined to a 
short acco* of what had passed vpon y e arrivall of y e 
Dutch vessells, w ch I hope you haue pleased to excuse. 

* A fragment of the letter here referred to is preserved in the Connecticut Archives, 
and is printed in the Connecticut Colony Records, 1675-78, pp. 566, 567. In the same 
volume are numerous official entries relative to the troubles with the Dutch about the 
towns at the east end of Long Island. The whole of the letter will be found in III. Mass. 
Hist. Coll., Vol. X. pp. 91-94. —Eds. 


Since their returne litle has passed conciderable ; wee 
are in daly expectation of farther hostility from them, 
and many reasons to beleiue it, unless something be done 
by y e collonyes to divert their intentions by alarming 
them ; and noething can be to greater purpose then a ship 
of war or some motion towards y e west end of the iland, 
w ch will kepe them to their amies, and prevent them 
from coasting. One of y e principle directions I want at 
present is relating to those soulders w ch came over with 
me, many of them pretending occations at home ; but y e 
inhabitants unwilling to part with them ; if some others 
might be sent over to releive these, or part of them, it 
might doe well if you please to think fit ; I cannot dis- 
charge any of them without order, therefore humbly de- 
sire that I may haue some direction therein ; the townes 
are yet altogether unsafe without y e favour of yo r assist- 
ance, & it will be very dangerous to remoove these 
soulders unless an other supply may be had before these 
returne. I hope y e Councill will concider y e best expe- 
dient for y e safety of y e people, and as their cohlands haue 
happily succeded in protecting them hitherto, soe they 
will please to order that conuenient assistance be sent to 
secure them for the future ; I haue not tyme to wright 
farther at prsent (being hastned, and some occations 
call for me), but to add my humble duty to yo r self, & 
my affectionate lone to my deare sisters, and pray you to 
account me, S r , 

Yo r most obedient son, 

Southiiould, Mar. 6th, 1673-74. ^' WiNTHROP. 


S?, — I met with this opportunity unexpectedly, being 
this last minute come from Southhampton to this towne, 
on purpose to contrive a conueyance to yo r self for far- 


ther directions in y e prosecution of that late order from y e 
Councill, as well as what may be necessary for the con- 
tinued securety of y e people here. The seming certayne 
report of two ketches of considerable force, intended to 
clere y e coaste in these parts, will, I hope, make way for 
our returne ; many of those soulders who came with me, 
hauing many occations w ch I beleiue will suffer in their 
absence, and doe much desire to be releiued ; I onely 
wayte for yo coihand & y e order of y e Councill about 
my returne, and humbly intreat that an express may be 
sent to me for my derection ; and if it please y e Councill 
to coihand us home, I desire that order may be sent to 
M r Palmes, to procure a vessell for our returne. I haue 
not tyme to intreat farther advise at prsent, being hur- 
ried by this hasty conveyance, and can onely add my 
humbly duty to yo r self, and my affectionate love to my 
sisters, and intreat you to beleiue y fc I am, $% 
Yo r most obedient son, 

J. Winthrop. 

Southhould, Aprill 4<fc 1674. 


S% — I haue receiued yo r letter and those papers en- 
closed, and intreat that I may be excused for deferring 
my acknowledgment of soe much fauour, being uncer- 
taine of an opportunety of returne till this minute by the 
bearer, and therefore can but just p r sent you with my 
readines to attend that occation of goeing to N. York, 
if your intentions are still to that purpose, and can be 
suitably supplyed with those conueniencyes w ch are nec- 
essary for such a journy, and expences there w ch your- 
self can well foresee, and what will be neadfull. The 
next consideration is y e occation, and whether it may not 
be a litle kinde of reflection vpon me to appear with a 


sleueless errand ; but I hope yo r self will please to make 
it yo r perticuler concerne, and that I may haue some 
colour of busines to countinance me therein. I have 
some engagements vpon me here to seuerall persons for 
repayre of y e clams, and some other necessaryes for y e con- 
ueniency of yo r occations, w ch cannot be issued presently; 
therefore, must present to yo r consideration whether two 
or three wekes hence may not be as conuenient for that 
journy as presently, it being very difficult, without great 
and unkinde disappoyntments to those persons concerned, 
to be absent before I haue answered their expectation; 
and I beleiue it may be noe injury to y e compliment and 
civillity intended, altho it should be deferred till their 
setling occations be a litle over, and the other ship (w c . h 
was a few dayes since at Rhode Hand) not being yet ar- 
riued, will obstruct the setlement of affaires. If in this 
interim you will please (as was mentioned in yo r letter) to 
procure a letter of credit from Mf Bryan, it may be 
ready at my coming to Hartford, and shall hasten what I 
can to wayte vpon you, and it may then be considered 
w ch way may be most conuenient for y e journy. I shall 
not trouble you farther at p r sent, but intreat yo r letter 
by y e first, & add my humble duty to yo r self, & affection- 
ate loue to my sisters, & subscribe myself, S r , 

Your most obedient son, 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, Nov., 1674. 

I should be glad to haue John Hale with me, and wish 
I could know if he were at Hartford. 

S r , I haue persuaded Danyell to this journy a litle 
sooner then he intended, therefore besech you, S r ., to giue 
him som thing for his necessety, & to recoiiiend him to 
the gent 01 there alsoe. 



For Cap. Wayt Winthrop, att Stonington. 

Just as I was crawled forth as far as M r Witherills 
to smell the ayre, the enclosed was brought to me by an 
Indian; w ch I opened (as curious of intelligence), wherein 
I finde y fc y e Gov? of York is come into Conecticot River ; 
but I beleiue those sold rs w ch are with him are more for 
handsomnes & guard to his person then any other pur- 
pose. Owaneco is here from Monhegon, & was appointed 
by Mf Mason to meete with y e westerne forses here ; but 
they not coming he is at a loss at p r sent. I haue posted 
y e bearer, one of his sold rs , with this to you, & beleiue 
it will not be best to march far to y e eastward till farther 
order from Hartford. YqT 1qv brother? 

N. Lond., July 8th, 1675. J . W . 

For Cap tn Wayt Winthrop, att Stonington or Ellcewhere. 

I mist my fit y t day you went from hence, & haue since 
been without it, but how soone I may relaps I know not. 
I haue litle to aduise, but y fc you be [carefull] of a surprise 
both in yo r march & quarters, & a suitable guard kept at 
yo r owne quarters, w ch is both handsom & safe, & is all- 
wayes used ; & if you desire & must speke with the Nar- 
oganset sachems, it will, I beleiue, be best to appoynt 
them a place in some open ground, to preuent y* treach- 
ery & surprise w ch they use in dark & mountaynous 
places, & is alwayes to be auoyded, for y e security of yo r 
men, who may easely be cut off by such disadvantages. 
I can not understand ye necessety of marching farther at 
prsent then Nincraft,* till farther consideration & intelli- 
gence of y e certaine motion of y e enemy, least any mis- 

* Ninecraft, or Ninegret, Sachem of the Niantics. — Eds. 


chance should happen by too suclayne a resolution, & 
marr y e designe in its first progres ; but tis possible you 
haue farther incouragement & reason for such a de- 
signe then wee can understand at this distance ; y e great 
busines at p r sent is to secure y e people here, rather then 
to offend or put y e sachems vpon a mistrust of their 
safety, till farther strength & forse to curb & coinand 
their villanyes, if noe other expedient be found to stop 
their intention in y e meane tyme : the Pequot & Monhe- 
gen Indians may be of very good use if securely man- 
aged, & will be usefull to send out in party es or march 
at a distance from y e body to clere vp any suspitious 
places ; but good care must be had of their faythfull- 
nes, & tis good to suspect them a litle, altho noe great 
reason appeare for it ; but you will see best vpon y e place 
what is to be done. I beleiue it will be expected that 
you should make returne to Hartford both of what is past 
& farther intended, & may as soone be done by an In- 
dian as any other ; but y e soonest & most certaine way 
will be best. I can not add, but y* I am, 

Yo r lov. bro. 

N. Lond, July 8th, 1675. J. W. 

I haue sent you my carbine, & belt & swiuell ; allsoe 
a pouch of ball & 6 flints, & haue taken off y e cock pin 
& enclosed it in y e pouch, that it should not be abused ; 
y e end of y e stock next y e muzell has been split, but is 
glued, & if kept from y e rayne may hold ; as you ride it 
will be best to rest it vpon yo r horse neck. Y e bullets goe 
in very hard, but may be forst downe ; I washed hir yes- 
terday. I haue sent you one shirt, p r sleeves, cravet, 


Deare Brother, — I came from y e iland 17 dayes 
since, expecting to have returned y e next day, about y e 


occations of this season of the yeare, but found my 
poore sister ill with y e beginnings of a feauour, w ch euery 
day encreased vpon hir ; thre dayes after I persuaded 
hir to take 10 graynes of rubila, w ch wrought twice, but 
y e malignety of y e feauour was litle abated ; y e second 
day after she complayned of oppression at hir stomack, & 
desired a litle vomiting drink. I gaue hir 16 graynes, 
but did not work ; an houre after she toock 5 more, w ch 
wrought twice ; at night she toock a potion of y e black 
powder & rested a litle ; but y e feauour allwayes vpon 
hir without any intermission, & she grew weeker euery 
day. Thre dayes since I aduised to send for M r Buddy, 
who came y e next day & gaue hir such things as he 
thought suitable, but noething abated y e feauour, & she 
is now quite gon to all hope, & can onely be recouered 
by a miracle from heauen ; I wish with all my soule that 
you could be here, but I can not see y* you can come to 
see hir aliue ; # howeuer, I would persuade you, if possible, 
to come, being taken myself very ill, & haue y e simp- 
tomes of y e same disease upon me ; I toock phisick 
thre dayes since, w ch workt a litle ; but it still encreaseth 
upon me, & I know now noething farther to help my self 
with, & M r Buckly can not stay ; besides, he sayeth he is 
not provided witli suitable medicaments. The feauour is 
very pestilentiall, & seuerall haue dyed of it, & I should be 
very much dissatisfyed [to] be taken off before I see you, 
that I may settle matters for yo r good if it please God 
that I can speeke with you ; methinkes it should not be 
very dangerous to trauell, seuerall people hauing gon 
downe & are now there ; but I would haue you take y e 
best way, & procure some to come with you ; y e charge 
will be but a trifle, when set against y e necessety & de- 
sire I haue of seeing & spekeing with you ; I know not 

* Lucy, sister of Fitz-John Winthrop and wife of Major Edward Palmes, of New 
London, died Nov. 24, 1676. — Eds. 



whether I shall euer be able to wright to you more, & am 
glad I haue this intermission from my illnes to be able to 
send this to you, w ch goes to Stonington for opportunety 
by land, & haue wrot y e uery coppy of this to be sent 
thither for conueyance by M r Belcher, who is ready to 
sayle with y e first winde ; thus I haue giuen you this sad 
story ; pray consider it, & doe not forget us. My deare 
affection to my deare sisters is all I can add at p r sent, but 
to desire you to consider seriously hereof, & I hope you 
will be directed for y e best ; w ch is all at p r sent from 
Yo r most affectionate brother, 

J. W. 

New London, Nov. 19, 1676. 


S?, — I have receiued yo r s by My Hamlin, & notice of 
the bad market of those Indians recomencled to yo r dis- 
posall. I have noething to reflect in that matter, being 
very well satisfy ed in y e worth of yo r actions & manage- 
ment of such concernes, & loock at those disapoynt- 
ments as accidents in market & crosses w ch attend y e 
merchant in y e cours of his trade & venture, w ch is uery 
litle my busines, it being, 1 think, y e second tyme of list- 
ing myself in y e chances of profit & loss ; & soe is y e 
less disapoynting to me ; yet, if anything be comeing 
from that venture, I shall willingly receiue it, to incourage 
me in my beginnings, that I may have farther opportu- 
nety to give you such trouble & y e civillityes that are due 
for those engagements ; I have not tyme to wright far- 
ther at p r sent, & therefore I must wholy refer my part 
of those Indians to yo r care & what ellce will be my share 
of that voyage, desiring y e fauour of yo r letter by M T . 
Hamlin, & what effects you haue for me, in rum & mol- 
lasses & shuger, or w ch you shall perceiue to be y e best 
market here at his returne ; w ch is all I can add at present, 

1678-9.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 283 

but my good wishes for yo r prosperety, & to assure you 
that I am, worthy S r , 

Yo r affectionate freind & seruant, J. W. 

N. Lond., Dec. 15th, 1676. 

For M r Nathaniel Eldred, merchant at Bar- 
badoes, p r Cap. Hamlin. 

I doe desire two or thre good shuger loafes in part of 
what you doe receiue. Ypon second thoughts, I doe 
desire y t part of y e effects be sent in rum & mollasses ; 
y e rest in shuger or either of the mentioned species, as 
you shall think most conuenient to be sent hither. 

Yo rs J. W. 


Hon bi : e S*, — It is my uery great hapines that I haue 
the continued fauour of yo r hon rs letters, and I know 
noething of more satisfaction then those enjoyments, and 
to Hue in yo r good opinion and seruice ; I am greatly 
concerned that my poore occations and some turnes of 
illnes haue kept me thus long from my duty to yo r hon% 
but I am sure I doe dayly penance for my unhapines 
therein ; and hope for yo r fauourable construction as in 
this, soe in all other matters, wherein I cannot hourely 
giue yo r hon r assured testemonyes of my seruice ; I haue 
obayed yo r hon rs coihands to Mf Russell, whose kinde uisit 
to this place cannot be suitably acknowledged, and am 
sorry my poore condition of entertaynement makes him 
hasten soe soone out of towne that I haue not tyme to 
make my excuse to him self for his coarse reception, 
nor to pray yo r hon 13 pardon for this rude scrawle, nor 
anything more then to pray yo r hon rs fauour, and that I 
may be accepted, Hon ble Sf, 

Yo r hon r ? most faythfull obedient humble seru*, 

N. London, March. J. WiNTHROP. 

Indorsed, " Copy to S* Edm* Andros, March, 1678-9." 


Copy to Gov r . Androes. 

IIox BLE S% — Immediately after those letters by M r 
John Collier & MT Ashton were yesterday received, such 
of the magistrates of those pts as could in so short a 
space came together, but the Dep tv Gover r , & most of y e 
other Assistats of this his Ma ties colony, being at this tyme 
remote, & divers of them necessarily imployed vpon his 
Ma M f s service in severall parts of his colon}^ it cannot be 
atteined for them to be heere w th in y* tyme w ch , we 
vnderstand by those gentlemen, is limited for their stay. 
Therefore (not to cleteine them to an vncertaine tyme) 
are sending to the Dep^ Gov r & the other magistrates 
to come as soone as it ca be, and then the contents of 
your letter wilbe considered & an answer returned : I 
am necessarily obliged for the dispatch of a businesse of 
much concernmet to my selfe something distant hence, 
w ch may require a water passage (if not capable of a land 
journye) exept some intelligence shortly expected cause 
a diversion, but not doubtful of coming back before your 
returne fro Albany ; I may then hope for a capacity, & 
good oportunity to wait on you at such place on the 
Sound (as mentioned in your letter) where you shall 
please to appoint before my voyage to England w ch , as 
very desirable, would be much endeavoured to be at- 
teined by, Right Hon b ! e , 

Your most huble servant, 

J. Winthrop. 

Hartford, Jun. 9, 1G79. 

To the Right Hon 1 ' 1 .'-' Edmond Androes, Esqr, 
Govern: of his Royal Ilighnesse the Duke 
of Yorke his Territories in America at 
New Yorke. 

1679-80.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 285 


N. L. March 10, 1679-80. 

Hon b ^ e S?, — It was a few dayes since that I read a 
warrant from yof hon r & councill, w ch came hither under 
couert from your secretary to seize and secure seuerall 
goods on Fishers Island ; * and allthough I was much sur- 
prised at y e sudain exercise of authorety on y* place, 
w ch hath hitherto been unregarded, & without your com- 
on notice & pretentions, yet I was greatly satisfyed to 
know by that possitiue warrant that at last y e intrest of 
that place is desired by yo r selues to be secured under y e 
influence of yo r good gouernment, to w ch yo r hon r knows 
how much I am obliged to giue respect & obedience, and 
how much content I should take to haue my vine kindly 
secured under yo r authorety ; but not to flatter myself 
too much with soe great a hapines, I desire leaue to men- 
tion my feeres, and that difficulty w ch may cross my 
peaceable enjoyments under yo r shadow. It cannot be 
forgot by yo r selues that after his Royall Highnes the 
Duke of York his gouernment was settled, and the 
seuerall bound aryes thereof confirmed, that this island 
was then (as all other islands in these parts) taken under 
his Highnes gouernm*, and that Collonell Nicolls, after a 
considerable tyme of peaceable possession, and his assur- 
ance that it was justly within the expres limits of his 
masters charter, sent to my father a pattent for y e s d 
island, wherein was contayned such libertyes and preui- 
liges as he judged neadfull for that remote and perticuler 
place ; and thereupon obedience was comanded to be 
giuen to the Dukes gouernment, and the clayme & pat- 
tent standing now recorded there. I know not w ch way 
safely to giue obedience to yo r hon rs warrant, without 

* Fisher's Island, off New London, was part of the large estate of Governor John 
Winthrop, Jr., and remained in possession of his descendants till 1862. — Eds. 


hazard of great danger to my intrest & concernments on 
the island ; therefore, desire to be excused till a certain 
issue be made by both collonyes, and hope it will not be 
longer out of yo r minde and care to stop the claimes of 
any other authority, that I may quietly enjoy the comon 
blessings of Heauen under yo r secure and indulgeing 
gouernment ; and when it shall be knowne that to this 
Cesar I must pay my reasonable tribute, I shall take all 
occations to expres my duty, and my sence of y e advan- 
tage. In y e meane tyme, I desire yo r honors fauourable 
construction & good opinion, & that I may have the 
fauour to be accounted 

Yo r hon rs most faythfull humble serv*, 

J. W. 

Indorsed, " Coppy to the Gou r & Councill at Hartford, in answer to their 


Deare Brother, — I can but just wright you a short 
scrawle, & tell y* with y e bearer I am returned from New 
York after a weekes stay there, & can onely tell you y* 
I have spoke to S r Edmond about y e pattent given by 
Collonell Nicolls, who seems resolued to assert it ac- 
cordingly ; I intend to be wholy passiue in y e matter till 
I see how our gent m act therein ; I beleiue they will doe 
what they can now they are alarmed, & doe expect to 
heare from them shortly. Sf Edm d has giuen me a con- 
firmation of y e Indian guift of land on Long Island, & tells 
me he is ready to doe any thing elce within his power. I 
cannot tell you any other matters at p r sent ; you see my 
fingers are cold, soe y t I can onely add my deare affections 
to yo r self & my sister & sisters, & y fc I am 

Yo r affectionate brother, 

J. W. 

Fishers Island, Apr. 5. 1680. 


Pray thank Capt. Brunet & M r Padishall. My Bro. 

Wharton must expect noe letter from me now. S r Edm d 

& lady send their respects to all yo r lads & drink yo r 


Hon ble S R , — I hope yo r hon r has given a fauourable in- 
terpretation of my last by Capt. Hall, whose stay here 
was very short, and could onely give a hasty obedience 
to yo r hon rs comands, but had not tyme to p r sent in all 
perticulers y e hazard of my intrest on y e island by yo r 
hon rs claime of gov r m fc ; however, I am well satisfyed, & 
can safely depend vpon yo r hon rs promise. It wholy re- 
maines with yo r hon r to secure me in y e matter, since I 
can onely be passiue, & must expect yo r lion 1 ? care & 
kindenes to give me a quiet & safe settlement. I have 
noething farther at p r sent to trouble yo r hon r in this 
affaire, but to intreat a certaine & spedy issue, & yo r 
hon rs regard & fauour to my intrest, w ch with y e present- 
in* of my duty & best service to yo r hon r & most ver- 
tuous lady is all y e trouble at p r sent, but to intreat yo r 
hon r to beleiue that I am, hon ble S r , 

Yo r hon rs most faythfull humble servant, J. W. 

N. L., May 17*, 1680. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Sr Edmd Andros, p* Mr Heathcot." 


Deare S r , — I hope my last by Cap* Hall came safe to 
y? hands, & y* you kindely considered y e contents, & have 
since contriued a safe way for my escape from y e hands 
of y e Philistines. I am over head & eares in comon 
censure, as an abettor & contriuer of y e Dukes sloope 
coming into these parts ; but how inocent I am yo r self 


does well know. S r Edm^ last action has throwne me 
overboard in y e peoples opinion, soe y* at y e breaking vp 
of y e Generall Court here 1 loock for noething elce (as y e 
proverbe) but death & y e cobler ; but my inocency in all 
matters in this occation keepes me liytely vpon my 
leggs, & I can beare vp against the unjust sencures of 
triuiall & other persones. I hope you will not be wanting 
to posses y e Gov r with y e necessety of some issue, and 
that y r self will airwaves contriue & advise for y e best. 
But I will not trouble you more at p r sent, hopeing for 
an oportunety shortly of more tyme then I can have by 
this ; therefore, will onely add my deare respects to y r 
self & good lady, & assure you y* I am, deare S r , 
Yo r most affectionate & faythfull seruant, 

J. W. 

N. London, May 17* h , 1680. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Cap* Nicolls, by Mr. Heathcot." 


Hon ble S R , — I gaue y r hon r y e trouble of a few lines 
by M r Heathcot, & therein mentioned my feeres, what 
would be y e event as to myself of y r hon rs claime of gov- 
ernm* on Fishers Island, & y e great clanger w ch would un- 
avoydably fall vpon me thereby, if y r hon r , vpon farther 
consideration, & for y e continued pretentions of this col- 
lony, leaue y e matter unresolued, & my intrest unsetled ; 
but I will not fancy a difficulty in this occation, w ch is 
fauoured with y r hon rs pretention & assurance of a good 
issue. I have here enclosed y e copy of a protest sent 
hither by order of y e Generall Court at Hartford y e 13 th of 
May, 1680, and has been attended here accordingly, by 
w ch y r hon r will be more fully informed, & sensible of my 
danger ; therefore haue presumed to giue y r hon r knowl- 
edg thereof, according to y r hon rs comand, in any case of 


difficulty ; & must earnestly pray y r hon rs consideration 
& sence of y e matter, as planely as may be, for my direc- 
tion & securety, & y* I may be unconcerned therein till 
safely determined. But I shall not farther trespas vpon 
y r hon rs patience, but ask pardon and add y e presentm* of 
my duty to y? hon r & most virtuous lady, & y e assurance 
y* I am, hon ble S r , 

Yo r hon rs most faythfull humble seru*, 

J. W. 

New London, June 8* h , 1680. 

Indorsed, "Copy to Sr Edmund Andros, June 8% 1680." 


Hon ble S?, — If it were possible to add greater resent- 
m ts & sence of yo r hon rs fauours then what I haue all- 
wayes & more lately p r sented, they ought now with great 
reason to be doubled, since yo r honf is pleased soe gener- 
ously to concerne vo? self in my welfare & hapines, & 
adding thereunto yo r renewed perticuler civilletyes & 
obligations. This p r sent publiqe fauour comands me in 
all respects to yf hon rs seruice, and am thereby very well 
satisfyed of y r care of my intrest & kinde intentions 
therein, w ch , I may assure y r hon r , shall allwayes haue my 
due confession. The enclosed I directed to Mf Arnold for 
spedy dispatch to y r honr, & delivered it to y e master of 
his sloop at N. London vpon my coming to this place, 
who was then ready to sayle ; but Cap. Hall arriving 
here, & the winde haueing not been fayre for Southhold, 
I sent presently for the enclosed, & am very glad of y e 
opportunety by Cap. Hall. Therein I haue enclosed the 
copy of a formall protest by the Generall Court at Hart- 
ford, against yo r hon r & all the world that shall pretent 
ilGovernm* on this place, in w ? 1 yo? hon? may please to 
i (reade the comands that are put vpon me, and the diffi- 



culty of my condition, unles y r hon r shall forget yof 
clayme, or effectually assert it. This action, & my 
account thereof to y r hon r , I hope will be suffitient to 
occation some spedy issue ; therefore neede not trouble y r 
honf farther at p'sent, Haueing left all other perticulers 
to Cap* Halls relation, w ch I hope will be fauourably 
accepted, and seasonably considered, and with great 
hopes of the fauour of y r hon 1 ' 3 letter and comands, by the 
first opportunely, shall end this trouble, with a thou- 
sand thankes, & my suitable acknowledgments of y r hon" 
bountefull p r sent, (w ch is too great for any returne from 
this wildernes place,) and onely add my faythfull assur- 
ance of duty & best service to y r hon r & most virtuous 
lady, and pray that I may be accounted, hon ble Sr., 

Yo r hon rs most faythfull, obedient, humble serv', 

J. W. 

Fishers Island, June 12, 1680. 

Indorsed, " Copy to S* Edmd Andros by Cap. Hall, June 12, 1680." 


Fishers Island, June 12, 1680. 

Hon rd Sir, — I haue soe lately troubled you with a few 
lines enclosed in my letter to S r Edm d Andros (w ch being 
intended post by land, made me p r sume to enclose it 
therein), that tis scarce civill to giue you a second soe 
soone assault. I am very willing you should know that I 
take all opportunetyes of p r senting my service to y r self; 
elce should be tempted to recall my last, it being wrot 
in very great haste & not worth y r opening, nor this 
neither, but to testify my affection & zeale allwayes to 
be discoursing with you. I have enclosed in my letter to 
y r Govf the copy of y e result and courage of our Gen- 
erall Court, viz., a wonderfull protest against all p r sons 
that shall pretend governing on this place. I presume 


the Govf will give you a sight of the sharp instrument, 
by w ch you will see the straights I shall be put to 
if noe wayes secured ; but all must be left to y e pleasure 
& direction of y r hon ble Govern!", of whose justice & 
honf in this matter I haue noe doubt ; & can beleiue 
my intrest & concernes to be very safe & hapy under 
his kinde influence ; and from y 1 ' many obligations & 
endearments doe depend vpon yf freindship & kindenes 
to comunecate all needfull advice & assistance in this 
semingly difficult matter ; & that I may haue y e con- 
tinued respect of y r letters, w ch I know will as much as 
anything support me in all difficultyes. But I will not 
detaine you too long ; onely desire yy good consideration 
of y e matter, & hopeing by the fauour of some kinde star 
to heare from you very spedely, giue you the assurance 
of my affection & service, & that I will allwayes be, with 
sincere respects to yf good lady, hon^ S r , 

Yof most affectionate & faythfull serv* 

J. W. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Cap. Nicolls, June 12, 1680, by Cap. Hall." 


Eight Hon b ^ e , — It is but this minute, as I arriue from 
y e island, that I heare of y e bearer M r Platts journey to 
New York ; therefore pray y r hon rs pardon for this hasty 
scrawle ; & that I can onely p r sent that my last was by 
M r Padishall, wherein I gave y r hon!" account of Cap* 
Knapton & M r West, their motion on y e island, & their 
proceding to appoynt a constable by virtue of y r hon rs 
comission & administred oath accordingly, & y e troubles 
w* were threatned to y e person therevpon tho not yet 
taken notice of by y e authoritye here. Wherefore, I 
pray y r . hon rs fauour of a few lines by y e first oportunety 


& yo r sence & comands if y e person should at any tyme 
be taken & secured for vseing authorety contrary to y e 
protest by this collony. I hope for oportunety by y e 
returne of Cap fc Knapton from Pemaquid to giue yo r hon r 
farther account if anything hapen, haueing now onely 
leave from y e bearers haste to add y e presentm* of my 
duty to y r hon r & moste virtuous lady, & y e assurance 
that I am in all faythfullnes, Right Hon ble , 

Yo r hon r . s most faythfull, humble servant, 

J. W. 

N: Lond., Aug. 16th, 1680. 

Indorsed, " Copy to S? Edmond Andros, Aug. 16«», 1680.' ' 


S R , — I forgot when y r honf was here to p r sent that y e 
proprietors of y e Narraganset country, viz : M r Smith, 
M r Wharton, M r Tayler, myself & brother, with the rest 
of y e proprietors, in obedience to his Ma ties comancl in his 
letters to y e seuerall collonyes that all who pretended 
right to y e gouernm fc or soyle of y e Naraganset country 
should make their aplication to his Maj*! 6 , haue accord- 
ingly made their petition, that if his Ma" 6 shall not please 
to continue it under y e gouernm* of Conecticot or 
Plimoth, that then he would be gratiously pleased to 
grant letters of incorporation to y e said proprietors rather 
then to suffer them to be imposed vpon by y e Rhode 
Islanders as formerly, by whose incroching pretentions 
many of y e proprietors & inhabitants were allmost ruined 
in tyme of y c Indian Warr, or at least that his Ma*! 6 would 
be gratiously pleased to erect a court of claimes as for- 
merly in M r Harris his case, that y e proprietors may haue 
opportunety to make good theire titles to those lands, 
many of them not being in a capassety, by reason of 
great losses in y e Indian War, to make good their right 


in England, their whole shares not being sufntient to 
answere y e charge thereof. The intrest and justice of 
y e case has been presented to my Lord Culpepper, who 
has fauourably promised his assistance in their behalf, 
and if yr hon r have any houre of leasure to give y r 
fauourable assistance, I am sure it will be suitably 
acknowledged by them, and y T . hon!" knowes most sin- 
cerely by Yo r . 

Indorsed, " Copy to , about Narragansett Lands, Nov. 22, 1680." 


Eight Hon ble , — I am very hapy to heare the cer- 
tainty of yf hon rs safe arriuall, and at y e same tyme truly 
unfortunate to know my owne & every ones deprivation 
by yf hon r . s absence, since noething can be thought succes- 
full to any that is not under y r hon rs present influence, 
and blest with yf generous & succesfull hand ; it will be 
time to loock about when tis knowne y? hon r is gon, and 
therewith all good intrest and contenting but I will flat- 
ter myself that y e date of y r absence will be but a few 
monthes ; & that after my sorrowes and penance for y! 
hon 1 ? absence my contentm* will be doubled by y r hon rs 
hapy & safe returne. I mourne greatly for my mis- 
fortune, & y e continued ill w ch is still vpon me, haveing 
had but a few dayes respite from y e danger of my first 
distemper, w ch about a weeke since is turned to y e afflic- 
tion of a feauour & ague, & with such degrees as pre- 
uents my wayting vpon yf honf with y e returne of y e 
Mary, and hinders my duty before y r voyage, w ch adds 
greatly to y e increase of my distemper. I leave to 
trouble y r hon r with any matter of busines, being well 
assured of y r fauour to procure a certaine issue to that 
matter in w c ? y r honf has soe generously concerned yo. r 
self. I have now onely leaue from my sick fit to add my 

294 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1680-81. 

desires for yof lion" safe and succesfull voyage & hapy 
returne to y r moste virtuous lady, & y e exercise of gov- 
ernment ouer y r people, & that then I may be permitted 
among y e croude to know the certaine newes of yo r 
returne, & haue leaue to pray (as now with great sin- 
cerety) to be accepted, Right Hon ble , 

Yof hon re moste faythfull & obedient humble servant, 

J. W. 

New London, Nov. 22*, 1680. 


Deare Brother, — This opportunety is soe sudain 
that I haue tyme but for one line, & must omit many 
things w c . h I haue to wright, and giue you just a hint that 
seuerall coyles of rigging haueing been taken vp, a part 
of y e wreck that was lost on y e island, I haue detayned 
them till they were taken away by authority, & y e pre- 
tenders thereof procured a warrant from y e Comissioner 
here w ch I saw noe reason to comply with. After that 
they applyed themselves to y e Gov r at Hartford, who 
granted a warant & apoynted a water baly to goe ouer to 
y e island & seize all such things as are found to be any 
part of that wreck, w cb warant I haue allsoe refused ; y e 
island being formerly clamed by Collonell Nicolls, & y* 
neuer taken of by this collony. I haue wrot to y? now, 
& desired their excuse till farther consideration, & y e 
matter concluded by both collonyes : I have been goe- 
ing to N. York seuerall tymes this winter, but haue still 
been preuented ; & here being now an opportunety, I 
haue thoughts of goeing within a day or two, being will- 
ing to know what S r Edmond Andros intends as to his 
propriety of government of y e island, thaj; some issue may 
be made about it; & if he giues not vp his clame easely 


I may haue better opportunety to make conditions with 
this goverm fc I shall not stay aboue a weeke, & desire 
to here from you by the first ; w ch is all at p r sent (being 
neuer in greater hast) but my deare affections to all yo r - 
selves (& my excuse to my brother Wharton that I can- 
not wright at this tyme) & that I am 

Yo r affectionate brother, 

J. W. 

N. L., March 15th, 1680[-81]. 


Deare S?, — I was in hope to haue got leaue from my 
occations here to be hapy in yo!" good company all the 
holly-dayes ; but I found myself soe greatly entangled 
with my domesticall trifles that I could not get out, nor 
can I yet haue a playday, soe that I must content myself 
with this paper salutation till yo r coming to this towne, 
w c . h I heare is kindely apoynted for us. S r , in reference 
to that action depending, I know not whether I am more 
greived to know y e base spirit of many Judas pretenders 
then sorry that I made my charety & indulgence y e 
occation of my trouble & mischeif, & that my good 
intention in that lytle purchase, tho my owne right 
merely to a charetable end, should be wrested soe much 
to my injury, espetially by any in authorety. I like not 
those spirits that overmuch fawne & croutch whilst they 
are takeing from the hand, yet when they have opor- 
tunety will snekingly & cruelly bite ; nor can I be in 
charety with any such pretenders as weare a faire cloke, 
yet a dark lanthorne in their hart. I am more sensible 
of injury and prejudice in this case from y e first begin- 
ning of its examination, then ever I was in any matter 
wherein I had occation to ask authority for assistance 
& judgmt; & if y e wheale must goe thus hardly vpon 


me through y e prejudice of y e drivers, I could easely be 
willing that all y e spokes were broke, for I am sure it has 
gon heauy vpon me, & I know not why I may not wish 
I had been asleepe when I concent d to such meanes as 
was y e occation to procure it ; but noe more of this at 
p r sent. I must now pray yo r care to have y? eyes open 
that I be not too planely abused. The best case I know 
when tis once questioned is cloggd with many & uncer- 
taine testimonyes, & soe you will finde this ; but I am 
sure none that will lessen y e worth of y e grant, w ch gives 
directly 20 pole on each side y e river from y e place where 
y e tyde flowes ; w ch must rationally by y e intent of y e 
grant & y e very words thereof be accounted y e ordinary 
tydes ; or elce it does not answere y e end for conveniency 
of flowing downe timber to y e river as is mentioned, and 
it must needes be great vanety & misinterpretation to 
think that y e grant intended such an extreme flowing as 
was in Noahs tyme, or such unruly floods that exede y e 
usuall & comon course of nature ; but these ordionary 
tydes w ch generally flow without y e violence of extraor- 
dinary stormes (such are calld hurricanes or tempests, 
& have in many places layde whole townes dessolate) by 
sea floods w ch have many yeares been secure from comon 
& usuall flowings, elce there can be noe certaine bounes, 
for every owner certainely knowes that all unusuall floods 
difer greatly in their degrees of flowing according to y e 
violence of y e occation & soe become uncertaine bounds ; 
& such extreemes weere never made boundaryes by 
any law or custome in this colony ; & if such must be 
soe inferred & intended now I desire it may be knowne 
that y e court is the father and godfather too : & that 
hereafter all grants that are giuen where y e tyde has 
to doe may be explained to y e beter understanding of 
y e jury by y e aplication of such an ordinance as is at 
Boston. But I will not hold you too long ; this case, 
since it is questioned, will admit discourse & seuerall 

1681-5.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHKOP. 297 

semig evidences will be p r sented, tho not a bit to y e pur- 
pose, & hope y e court will carefully obserue them. The 
grant mentions y e flowing tyde, y rt is, y e salt water, not the 
freshet water that gorges, & stops in y e tyme of great 
raines by reason of y e narrow & crooked passage of y e 
fresh river soe much that it canot giue vent to those 
great floods w ch come downe ; & this y* defendant would 
faine make y* tyde. Such kinde of tricks and devises I 
know will be mentioned to darken y e light of my case ; 
therefore must intreat y r care in my behalf. It is not soe 
much y e worth of y e thing that I am concerned at as my 
abuse ; & that my great charety & good meaning should 
be misunderstood & interpreted soe much to my disad- 

I will not detaine you longer with these trifles, but tell 
you y* in all cases, both for and against me, I will expect 
yo r justice, w^ I know is never byased. Least I trespas 
vpon y r patience, onely let you know my dependance 
vpon you to see that I have good justice, not mens wills 
& prejudice ; w ch , with endeared, &c. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Capt. Allyn, May 28, 1681." 


Hon ble S R , — In the croude of my misfortunes there is 
noething more unhapy then those accidents w ch haue hin- 
dred my attendance vpon yo r honf. I had great ambition 
to bee one of the first at yo r feete, with the assurance of 
my duty ; but great indispositions hindred that devotion, 
and made me allsoe unable to wright my obedience and 
the hon r I haue for yo r person. A small concernment 

* This letter and the letter immediately following it are copied on the same sheet, and 
are indorsed, " Copy to Coll. Dungon & one to Cap 4 Nicolls, sent by Jonathan Parker 
Janry20th, 1684."— Eds. 


298 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1684-5. 

on Long Island, with yo r hon rs fauour, makes me a 
planter there : but many disapointments haue hinclred 
my improouements ; but hope as soon as possible to give 
yo r hon r such experience of my husband rye as may beget 
yof good opinion of my readines to follow the example 
of my industrious neighbors in those parts. I am greatly 
satisfyed to be among the number of those who haue 
intrest under the shadow of his Royall Highnes govern- 
ment, and am well assured of continuall hapines by yof 
lion? generous conduct. I am very much ashamed to 
remember the rudenes of yo r hon rs accomodation in this 
place, but my necessety of attending his Ma d . es comission 
at Naroganset I hope will pleade my excuse with yo r 
generous disposition ; and tho I was not able to offer my 
tribute of hon r & respect at that tyme, yet when yof 
hon r shall please to loock ouer the list of yof servants I 
know none can be found more obedient and faythfull to 
yo r person. I hope the fauour of Heaven will permit me 
to be in health, that I may haue opportunity to giue yof 
hon r better testemonyes of my respects then can be in- 
certed in this paper roome. In the meane tyme, I pray 
yo r hon rs fauourable interpretation of all seming omitions, 
and pardon for this great confidence, & that I may be 
permitted the honf to be accepted, hon ble S r , 

Yo r hono rs most obedient, faythfull, humble seruant, 

J. W. 

New London, Jan^y 20th, 1684[-5]. 


Deare S r , — The oportunety of the bearer bound to 
New Yorke hapens very fitly e to acknowledg y e fauour 
of yof obliging letter of y e 15 th Dec br by a non-conformist 
of this place, wherein I fintle, to my great contentm*, yo r 
continued health & prosperety. I haue greiued much 

1684-5.] FITZ-JOHN WIOTHROP. 299 

that I was not able to deliuer my self into yo r armes 
whilst you were at y e east end of Long Island. I long 
much to see yof face, & haue y e advantage of yo r worthy 
society ; and if sicknes doe not preuent (with w ch I haue 
been greatly afflicted the last two years, and makes me 
jelous of an ill fit in the spring), I hope to make opor- 
tunety to kiss yo r handes, that wee may seuerally recount 
the various accidents that haue hapned to vs since our 
last parting. My letters from Boston giue noe ace* of 
any late inteligence out of Europe. Two ships are 
expected daly, by whom I hope wee may haue y e good 
intelligence of peace & prosperety. I am cald vpon & 
forst to leaue this paper discourse with you ; but hope I 
may shortly haue better oportunety, & shall then person- 
ally giue you the assurance of my respects & good wishes ; 
& shall be hapy in y e fauour of yo5 continued correspond- 
ence, w ch is all I haue to add but my affectionate salutes 
to yo r good lady & hopefull son, & y e assurance that I 
am, deare S r , 

Yo r most affectionate & obliged servant, 

J. W. 

New Lond., Jan^y 20«s 1684[-5]. 

S', I intreat you to obtaine fauor for y e enclosed to 
y e Hon ble Gov r , & hope you will be soe kinde to make 
my excuse for soe long omitting my duty. Often sicknes, 
with want of oportunety, & noe other reason, hindered 

Pray intreat Majf Brockhole to accept of my humble 


New London, January, 1684[-5]. 

Keverend S r , — This hard winter season makes it 
difficult to continue y e wonted correspondence with my 
freindes at Boston, & soe possibly yo r owne intercourse 

300 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1686-7. 

there may alsoe be obstructed ; but one of Stoning- 
ton being returned, by whom I haue receiued letters 
of the 21st instant, I make bold to p r sent y e enclosed 
Gazets for yo r diuersions, w c . h , after your perusall, may 
be acceptable to seuerall persons here. They wright 
that about a fortnight since Capt. Gener, from England, 
arriued at Nantasket, had five weekes passage from Plim- 
outh. He reports that the charter of the Mattachusets 
was condemned the last terme in London ; that one Coll. 
Kirke, who was Gouernf of Tangere, is coming Gou r 
there, with 6 or 7 frygatts & 5,000 men; Mr. Ran- 
dolph to be secretary & register, & seuerall gent, there 
to be of the councill ; allsoe, that the citty of Buda, 
in Hungaria, w c . h the Gazets tell us could not hold out 
aboue 24 houres the last sumer, has been releiued by the 
Turke, & most part of the Emperors army destroyed. 
They wright from Boston of very hard wether ever since 
y e beginning of Nov: ; hundreds of people goe to y e castle 
vpon the ice, and the snow w ch fell the first of Nov: lyes 
still next y e ground. I intreat to be excused for this 
interuption, being desirous to giue you what is passing 
there, & hope may be acceptable this melancholy season, 
if not allready deliuered to you from better hands ; w ch is 
all I haue to add but the tender of my respects, and that 
I am, reverend S r , 

Yo r affectionate serv', 

J. Winthrop. 

Indorsed, " Copy to M r James Fitch, Sen r , Jan? 28, 1684." 


Boston, Jan? 13th, l686[-7]. 

Hon 1 ? S r , — I haue received yo r letter of the 7th in- 
stant by John Perrye, and am sorry I haue not tyme to 
answere yo r expectations in euery perticuler ; nor can I 

1686-7.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 301 

add more then just a hint of such intimations as may be 
most seruiceable to yo r intrest. I haue seene his Ma Ues 
instructions to the Gov r under his Ma* 1 . 68 signe manuall, to 
authorise and impower his Excellence to receiue the sur- 
render of yo r charter, and take the people under his care 
and governm* in the same maner as in this and the other 
collonyes, comanding his Excellence to giue an ace* of 
yo r behauour and proceding therein ; and tis thought 
much better to accept of his Ma ties gratious offer then 
to stand a try all, w c . h can in noe wise be aduantage- 
able to the intrest of the collony for future improoue- 
m ts , nor can any one beleiue that the issue of the 
tryall will fall on yo r side, it being his Ma ties pleas- 
ure to make some alteration in all his governm ts in 
America ; and it will be pitty that many of yo r selues 
should not be continued in place of trust. It is now in 
the power of his Excellence to call to the councill such of 
yo r selues as he shall think fit, and noe good man neede 
doubt that it will not fall to his share, but may be greatly 
hazarded if yo r selues shall wayte the issue and conse- 
quence of a tryall. All such ouertures are generally 
attended with much alteration, and many persons pos- 
sibly may be imposed vpon you that yo T . selues may not 
think suitable to promote the interest and prosperety of 
the people, w ch his Ma tie does greatly desire, and to that 
end has granted indulgence in matters of religion ; and 
wee are assured allsoe his Ma tie will gratiously protect us 
in all our ciuill injoyments. I finde noe materiall altera- 
tion in the forme of judicature. His Ma Ue has appointed 
members of the councill in euery collony, that out of 
them judges may be apointed to heare their causes in 
the proper courts in each collony. A comitte is now 
apointed to reuise the laws of each collony, and to 
reserue such as are found by long experience to be use- 
full. The Gouern r and members of the councill who are 
o T . deputyes and representatiues of both houses haue con- 


sented to levy a rate of one penny in the pound as for- 
merly in vse for the support of the Govern™*; and noe 
niony to be raysed without the consent of the major part 
of the councill. All things that will really conduce to 
the growth and prosperety of the people, and such 
methods & regulations in the seuerall courts of judicature 
as may be most for the ease and benifit of the people in 
generall, will readely be granted by his Excellence. It 
neede not be wondered that the names of the members 
of the seuerall collonyes are not incerted in the Comis- 
sion. It is found very chargeable to alter or put new 
items into the councill, for noe man can be a member 
but a great seale must pass for that perticuler man, and 
at such a distance, and where his Ma 4 ! 6 intends to keepe 
up the number amongst soe many members as will neces- 
sarely be in this Governm*. Upon the adition of yo r col- 
lony it will prooue both troublesome and chargeable to 
the crowne, for it costs aboue 75 lb sterling to pass a 
comission under the great seale. These that are now 
members are in a perticuler order under his Ma tie9 signe 
manuall, and that allsoe confirmed by the Commission. 
It seemes essentially necessary that two conciderable per- 
sons should be apointed agents to attend his Excellence ; 
and if I may tell yo r self softly, many of yof freinds won- 
der that some more ceremonius returne was not made at 
this juncture. His Excellence has apointed a generall 
councill at Boston the last weeke in February, and I 
could wish that yoTself & Maj r Talcot were then here. 
I haue not tyme to add farther, but to assure you of my 
respects in all cases wherein I may be able to doe you 
seruice, w c . h , with my good wishes for both yof prospere- 
tyes & all yo rs , is all can [be] added at p r sent. 

From yo r affectionate serv fc , 

J. W. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Capt. Allyn, at Hartford, Jany 13, 1686." 



Hon ble S?, — I haue had the favour of yo r letter of the 
15 th instant, and confes my obligations for the hon r men- 
tioned therein. It is now noe tyme to make excuses, or 
refuse any occation that may promote the peace & settle- 
ment of the country. The gen 1 . 1 calamety that hanges 
over our heades & points vs out for sorrow calls for every 
ones help ; and being myself sollicitous for the safety & 
prosperity of the people, am ready to be in armes for their 
defence, and shall refuse noe occation to hazard my life 
and all that God has giuen me to doe them service ; and 
haueing now assured you of my service, it remaines to 
put all thinges in a posture to defend our selues & offend 
our enimyes, and I will beleiue the concurrance of all 
other parts of the country is firme without any equivoca- 
tion, and that all thinges relateing to the government of 
the army is fully settled to avoyde all disputes among the 
officers, w c . h will otherwise clog & obstruct the succes of 
yo r indevoures. I haue many thinges allsoe to enquire, 
& perticulerly about the wayes that are considered for 
the supply of amunition & provition, but I will hope all 
those concernments are fully settled. Any mistake in 
those sinewes of war will greatly hinder & weaken the 
force of yof armes. I haue noething more to add at 
p r sent, but the assurance that I am devoted to serve my 
country, and that I wholy rely vpon Gods spetiall provi- 
dence to guide me in this & all matters of concernment 
w cb , with the p r sentment of my humble service, 

I am yoy hon r . 8 humble serv*, 

J. W. 

N. Lond., May 20th, 1690. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Gov* & Councill at Hartford." 


For Wait Winthrop, Esq., at Boston. 

Deare Brother, — I haue had yo rs of the 29 th May, 
& am joyfull for the continued health of all yo rs & the 
rest of our selues. I haue had a letter from the gent m at 
Hartford since myne to them, wherein they intimate that 
they waite for answere from York ; & then I shall heare 
farther, but I suppose before this they haue heard from 
him ; soe that I suppose he does not comply. I wonder 
all those who pretend government in the seuerall parts of 
the country should be soe blinde & deluded with such 
a one, w c . h is great dishonour, and besides a mischeif to 
the managem' of affaires at this juncture. It cannot be 
imagined but that in a very little tyme he will giue the 
bag, w ch will reproach the correspondence with him, and 
occation many inconveniencyes. Methinkes wee look 
ready for distraction on every hand ; and the lazy 
methods that are managed every where against the 
enemy will not saue us. It remaines onely to raise a 
suffitient army & at once to put an end to the warr, w c . h 
wee are able to doe if perticuler designes & want of a 
spirit of governm* does not befoole us. The custom e of 
sending out small partyes does insensibly destroy us, and 
a party soe flusht with succes must be otherwise treated. 
Therefore, if all men cannot goe, yet every fifth man 
may attend the sera ice ; & tho we linger away the tyme, 
yet it must come to that at last, and I will be willing to 
make one to saue our country, & soe our intrest w ch elce 
with others is lost for ever. The rogues of the squadron 
from York haue rob d us at the iland, and taken away 
about thirty sheepe unshorne ; some hogs they kild, w c . h , 
not being fat, they left them, allsoe some yong cattle. 
Tis better to be robed by the French then those that pre- 
tend to be our freindes. I desire to heare from you by 


every opportunety, & of the welfare of my sisters & the 
children. The bearer calls, & can onely add my deare 
affection to my sister & sisters & the children, and am 

Yo rs , 

J. W. 

N. Lond. June 7<* 1690. 


S R , — I was not onely obliged for the favour of yo r good 
company, but am allsoe engaged for the kindenes of yo r 
letter of the 13 th instant, and y r perticuler remarkes vpon 
the various overtures that hapned whilst you were here 
under the afflictions of a country entertainement. I am 
not less sorry for the poorenes of yo? accomodation then 
joyfull to haue you under my affectionate care. I know 
you will forget and pas by all omition of respects, w ch had 
been paide to you more formally if the contagion neere 
me had not broke the famely and disordered the prepe- 
rations intended for you, as testemony of my respects 
and former obligations. I hope for a good issue from the 
May rs negotiation with those of Onondage, and that his 
intrest with yo r owne & the gent m at Albany will firmly 
settle the disposition of the 5 castles to the intrest of the 
country. That perticuler designe of the gent m at Canada 
for peace with those nations seemes not onely their pub- 
liqe intrest, but a kinde of necessity vpon them, and I am 
apt to beleiue they haue more difficulty es that attend 
them then wee know or beleiue. My letters from Boston 
the day after you left me giue ace* that they will prose- 
cute the war against Canada, and every thing seemes to 
favour their designe. The merchants last Wedensday 
had subscribed for 6000 pounds, and it was beleived in 
two dayes more they would advance to 10,000 lb , and then 
presently fit out the fleete. I shall not omit to put the 
gent? in minde of the condition of Allbany as I haue 



opportunely ; and it will be yo r intrest to moove those 
at Hartford to appoint a fit person for that comancl, or 
otherwise recomend the managem* to the May r of the 
citty ; and tis a thing worth their consideration, since 
every one is not fit for that service. The bearer goes 
sooner then I expected, and can onelv give you these 
hurried lines, w ch , with my respects to yo r best thoughts 
and all freindes at Allbany, and salutations to yo!" self 
from those under my care, is all at p r sent from 

Yo r affectionate freinde, 

June 16th, 1690. J. W. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Mr. Kobert Livingston, at Hartford." 

For Wait Winthrop, Esq., att Boston. 

Dear Brother, — I wrot to you from New London a 
few dayes since, and gaue you ace* of my preparing to 
goe to Hartford, and since my coming hither I haue 
seene severall letters from Allbany intimateing the 
designe there against the French ; and the preperations 
w ch are makeing for a generall martch ; & the 5 Nations 
designe to joyne with the English & Dutch army neere 
Mont Royall, the acc k whereof is mentioned in a letter 
to the Gov r & Councill at Boston, w ch you will see. If 
the fleete doe not goe on with the designe to Quebeck 
then all will fall, & I doe not well see what service wee 
shall doe in this designe soe remote from all assistance of 
provition & amunition ; but now I am here, I must goe 
as far as Allbany ; I am hurried in my mincle & know 
not what to wright. I desire }'o r prosperety with yo! 
children with all my soule, and haue left a paper behinde 
me for yo r consideration, desiring you not to omit to doe 
what I haue done therein ; praying you not to forget my 


deare child in all things for hir good, if it shall please 
God that I doe not returne. I cannot wright now to 
my sisters, but desire you to giue them my affectionate 
loue, & to their children allsoe, w ch is all at p r sent, but 

that I am 

Yo r most affectionate brother, 

J. Winthrop. 

Hartford, July 14 th, 1690. 

Pray let me heare from you by the returne of the post 
& should be glad the gent, at Boston to oures would 
finde some good reason for my returne if you see noe 
prospect of good by the designe, but it must be done 


Albany, July 23?, 1690. 

S R , — I came hither two dayes since with the adi- 
tionall forces of Conecticot, w ch , with those already here, 
make vp two hundred. I have alsoe forty Indians out of 
severall parts of New England, & are all now ready to 
serve their Ma ties in this expedition against the French. I 
am sorry I was not soe fortunate to finde you here at 
my arrivall, w c . h would haue given me much satisfaction. 
I desire to heare from you effectually about the supply of 
canooes, & the disposition of those with you, and of the 
severall nations of Indians. I shall be ready to offer you 
all advantage of comand as I haue opportunety & may be 
fitting yo r quallety ; w^ is all at p r sent from 

Yo r affectionate serv*, 

J. W. 

For Peter Schuyler, Esqr., May 1 : of Albany, 
at Saraghtoga. 

I haue sent Cap* Johnson to waite vpon you, by whom 
pray let me heare from you of all matters that may be 
for their Ma* 1 ? 8 seruice. 



Albany, July 28th, 1690. 

S R , — The intimation of yo r goeing from Sarratoge but 
yesterday makes me think it may be tyme enough to 
begin our march on Thirsday, and if noe other comandes 
come from New England in the meane tyme I shall make 
all the hast I can to you, being greatly desirous to see 
you, & contriue the best way to serve his Maj'! 6 in this 
expedition, in w ch I shall content myself very much in 
yo r society & advice. I haue desired yo r freindes here to 
give you a full ace* of all matters, w cb will be advice for 
yo!* procedings against any evill designe that may be 
laide to obstruct his Ma ties service. I have not farther 
to add at p r sent but the assurance of my respects, and 
that I am 

Yo r affectionate seru*, 

J. W. 

For Peter Schivyler, Esqr., May 1 of Albairy, 
at Saratogo, 40 English miles from Albany. 


Hon 1 *" 1 S r , — At my coming hither I found all in con- 
fusion, and not now to be recovered ; the desisme against 

7 " O O 

Canada poorely contrived & litle prosecuted. A mis- 
understanding betwene the coiiiissioners & principle 
inhabitants makes the whole work difficult ; not one 
canooe ready nor the contrivance & agrement of the 5 
Nations with the gent m here perfected, and returned 
hither from their messenger Arnout, and soe the dav for 
a gen 1 ! muster as was agreed on, not yet knowne, w ch 

* Among the Wiuthrop Papers are two copies of this document, with only some slight 
variations. — Eds. 


darkens the whole project and leaues me in great distres 
about his Ma t5 ? s service and yof intrest. I finde very 
truly that yo r designes and those of York haue different 
intentions, & they haue lead you too cuningly into an 
assosiation, just to serve their extremety, and will now 
hardly confes their obligations for yo r generous assistance 
and preservation of their intrest. I am obliged in duty 
to the trust reposed in me to giue you my sence of the 
observations I haue made, & the difficulty that Provi- 
dence layes on yo r part of management of the designe ; 
and first I finde an ill disposition in those of the first 
station to yo r intrest, and yo r correspondence is made 
onely to serve their turne, and you will finde noe insinu- 
ations will be wanting to induce the other at York to 
staine and disadvantage yoy intrest vpon all occations. 
Therefore it concernes yof selves to be armed against 
such euill. I must allsoe mention to you with great 
sorrow that yo r army is much disabled with sicknes ; the 
small pox, the feavour & flux is very mortall, 4 or 5 
haueing dyed in these few dayes of my being here, and 
every day more are visited, and vpon a veiu of the sever- 
all companyes I cannot depend vpon aboue 130 sold rs fit 
for service, and every ones apprehention of being taken 
with the distemper vpon the march, soe remote from all 
help, does wholy discourage them, and in truth it is very 
reasonable to consider about it, since without a miracle of 
Providence none can escape under such a visitation. I 
am full of sorrow vpon all these considerations, and think 
you haue laide to hard a task vpon me, & wish some of 
yo r selues were here. The disadvantage of doeing with 
unreasonable men wholy tyed vp to their owne intrest is 
cruell ; and such you haue to doe with, and tis not worth 
yo r while to flatter your selves otherwise. The snake 
never hurts more then when it lyes under a secure 
shade. Such has been yo r favour to shadow the worst of 
vipers. I greiue very much for omitting to giue you 


account of such matters as hapned presently after my 
arrivall. But tis now too late to recall that tyme. The 
daly expectation of the returne of yo r post from Boston 
made me hope I should first heare from yo r selves, and I 
had the concurance of all my officers in that consultation. 
The horses could not be returned as others formerly, 
being designed of necessity to cary our provition. Last 
night I had a post from the Mayf about an 100 miles from 
hence towards the lake, that he was in preperation for 
canooes, and that ten were already made that would cary 
about an 100 men, & desires my coming vp with all 
spede that the Indians be not discouraged. It lookes all- 
most impossible to the sold rs ; however, that noe defeet 
may be at yo r dore, I haue given order to march the 
30th instant. I haue reason from all handes to send you 
a good character of yo r officers ; Cap* Fitch & Cap* John- 
son, haueing done their duty in all thinges for their 
Ma ties service & yo r intrest. I pray God to be with you 
& yo r councills in this great affaire ; w ch , with the pre- 
sentment of my humble service, I am 

Yo r hon? humble serv*, 

Albany, July 29th, 1690. J. W. 

For the Hon b . le the Gov 1 : & Councill at 


Hon ble S R , — On the 8 th instant I marched hither the 
army, and encamped on the north side of the creke 
called the Wood Creke, w ch leades to the fall about 4 
leagues from hence, and emptyeth its self into the lake 
called Curlers Lake (by the French Champlane) about 12 
leagues farther. At this Wood Creke I had conference 

* There are two copies of this report in the Winthrop Papers, with only slight vari- 
ations. On the copy here used is the following attestation: "The aboue written is a 
true coppy, compared with the original on tile this 10 th of July, lb'92. P- John Allyn, 
Secrety." — Eds. 

1690.] FITZ-JOKN" WINTHROP. 311 

with the Mayor of Albany, whose good disposition to for- 
ward the designe had kept him here about 15 dayes with 
some Indians to hasten the canooes. Here it was that I 
expected to joyne with 300 of the Maquaes and Onyades, 
and be furnished with canooes to transport the army over 
the lake into Canada, as was firmely agreed on by those 
nations. I was not onely thus unhapy, and yourselues 
deceiued in this first assistance & accomodation, but 
within a few dayes after a post from Albany arriued with 
letters from the Comissioners there, who gaue me ace* 
that Arnout, their messenger, was returned from the 3 
upper Nations, who obliged to joyne yo r forces with 14 
hundred men, and that by reason of sicknes, or some 
trifles, they could not, or would not, appeare in the feild 
on that expedition. Thus my expectations are deceiued 
and y r intrest injured, w ch puts me vpon great difficul- 
tyes ; and the designe of y r armes must of necessity be 
frustrate for want of the 5 Nations performance, and 
the deceipt soe great on their part that it cannot be 
interpreted by the most skilfull of the Burgers, and 
those of most ancient and intimate freindship with them. 
These disapointments see me wholy to cut me off from 
any farther step in the designe ; I haue, therefore, this 
day called a councill of warr, who unanimously under- 
stand wee haue not force suffitient to enter into the 
enimyes country, nor prouition to support the army 
till the fleete may reasonably be expected ; being not 
sayled from Boston the first instant, and yet wee are 
aduanced above an 100 miles from Allbany towards 
Canada. Ypon these considerations the Burgers & 
Boores Voluntires, who make neere half the army, think 
themselues unable to manage the designe, and those from 
New York, about an 150, are of that opinion allsoe. I 
must now let you know the misfortune of your owne 
forces. Many, haueing been taken sick on the march, 
are returned, and since my being here seuerell are taken 


ill, and Liuetenant Hubble and an other downe of the 
small poxe, w ch ? thus remote in the wildernes, is double 
aflliction. Under these misfortunes, tho neyther from 
yo'selues nor any mistake in my conduct, I am sur- 
rounded with difficulty es, and ouer prest in my minde 
to finde your clesignes obstructed, w ch had soe generous 
begining, and the concurrance of the neighbour gou- 
ernm ts ; but after a transcient veiw of these humaine 
disapointments wee must more perticulerly loock after 
that Deuine hand that governes the world, and pointes 
out the sorrowes and succes of all mankinde, to whose 
good pleasure in this matter, as in all things, wee must 
submit, remembring that not one hayre of our heades 
fall to the ground without Gods appointments. I haue 
not now tyme to giue you a more perticuler account, but 
shall bring myself such farther reasons as haue obliged 
me to returne. I haue sent the bearer to waite vpon 
you, & desire with all specie to haue yo r farther com- 
andes ; in the meane tyme I will use all meanes for the 
safety of y r forces & accomodation of the sick souldiers, 
w c . h will oblige me to mooue slowly in my returne. I 
haue now onely to wish for y or prosperity, and that the 
presence of God may be with you in all undertakings, 
and that I am, most sincerely, 

Yo r affectionate and humble servant, 

J. W. 

From the camp by the Wood Creke, an 100 miles from Albany, Aug: 15, 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Gov* and Councill at Hartford, from the Camp, 
Aug. 15, 1690." 


On the 21 s * of July, after a tedious march through the 
difficult and allmost unpassable parts of the wildernes in 

* The document here printed is in ;i fragmentary form, never having been fairly written 
out, and there are several copies of some parts of it. — Eds. 


7 dayes, from Hartford, I arrived at the citty of Albany 
with the aditionall forces of Conecticot, Capt. Joseph 
Fitch & Capt. Johnsons companyes being comanded 
hither some months before ; here I found the designe 
against Canada poorely contriued & litle prosecuted ; all 
things confused & in noe readines or posture for march- 
ing their Ma ties forces towards Canada ; yet all hands dis- 
orderly proposing something about it. Here I found a 
great defect in the compliment of New York forces, not 
aboue 150 of the number engaged in the result at New 
York May 1 st , w ch obliged 400. 

On the 29 th of July the Reverend M r Walker, of Wood- 
bury, who accompanyed me by the desire of the Gov r 
& Councill at Hartford, to preach to the army, & Mr. 
Chaney, chaplaine to the forces sent before me, returned 
to Conecticot to waite vpon the Gov r with my letters & 
report the difficulty of our affaires & encreasing of the 
small pox in the army, many being dead in the seuerall 

On the 30 th of July I gaue order to the 3 companyes 
of Conecticot & a company of y r Indians to march to the 
Flats, about 4 English miles from Albany, the Dutch 
companyes being two dayes march before them. They 
made their way N. & N. by East. 

Aug. I s .* — Early in the morning I followed the army, 
& quartered this night at a place called the Still Water 
(about 27 English miles from Albany), soe named for 
that the water passe th soe slowly not to be discerned, 
yet at a little distance, both aboue & below, is disturbed 
& rageth as in a great sea, occationed by rocks & great 
falls therein. Wee made our way N. & N. by E. 

Aug. 2 d — Wee marched forwards & were overtaken by 
a post with letters from Boston & Conecticot, signifying 
y e readines of y e fleete to sayle towards Canada, & quar- 
tered this night at a place called Saratogo, about 50 
English miles from Albany, where is a block house & 



some of the Dutch sould™ At this place I overtook 
M r Wessells, the Recorder of the citty of Albany, & a 
company of the principle gent m voluntires of that citty. 
At this post I received letters from the Mayy of Albany, 
then vp in the country, that canooes were makeing for 
the army. Thus far the way has been very good, onely 
4 great wading rivers, one whereof very dangerous both 
for horse and foot. This day I sent Capt. Nicolls with 
some horse to Albany to hasten our provition ; our course 
N. E. by N. 

Aug. 3. — Wee still continue here by the side of Hud- 
sons River where it is fordable, & had notice our pro- 
vition was coming vp to vs part of the way in waggons, 
& then in canooes. 

Aug. 4 fc . h — I consulted with the officers, & twas con- 
cluded to march forwards, & then clevided our provition, 
w ch was about 35 cakes of bread for each souldf, besides 
pork, w ch was scarce eateable. At this post I left Liut. 
Tho. Avery with some sould r . s to gaurd our provition to 
us, w ch was coming vp the river. From this place the 
Burgers & Dutch sould™ carred their provition vp the 
river in birch canooes, & the English sould™ theirs on 
horses, being noe more canooes. Wee marched about 
8 English miles this day, & quartered neere the Dutch 
companyes at the litle carying place, where the water 
passe th soe violently, by reason of the great falls and 
rocks, that canooes cannot pass ; soe were forced to cary 
their canooes & provition on their backs a pretty way 
to a passable part of the river ; our course N. by E. 

Aug. 5 th — The English sould? marched with their pro- 
vition on horses to the great carying place, about 8 
English miles from the litle carying place, where wee 
overtoock the Dutch companyes carying their canooes & 
provition over this carying place on their backs about 12 
English miles, very bad & difficult passing. This hardship 
the Dutch sould" performed vigorously, & without one 

1690.] FITZ-JOKN" WINTHROP. 315 

repineing, w ch made me think noething would be diffi- 
cult for them to performe. Our way this day a con- 
tinued swamp, abounding with exeding tall white pine 
fitt to mast any ship ; noe gras for our horses. This day 
our course has been north. 

Aug. 6 th — Wee marched over the carying place, about 
12 English miles, & encamp at a branch of the Wood 
Creke called the Folk, that leades into the lake, and is 
accounted part of the lake water, as it constantly payeth 
its tribute. In this creke canooes pass into the lake 
called Curlers Lake, & soe to Mont Royall, & thence to 
Quebeck. Our way a continued swamp of stately white 
pine. From this place horses can pas noe farther. Our 
course this day, E. N. E. 

Aug. 7 th — I sent 30 horse under the com* of Ensigne 
Thomlinson to Saratoga for more provition, & leauing the 
forces at this place under the care of Cap* Nicolls & Liu* 
Hollister, I passed downe the river, takeing Cap* Fitch & 
Cap* Prentis with me and two files of musketeires in 
birch canooes, managed by some of the Burgers, and the 
New Eng. Indians marching by the river side, commanded 
by Cap* Stanton, to the Wood Creke, or Hout Kill, where 
I had intercourse with the May r of Albany, the Burgers, 
and the Maquaes cap* 8 Here I encamped on the north 
side the Wood Creke. Our course, N. E. 

Aug. 8*! 1 — I called a councell of war, & treated with 
the Maquaes sachems & their cap* 8 , and deliuered to 
them that I was sent hither from all the gov mts of New 
England for their Ma* 1 ? 8 service against the French & 
Indian enemyes, and am to put them in minde of the 
ancient freindship between the English & the 5 Nations, 
and doe now ask their aduice for the best way to prose- 
cute the war against Canada. Vpon w c . h they seperated, 
& consulted a considerable tyme, & then returned by 
a cheif person of each Nation that they had concidered 
the proposition, & did leaue it wholy to our selues to order 


about it. It was then thought by the councell of war 
that this answere did not suffitiently engage them in the 
designe against Canada. It was farther proposed to them 
that they would giue aduice what number would be 
proper to send out for scoutes to finde the other Nations 
who were to meet at Fort Lamot, — they answering, 
upon long consideration, that they acluised the whole 
army to march, w c . h did not appear possible to the councill 
of war. 

Aug. 9'. h — Wee still continue here where Capt. Johnson 
returned to me, whom some dayes since I sent to Albany 
to pres the commissary for a farther supply of provition ; 
but noething considerable could be procured, & my letters 
from the commissioners of Albany, w ch I haue by me, did 
assure me that prouition is not to be had vpon the place. 
Cap fc Johnson gaue me allsoe acct. that at his coming from 
Albany a Dutch sould r came from Arnout, the interpreter, 
then vp in the Senocks country, & was to goe with them 
& the other Nations to meet at Fort Lamot, and informed 
that by reason of the small pox soe generally among 
them they could not comply with their promise of soe 
many hundred sould" ; that the great God had stopt y e 
way, w ! 1 was y e expression they used. This newes did 
a litle dishearten the Burgers, who freely offered them- 
selues in the designe ; but haueing noe letter about it, I 
despatcht an expres imediately to y e comission rs at Albany 
to know farther therein. 

Aug. 10 th — Wee understand that the sould rs w ch I left 
at the Fork about 12 miles were taken sick daly. 

Aug. ll 1 ! 1 — I desired the May?, a person of the greatest 
intrest in the Indians, to take with him a company of the 
Burgers, & the capt s of the Maquaes, & 15 of the New 
Eng. Indians, to goe downe the river about 6 miles lower 
to trye if more canooes can be made. This day I sent 
the Dutch doctor to uisit the sould™ w c . h I left at the Folk, 
who tells me that Lieut. Hubble is sick of the small pox, 

1690.] F1TZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 317 

& others very likely to be taken, & seuerall sick of other 

Aug. 12 th — A very rany day ; & about 5 of the clock 
in the afternoone I receiu d leters from the Gou r of Conecti- 
cot & the comission 1 " 8 at Albany confirming the report of 
Arnouts returne from y e upper Nations. 

Aug. 13 th — I sent for the May r & Maquaes cap ts from 
below the river, the tyme being soe far spent that the 
barke would not peele, & soe noe more canooes can be 
made. Vpon their returne I called a councill of war, 
most of my officers & cheif cap ts of the Maquaes being 
present, to whom I mentioned as is written in a paper the 
same day. 

Aug. 14 th — Wee discoursed farther w th the great capt 8 
of the Maquaes, the acct. whereof is in a paper written the 
same day. 

Aug. 15 th — This day, finding noe possibility of geting 
provition to support the forces here any longer, & that 
here was not canooes to transport half the Christians, & 
that wee could not by any meanes at this post eyther 
alarme or spoyle the enemy, it was thought most advice- 
able to return w th the army 5 haueing first giuen order to 
Johannes Schyler, brother to the May r , & of great vallew 
to the Indians, to take under his comand 40 Christians, 
such as he should think fit, & 100 of the Maquaes, Ska- 
tuco, & river Indians, & enter into the enemyes country, 
& soe to La Prere de Magdalena, one of the neerest 
places wee could expect to surprise any of the enemy. 
This afternoon, haueing dispatched Cap* Schuyler, & 
spared him what provition was possible, we returned to 
the Folk ; and the doctor haueing taken the best care 
that could be to remooue Liut. Hubble & y e sick sould rs , 
wee marcht to the head of the Wood Creke, & in the 
euening he dyed. 

Aug. 16^ — This morning we buryed Liut. Hubble 
with all the respect we could, — a very good & worthy 


officer. After this ceremony wee marched over the 
carving place 12 miles, with one of our soldiers sick of 
the small pox vpon a frame caried by 4 sould rs at a 

Aug 17 th — Wee marched to Saratogo, many of our 
sould rs being lame & sick. 

Aug. 18 th — Wee march to the Half Moone, about 
ten miles from Albany. 

Aug. 19 th — Here I leaue the forces under comand of 
Cap* Joseph Fitch, & goe myself with Cap* Johnson k 
Cap* Nicolls to Albany to consider the most convenient 
& safe quarters for the sould rs , the small pox being yet in 
seuerall places nere the citty. 

Aug. 20 th — I sent Cap* Nicolls with orders to Cap* 
Fitch to march the forces on the south side Hudsons 
River to the Greene Bush, w ch is within sight of the 


Whereas, I was desired by the severall collonyes of 
New England to comand a conjoyned army with those 
of the Province of New York in an expedition against 
Canada ; and haueing accepted thereof for their Ma ties 
service, I repaired to the citty of Albany for that purpose, 
and, according to agrement of the Comission rs of New 
England & New York, I expected to finde at the s d citty 
of Albany 400 sould rs from New York, well fitted with 
armes and provided with necessaryes for s d expedition ; 
and altho I found not aboue 150 sould" from New York, 
besides the principle gent m Burgers & Boores voluntires 
within the county of Albany, who generously offered to 
serve their Ma ties , most of them vpon their owne charge, 
and did actually mooue on the s d expedition in small 


party es, makeing hast to a place called the Wood Creke, 
where the canooes were makeing, yet I was willing to 
prosecute the designe for their Ma des service by all pos- 
sible meanes; and in order thereunto I comanded the 
forces of Conecticot to march & joyne with those of New 
York and the gent m voluntires at the Wood Creke, where 
I ordered the body of the army to encamp. At this 
place I expected to finde 300 of the Maquaes & Onyades 
to assist in the designe against the enemy, and most per- 
ticulerly to be furnished with canooes to transport the 
army ; but I was not onely deceived of the Indians, — 
there being not aboue 70 of both Nations, — but was 
allsoe most unhapily disapointed of canooes, the onely 
meanes of getting into the enemyes country, & without 
w c . h not one step farther could be made, there being not 
enough to transport half the army, as was concluded by 
the officers ; and besides these greuous disapointments, 
the Comissioners at Albany sent me account by a post y* 
their messenger Arnout was returned, and informed that 
by reason of sicknes the other thre Nations, who were 
obliged to bring into the feild aboue their proportion of 
sould rs , could not performe their obligations ; all which 
disapointments have wholy obstructed any farther pro- 
ceding in the designe, soe that I am obliged to declare 
that these hinderances haue effectually disabled me from 
entring into the enemyes country and subduing (with 
Gods permition) the people & country of Canada to 
their Ma ties obedience. 

This I giue under my hand at Albany this 21 s * of 
Aug st , 1690. 

J. W. 

Indorsed, " Declaration of the Reasons w c . h hindered the army from goeing 
to Canada, Aug. 21st, 1690." 



Hartford, Sept. 23d, 1690. 

Hon b ^ e S R , — By the earnest request of the Gen'! Court 
of Conecticot, & yo r hon!" & councells concurrance there- 
in, & the request of Cap* Lessler for the Province of 
New York, I was induced to accept a comission to com- 
and the conjoyned forces raised for their Ma ties service 
against Canada, & must now pray the favour to lead yof 
hon 1 * by the hand, to veiw the disapointments & diffi- 
cultyes w ch hapned in my prosecution of that designe ; & 
I must first present to }^o r hon!" that I repaired to the 
citty of Albany to hasten the preperations, & be in the 
army intended for that expedition, w ch I found noe way 
agreeing with the result made at New York the 1 st of 
May, 1690. There being from New York not aboue 150 
sold rs made it looke allmost fruiteles to make any adven- 
ture in the designe, yet, considering yo r hon rs dependance 
vpon me, I was desirous by all meanes to enter into the 
enemyes country & alarme their frontires for y e advan- 
tage of the fleete ; & soe ordered the forces of Conecticot 
to march to a place called the Wood Creke, k joyne with 
those of New York, & about 150 of the Burgers & Boores 
within the county of Albany, ambitious to serue their 
Ma Hes vpon their owne charge, but refused to serue under 
comission from New York, & soe under noe duty. At 
this place I encamped the army severall dayes, & expected 
them to finde 300 of the Maquaes & Onyades, & a suffi- 
tient number of canooes to transport the army ; but 
fay led of both, being not aboue 70 of both those na- 
tions, nor canooes to transport half the army. Nor did my 
disapointments rest here, but were still agrauated, & the 

* There are two copies of this letter among the Winthrop Papers, with some slight 
variations. — Eds. 


commissioners of Albany sent me by post that Arnout their 
messenger to the 3 vper Nations was returned, & gaue 
ace* that they could not be at the place apointed, by the 
reason the small pox was soe mortall among them. These 
disapointments disabled me to persue the designe ; for 
without canooes I could not pas into y e enemyes country, 
nor without the number of sold r ? projected & engaged for 
the designe, I could doe noe spoile vpon them ; soe that 
it was impossible to doe their Ma". es & the country greater 
service then alarme their neerest places ; w ! 1 I presently 
resolued & comanded a party of the Duch voluntires (for 
these were most acceptable to the Indians) to joyne with 
the 70 Maquaes & Onyades, being all that came to the 
camp of 300 that were engaged, besides about 30 of 
the River & Skatacoe Indians. These were sent out from 
the camp the 13 th of Aug 8 *, under comand of Johannes 
Schuyler, a yong genl m of Albany, to whom I gaue orders 
for that expedition ; & with all convenient spede passed 
downe the Wood Creke into the lake, & soe forwards to 
Laprerie de Magdalena, about ten leagues from the end 
of the lake. Here they fell vpon some poore people, 
lookeing after their corne & cattle, & killed 12 men, & 
took 15 men & 4 women prisoners, whom they brought to 
Albany, but could not then be mooved vpon any consider- 
ation to make an other adventure ; being their custome 
first to returne to their castles & refresh themselues, 
& must then haue new propositions made to them for 
any designe. These were the steps w ch I tooke, & bet- 
ter could not be taken, it being impossible to continue 
the forces at the Wood Creke for want of provition ; & 
besides, then the enemy woold not be alarmed to any 
disadvantage, being aboue 60 leagues to their neerest 
planters, unles fresh partyes of Indians could haue been 
procured, & yet impossible to doe farther mischief, being 
allready vpon their guard, where a few, by the advantage 
of the river, are strong against great numbers. I haue 



much more to informe when I shall waite vpon yo r hon r 
In the meane tyme 1 hope yo r hon r & the gent? will coiii- 
and satisfaction for the affront put vpon yof governm fc by 
my confinement without any reason what soever, w ch is 
all at p r sent from 

Yo! hon rs most obedient humble serv fc , 

J. W. 

For the Hon¥ e Symon Braclstreet, Esq r , Gov r , 
& the Couneill, at Boston. 


Hon b ^ e S R , — The intimation, a few dayes since, of a 
meeting of the Gen! 1 Assembly at Hartford, the 9 4 ! 1 instant, 
put me in minde of my duty to wait at that tyme ; but 
the condition of my concernes here, soe greatly distroyed 
in my absence, makes it very difficult to be p r sent at that 
meeting, & hope yo r hon r & the gent m there will favour- 
ably interpret my absence. The ace* of yo r concernes at 
Albany, & the managem fc of the forces coiiiitted to my 
care could not be fully p r sented in the laste tyme of my 
waiting vpon you at Milford, and yo r indisposition made 
me omit many thinges w ch should haue been p r sented ; and 
it will be difficult in this paper to give soe full & satis- 
fying relation as may be expected of the various dis- I 
apointm ts w ch appeared to hinder my proceding into the J 
enemyes quarters. I must therefore refer yo r hon r & the 
gent m now assembled to severall papers here enclosed, | 
w ch tell the whole truth of those great difficulties w ch ob- ' 
structed my proceding into Canada, and are such as can- 
not be denyed, haueing had the advantage of the most 
considerable gent m of Albany to accompany me in every i 
houre of busines, and every step of that undertakeing, & | 
were witnesses as well as concellours to the whole man- j , 


agement of the designe, and were the persons to whom I 
was perticulerly referred for advice by yo r instructions. 
My captaines and other officers under yo r comission, if 
now present, can giue full relation of all considerable dis- 
apointments, to whom I refer and are testemonyes to the 
severall papers now presented for yo r perusall, & can in- 
forme many other thinges not mentioned therein for yo!" 
owne & the gent? satisfaction. The comiss r f letters alsoe 
doe informe that provition could not be procured to con- 
tinue the camp at that post, soe remote in the wildernes, 
and giue ace' farther that Arnout was returned, & in- 
formed that the 5 Nations desired some delay ; and tis 
certaine to the gent m of Albany, to my officers, & every 
priuet soldier, that canooes were not made to transport 
the army. All these were hinderances not then in the 
power of man to remedy, and are prooved alsoe by the 
May? and Recorder of that citty. It remain es now to put 
yo r hon r & the Gen 11 Assembly in minde of the affront 
offered to yo r selues & the other governm ts by my confine- 
ment ; an impudence and injury not to be forgiven, &, 
being by a person countinanced by yo r selues in his settle- 
ment, renders the action more unpardonable. I am not 
willing to interrupt the weighty occations of the Assem- 
bly, nor pres impatiently for yo r resentments of that great 
abuse, but shall leaue it with yo r selues ; desiring you to 
remember that it was yo r requests w ch mooved me to that 
service, wherein I had noe other inducements to accept 
the comand of those forces then endeared respects for 
the prosperity & safety of the country whilst it was under 
danger by unreasonable enemyes, & yo r intrest of re- 
ligion & property lay at stake, and noe hand appeared at 
that juncture to support those blessings w ch our fathers 
remooved into this wildernes to enjoye. I haue now 
onely to assure you that I haue neyther spared myself 
nor yo r soldiers to promote the designe by all possible 
meanes, and that I will still be ready to uenture my life 


& all my concernes to promote the peace & hapy setle- 
ment of the country, & shall rejoice in their hapines, & 
lament for their affliction as gratly concerned for their 
welfare, w ch is all can be added at p r sent but the offer of 
my service to yo r hon!" & the gent m , and that I am most 


Yo r affectionate & humble serv*, 

J. W. 

N. Lond., Oct. 6<k, 1G90. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Govr and Gen 1 . 1 Assembly at Hartford, Oct. 6 th , 


London, July 13^, 1695. 

Deare Brother, — My hopes of seing you by this 
opportunety gaue me as much content as my disapoint- 
ment makes me sorrowfull. The King has giuen the 
government of the Mattachusets to the Earle of Bello- 
mont, a very good man. His comission is preparing, 
w ch will be very large, and take in all that can be gayned 
to make that governm' great. I am doubtfull it may 
some way or other affect the lesser governments, there- 
fore think it fitting to defer my returne untill the set- 
tlement of that province be over. The late Duke of 
Albemarle had (I think) by his coinission some superin- 
tendency ouer all the governnr? in the West Indies, and 
I beleiue the Earle of Bellomont will goe over, under as 
great circumstances ; but hope noe ill will affect Conecti- 
cot, their Maj ties letter promising to continue their rights 
& priuiliges. My Lord told me yesterday that he hoped 
to be ready the latter end of August, and I wish noe dis- 
apointment hinder. If he should be detayned longer, it 
will be difficult to adventure vpon the coast of New Eng- 
land ; and then it must be deferred till February or the 
begining of March, soe that if you doe not se me before 

1695-6.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 325 

the mast ships returne hither, you may aduenture to 
write to me, and hope the gent™ of Conecticot will allsoe 
write, & by every ship, for few escape. I shall think it 
very long till I see you, and if I stay a month longer my 
mony will outrun my tyme. I mention noe thing of it 
to the gent? of Conecticot, supposing they will of them 
selues care for me. I intend to leaue noe incumberance 
vpon any thing wee haue, unless yo r self and my sisters 
would haue any perticuler thing, of w c . h I will expect to 
heare from you. My letters are calld for, & can hardly 
finish this. I will beleiue you care for yo r neice, &c, 
and soe am at rest in that matter. My deare affections to 
my sisters, my nephew & neice, & all our selues. 

I am yo rs , 

J. Winthrop. 

I heare noething yet of M r Milner. Kinch is certainly 
dead. Pray send y e Gazets, &c, to Mf Saltonstall, & 
then to Hartford. 


For Wait Winthrop, JEsq% at Boston. 

Deare Brother, — I haue yo r letter of the 1 st of 
Nov br from New London, and am glad to heare all freindes 
are well. I send this letter to my cousin Sam Newman 
at Plimouth, who, after seven weekes tyme vpon this 
voyage, is now allmost ready to sayle. By him you will 
receive former letters of severall dates, and therewith 
their Maj"? 8 letter to the Gov r and magistrates of Conec- 
ticot. A copy thereof I sent to Plimoth to meete Cap ta 
Arnold, but came an houre too late. By him you would 
allsoe haue had the sad newes of the death of the Queene, 
w ch has put all into mourning ; the King exceding sor- 
rowfull, and the loss not to be made vp. Great prepe- 


rations haue been makeing for hir funerall ever since 
hir death, w ch was solemnized yesterday ; the like not 
knowne in England; tis thought 100,000 will not defray 
the charge. The Parliament is now sitting, and consid- 
ering of wayes and meanes to carry on the warr with 
France ; and tis thought the King will be early in the 
feild this spring. I suppose you will heare from many 
letters of the death of S r William Phipps, who dyed the 
18 th of Feb., after a few dayes sicknes. He was first 
taken with a cold, the usual distemper to strangers, w ch 
hung about him very much, but kept him not within. 
On Tuesday I was with him at the Councill Chamber at 
White Hall, and went with him that evening to his lodg- 
ing, and perceived he began to be much indisposed. On 
Thirsday he was let blood, w ch was very bad. It eased 
his cough, and was a litle better. On Saterday morning 
I visited him, and hoped the worst was over ; but that 
night the feavor encreased. On Sabothday morning he 
was blooded againe, w ch was rather worse then the first. 
In the afternoone I went to se him, and found him ex- 
treme ill, scarce able to breath ; and soe continued all 
night, and about nine of the clock in the morning de- 
parted very easely. I am extremely concerned for the 
loss and my ladyes bereuement. He had not seene the 
King nor any hearing before the Councill, but beleiue all 
would haue been well. I haue wrot to M r Milner, and 
giuen ace' of yo r order to him ; but M r Martindell, his 
kinsman, writes me word from his wife that he went to 
Virginia, but expects him home every day, and then shall 
heare from him. Here is Cap*? Berry and Cap* Priarton 
getting ready, and speake of sayling before the mast 
ships, but doe not heare of any convoy, and soe I think 
to take the opportunety of the mast ships, with whom, if 
it please God, you may expect me. I hope to haue 
tyme to write farther by this opportunety, and will onely 
add in this my deare affections to my sisters, my nephew 


& neice, and all our selues, and service to all freinds, 

and am 

Yo r affectionate brother, 

J. Winthrop. 

London, Mar. 6«s 1695[-6]. 

If you are soe kinde to write to yo r neice, remember 
me to hir, & hir mother. I will beleiue you care for 
them. Robin is dead. 


To the Kings Most Excellent Majesty. 

The humble Petition of your Majesty's loyal and duti- 
full subjects, the Governor and Company of y e English 
Colony of Conecticut in New England in America, pre- 
sented by Major General Fitz-John Winthrop, Esq., their 
Agent in that behalfe lawfully authorized, 

Sheweth : 

That your petitioners, in the month of January, 1693, 
did, by their humble petition presented unto your Ma- 
jesty (complaining of several undue proceedings of Benj. 
Fletcher, Esq r , Governor of your Majestys Province of 
New York, particularly in relation to their militia), pray 
that the commission granted to the said Benj. Fletcher 
might receive such explanation and restriction, in order 
to your petitioners releif, as to your Majesty, in your 
royal wisdom, should seem meet. Which petition was 
referred to y e Right Honourable the Lords of the Com- 
mittee of Trade and Plantations, to consider the matter 
thereof and report their Lordships opinions therein. That 
upon a referrence of the said matter from the said Com- 
mittee to your Majestys then Attorney and Solliciter Gen- 
eral, and their report thereupon, and the report of the 
said Committee, your petitioners did obteyn an order 


of Councill, and her late Majestys most gracious letter 
bearing date the 21 st day of June, in the year of our Lord 
1694. Whereby the quota of your petitioners (to be 
under the command of the said Benj. Fletcher, together 
with the several quotas of the other Provinces within his 
commission, for the common defence, dureing this pres- 
ent war) was limited not to exceed the number of one 
hundred and twenty men; and the said Benj. Fletcher 
injoyned to raise or require no more then proportionable 
numbers of the several quotas of each Province ; notwith- 
standing which, the said Benj. Fletcher, after his receipt 
of her late Majestys said letter, by his letter bearing 
date the 17 th of June, 1695, directed to the Governor of 
the Colony of Conecticut, and afterwards by several other 
letters, did demand and insist that your petitioners should 
send out of the colony of Conecticut their full quota of 
120 men, with pay and all necessary provisions, to be 
employed for nine months in the defence of Caderague, 
a place never yett garisoned by the English, and is ac- 
counted near 400 miles from your petitioners up in the 
wildernes, without calling at the same time for any part 
of the other quotas, and refused to allow for part of your 
petitioners quota those souldiers that your petitioners 
were then forc'd to keep in arms, to the number of 30, 
for the defence of their own frontier, at that time actually 
invaded by the Indians (who had destroy' d many freind- 
Indians and severall families of English), though, as your 
petitioners humbly conceive, it was intended they should 
have an equal benefitt and assistance from the army 
composed of the several quotas, with the other Provinces 
as occasion should require ; and although your petitioners 
did frequently express their rediness to the said Benj. 
Fletcher to raise a proportionable number of their quota 
to those raised by the other Provinces, provided your 
petitioners, by reckoning such as were then actually in 
service for their necessary defence for part of their quota, 


might have a proportionable share in y e protection &• de- 
fence, yet the said Benj. Fletcher, to the great prejudice 
of your Majestys affaires, has alwaies refused to accept of 
such your petitioners repeated offers, and insists on our 
compliance with his said unreasonable demands, which 
would wholly mine and impoverish your petitioners, 
who are allready much reduced by the unkindly seasons 
of the last years. 

Your petitioners, therefore, humbly pray that your Maj- 
esty would be pleased graciously to take their said 
case into your consideration, and afford them such 
releif therein as to your Majesty, in your royal 
wisdome and justice, shall seem meet. And your 
petitioners, as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 

[Signed] J. Winthrop. 

Aprill 23<i, 1696. 

At the Court at Kinsington, the 23? of Aprill, 1696. 

The king's most Excellent Maj^ in councill, vpon read- 
ing this day at the board the anexed petition of the Gov!" 
and Company of the English Collony of Conecticot in 
New England in America ; his Maj^ in councill is pleased 
to order that the said petition be, and it is hereby, refered 
to the Right Hon ble the Lords of the Comitte for Trade 
and Plantation for their consideration, and to report what 
his MajY may fitly doe in the matter. 

Wm. Bridgman* 

* The above indorsement, in the handwriting of Fitz- John Winthrop, is written on a 
blank leaf of the sheet on which the petition is copied. — Eds. 




Reasons humbly offered to y e right Hon ble his Maj ties 
Commission" for Trade & Plantations by Maj r Gen 1 ! 
Winthrop, Agent for y e Gou r & Company of his Majes- 
tyes Collony of Conecticot in New England, why Coll 
Fletcher, Gov r of York, ought not to have demanded, & 
y e Gov r & Company of Conecticot refused y e last yeere 
to send 120 sold? with armes, amunition, & provition to 
All b any. 

That it was impossible to raise soe many sold rs propor- 
tionable out of y e seuerall townes, w ch are some of them 
aboue 60 myles distant from others, and to send them in 
soe short tyme as was expected to Allbany, w ch is aboue 
200 myles distant, & y e prouition for y e s d soldiers must 
haue been transported by water to Allbany, w ch is neere 
400 myles. That about y e tyme when Coll. Fletcher 
demanded y e s d supply y e s d Gou r & Company of Conecti- 
cot receiued aduice of an inuation from y e enemy on y e 
frontiers of their owne collony, & of seuerall persons, 
both English & Indians, being slaine, and farther danger 
thretned, & thereupon were necessitated to send a com- 
pany of sould" for defence of y e front ires & presentation 
of y e inhabitants, & were under apprehention, of y e s d 
collony es being in greeter danger then New York. That 
y e s d supply was required when y e s d collony labored 
under greet want of prouitions, y e corne & graine of y e 
country being generally blasted, & armes & amunition 
to be procured onely at deere & excessive rates, viz., gun- 
powder, 15 p r barill. That y e s d Goiiy & Company had 
reason to conclude y e s d supply would haue been useles, 
for y fc by y e s d Fletchers aduice y e enemy were within a few 
dayes march of Albany, & y° sold", when raysed, could 
not march soe far in less then 8 or 9 dayes, before w ch 
tyme it was very probable the enemy would have retired 


or effected their designes ; besides, y e s d Gou r & Company 
had aduice that 200 of y e freind Indians had passed y e 
lake in order to fall upon y e enemy, w ch s d force y e s d 
Gouf & Company thought sufficient to diuert y m . That 
y e circumstances of y e s d collony were such as rendered 
them wholy unable of supporting y e charge of soe many 
sold r f at soe great a distance & for soe long as nine 
monthes, before y e end of w ch tyme y e s d soldiers were not 
to be releiued ; & should they have soe done, their owne 
collony would have bin destitute of necessary & proper 
defence. That y e s d Gou r & Company had receiued a let- 
ter from her late Majesty, wherein she declares she had 
signefyed her royall pleasure to y e s d Coll. Fletcher, that 
in y e execution of y e powers of his s d comission he doe 
not take upon him any more then during war to com- 
and a quota, or part of y e militia of y e s d collony not 
exeding y e number of 120 men & with espetiall directions 
not to comand or draw out more of y e s d quota of y e mili- 
tia of y e s d colony of Conecticot then he shall in propor- 
tion draw out from y e respectiue militiaes of y e adjacent 
collonyes; soe y t y e s d Gou r & Company conceived they 
were not obliged to send out y e s d number of sold rs , soe 
yt ye g d nimiDer was ye w hole quota of y e militia of y e s d 
collony, & y e s d Fletcher was not to drawe out more of 
y e s d quota then he should in proportion drawe out of y e 
other collonyes, & y e s d Gouy & Company had noe aduice 
y fc any, much les y e whole quota of y e other provinces 
were drawn out ; and in case y e s d collony had raysed & 
sent y e s d number of sold rs , y e other provinces would have 
been freed, & y e collony of Conecticot borne y e whole 
charge of assisting y e Governm* of New York. 

That y e Gou r & Company of Conecticot have upon all 
occations bin ready to aide and assist y e province of 
New York, & did upon their application to y e s d Gouf of 
Conecticot send to their assistance a company of sold rs ; 
the lieu* & some of y e sold 13 were killed in their 


defence, y e charge of w ch assistance cost 680 lb , & at 
another tyme y° s d Gov r & Company raysed sold rs for y m 
w ch cost aboue 100, & more lately, in y e yeare 1694, sent 
y e s d Coll. Fletcher 600 lb , and in Aug st y e same yeare, upon 
Coll. Fletchers desire, sent to Allbany two comissioners 
& GO sold" whilst he was treating with y e 5 Nations, y e 
charge whereof came to aboue 500, & were still ready in 
conjunction & proportion with y e other collonyes to haue 
assisted y e province of New York, but y e quota being soe 
great & demanded when they rather wanted then were 
able to giue assistance, and when they labored under 
greet mischeifs, the s d Gou r & Company thought they 
were noe wayes wanting in their duty by refusing to 
comply with y e demand of y e s d Coll. Fletcher, w ch had 
neuer bin made by any former Gou r of N. York. Where- 
fore, y e s d Gou r & Company of Conecticot humbly conceiue 
y e s d Coll. Fletcher hath exceded his instructions from hir 
late Majesty, and that his s d demand was very unreason- 
able ; and humbly pray yo r Lordships, out of yo r aboun- 
clant goodnes, wisdome, & sence of our great oppression 
in this matter, that such orders maye be made & direc- 
tions giuen as may restraine y e present & succeding Gou rs 
from makeing such demands for y e future as will be soe 
very chargeable & difficult for his Majesty es s d collony to 
comply with. J. W. 

Indorsed, " Copy of Memoriall to his Majestyes Comissioners for Trade 
& Plantations. Sept. 1696." 


M'l Attorny Gen 11 ? Summons* 

Inner Temple, 13th Oct., 1696. 

Whereas, vpon readeing a representation of y e Comitte 
of Trade, concerning attorneyes gen 1 . 1 to be apointed in 

* This and the three following documents are printed from rough copies in the hand- 
writing of Fitz-John Winthrop, and are all on the same sheet of paper. — Eds. 


his Majestyes plantations in America, it was ordered by 
y e late Lords Justices in Councill that it be referred to 
me to consider whether an attorny gen 1 . 1 may not be 
apointed for his Majesty in each of y e severall colony es 
& provinces of Carolina, Pensiluania, East & West Jersy, 
Conecticot, Rhode Island, & y e Mattathusets Bay in 
America, notwithstanding y e grants & charters to y e s d 
colonyes & provinces, & to report my opinion there upon. 
Let, therefore, y e proprietors of y e s d colonyes & provinces, 
or their agents, attend me if they think fit with y e grants 
& charters of y e s d colonyes & provinces on Monday next, 
being y e 19 of this instant October, at 5 o clock in y e 
afternoone, in order to y e makeing my said report. 

T. Treuor. 

1 Petition. To the Kings most Excellent Majestye. 

The humble petition of y e Lords & others the proprie- 
tors & agents of Carolina, the Bohama Islands, Pensilua- 
nia, East & West Jerseyes, & Conecticot, in America, 

Sheweth : 

That by sumons from M r Attorny Gen 11 , dated the 13 th 
of October last, your petitioners receiued intimation of 
reference from y e late Lords Justices to him to consider 
and report whither an attorny gen 1 ! might not be 
apointed for y r Majesty in y e s d severall provinces, not- 
withstanding their grants & charters. That upon y r 
petitioners attending y e s d attorny gen 11 , a paper anexed 
to y e s d order of reference, purporting a representation to 
y e s d Lords Justices from y e Councill of Trade was read, 
wherein is suggested that some complaints haue been 
lately made to y e comissioners of y r Majestyes customes 
& to y e s d Councill of Trade by one Edw d Randolph that 
diuers irregularityes haue been lately comitted in y e 
said provinces contrary to y e acts of nauigation & to y v . 


Majestyes prejudice, & that y e persons whom y r petition- 
ers haue (as they are acluised they lawfully might doe) 
constituted attornyes gen 1 ! in y e s d provinces, are qualli- 
fyed for their seuerall imployments ; and forasmuch as 
y r petitioners haue been allwayes carefull to apoint offi- 
cers in y e s d prouinces well affected to y r Majestyes 
gouernm* & interest, & quallifyed for their offices & im- 
ployments, & y t y e s d representation is (as y r petitioners 
conceiue) y e reason and ground of y e s d reference, & y fc y e 
suggestions in y e said representation cloe not only affect 
y e persons therein named, but, in consequence, y r petition- 
ers, & for that y r petitioners till their attendance on Mr. 
Attorny Gen" had noe notice of y e s d complaints & repre- 
sentation, or the contents of it, & soe noe oportunety to 
rectify or cleare some misinformations giuen to y r Majes- 
tyes said comissioners & Councill of Trade, yo r petition- 
ers, therefore, most humbly pray that they may haue a 
copy of y e s d representation, & that y r petitioners may be 
heard, & y e truth & reason of y e s d complaints farther & 
more clerely examined before Mr. Attorny Gen 1 ! shall 
make his report in y e matter referred to him, &c, and 
yo r petitioners shall pray, &c. 

Crauen : W M Pen, Michaell Watts, Obadiah Burnet. 
Ashley : J : Winthrop, Dan el Cox, Tho : Amey, 
Tho : Lane, Fran : v Minshull. 

2 Petition. To the Kings 3fost Excellent Majesty. 

The humble petition of y e Lords & others, y e proprietors 
& agents of Carolina, y e Bohama Islands, Pensiluania, East 
& West Jersyes, & Conecticot in America, 

Siieweth : 

That by their petition lately presented to y r Majesty y r 
petitioners set forth that y e late Lords Justices had vpon 


a representation to you made from y e comitte of trade 
ordered Mr. Attorny Gen 1 ? to concider & report whither 
attornyes gen 1 ! might not be apointed for y r Majesty in 
y e s d prouinces notwithstanding y r severall charters ; & y t 
vpon y r petitioners attending Mr. Attorny Gen 11 , y e s d order 
& a copy of y e s d representation thereunto anexed from 
y e Councill of Trade to y e s d Lords Justices was read to y r 
petitioners, expressing that complaints had been made by 
one Edw d Randolph of diuers irregularityes lately com- 
itted in y e s d prouinces contrary to y e acts of navigation 
& to y r Majestyes intrest, and y* y e attornyes gen 1 ! whom 
y r petitioners had by virtue of y e s d charters there consti- 
tuted for y r Majestyes seruice had not discharged their 
trusts, & y* y r petitioners did therefore humbly pray they 
might haue a copy of y e s d representation, & y fc y r peti- 
tioners might be heard, & y e truth & ground of y e s d 
complaints farther and more clerely examined, before My 
Attorny should make his report. That y r Majesty was 
there vpon gratiously pleased by order in councill dated 
y e 5 th of this instant to refer y e consideration of y e s d 
petition to y e s d Councill of Trade, & y* y r petitioners did 
humbly conceiue y* y r petition was granted, & y* accord- 
ingly they should haue a copy of y e s d representation. 
That y r petitioners haue since attended y e s d Councill of 
Trade & desired a copy of y e s d representation, but cannot 
obtaine y e same. Forasmuch, therefore, as y r petitioners 
haue been ever carefull to appoint officers in y e s d prov- 
inces well affected to y r Majestyes intrest & governm' 
& quallifyed for their offices & imployments, and y* y e s d 
complaints perticulerly relate to seuerall persons now in 
y e s d provinces who were put into y r imployments by y r 
petitioners, & y* y e s d persons nor any concerned for y m 
cannot vindicate y m from y e s d complaints without a copy 
of y e s d representation, w c ? contains mater of charge 
against y m , y r petitioners most humbly pray y fc y r Majesty 
woold gratiously please to order y* y r petitioners may 


have a copy of y e s d representation, & y* they may be 
fully heard by y r Councill as to what y r petitioners shall 
be aduised to offer by way of answere, defence or other- 
wise, to y e s d representation, & y* in y e meane tyme an 
order may be directed to M r Attorny Gen 1 ! to stay y e 
makeing his report in y e matter referred to him; & y r 
petitioners as in duty bound shall ever pray, &c. 
Signed as the other. 

To y 6 Bight Hon Ue if Councill of Trade. 

The Lords, proprietors, agents, & others of y e prouinces 
of Carolina, Pensiluania, East & West Jersy, and Conect- 
icot, in America, 

Protesting their loyallty & duty to his Majesty, & re- 
serueing y e benefit of being heard by you selues or coun- 
cill to y e right & power of erecting courts of admirallty in 

y e s a provinces 

Doe offer: 

That there are seuerall clauses in y r respective grants 
k charters, w ch as they are aduised import & imply a 
ground of admirall jurisdiction & power of erecting y e s d 
courts & constituteing judges & officers thereof in y e s d 

That y 6 reason why they haue not hitherto erected 
such courts, or constituted such officers, is y t all suites 
or informations vpon & for breach of y e severall acts of 
navigation may, as appeares by y e s d acts, & perticulerly 
y e 15 th of Charles 2 d , be brought & prosecuted in y e comon 
law courts, & y* y e erecting courts of admiralty woold haue 
occationed salleryes & other great & expensive charges. 

That they apprehended there was noe necessity of such 
courts unles for y e condemnation of prizes, few or none 

1696-7.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 337 

of which haue been brought into y e s d prouinces during 
this war in order to be tryed & condemned. 

That y e s d proprietors neuer y e les are willing & ready 
to erect such courts & constitute such officers as shall be 
well affected to his Majestyes gouernm*, carefull of his 
intrest, vse their outmost endeuoures to enforce an ob- 
servance of y e s d acts of nauigation, & zelously prosecute 
such vessells & persons as shall be guilty of y e breach 
ofy m . 

All w ch is humbly submitted. 


To the R\ Hon h l e the Lords Commis rs of Trade. 

May it please your Lordships : — 

I haue perused the coppy of a memoriall presented 
to yo r Lordships in order to the constituting a generall 
over all the forces of the seurall colonyes therein men- 
coned, and doe thereupon offer : 

That the Govern r and Company of Conecticot Collony 
by their charter haue express power to assemble martial 
array and putt in warlike posture the inhabitants of the 
said colony, and to commissionat, impower, and authorise 
such person or persons as the said Govern r and Company 
shall think fitt to lead and conduct them. 

That the said Govern r and Company have allways, and 
especially in the last Indyan warr, when the enemy was 
strong and numerous, chose their owne leaders and 
comanders, who then were, and usually haue bin, suc- 
cessfull and victorious. 

That the said Govern!* and Company are aduised that 
the imposing a generall over them, especially with power 
to demand men, amunicon, and provision, and to lead and 
carry them at the pleasure of the said generall out of y e 



said coloney without the consent and aduice of the said 
Govern!" and Company, will be hard on y e inhabitants & 
also contrary to the s d charter. 

That in case yo r hon rs shall think it necessary or con- 
venient that a generall be made as in the said memoriall 
is proposed, it is humbly offerd that he may be restreynd 
from raising forces and demanding supplyes in the said 
coloney and leading them out of it without the aduice 
and consent of the said Gov r and Company, which theire 
owne interest and securitey will oblige them to giue 
when occason or necessitey requires. 

All which is humbly submitted by 

Feb. 4th, 1696[-7]. J. W. 

To the BI. Hon hU if Lords Comm rs of Trade & Plantations. 

Whereas one or more petitions haue bin lately pre- 
sented y fc y e Narragansett countrey in New Engld might 
be settled under the government of y e Massathusets or 
some other coloney, the Governy & Company of Con- 
ecticut Colony humbly offer 

That by their councill they are advised y e govern of 
y e s d Narragansett country belongs to y e s d Gov r & Com- j 
pany, the same being expressly granted to them by their j 
charter, which charter is yet in full force & being. 

That the s d Govern!" & Comp any doe insist on & claime 
the governm* of y e s d country, & humbly pray it may not I 
be putt under or added to y e governm' of any other col- ' 
ony or province. 

J. W. 

Feb. 5th, 1696-7. 

Indorsed, " Copy of memorialls to y e Lords Comissionrs of Trade & Plan- 
tations. Feb 4th, 1696-7."* 

* This and the preceding petition are copied on the same sheet. — Eds. 

I ' 


To their Excellencyes the Lords Justices in CouncilL 

The humble petition of Fitz-John Winthrop, Esq., 

Humbly sheweth: 

That the church of New London in New England 
being burnt & the bell melted, your petitioner has pro- 
cured an other bell for the said church : but your peti- 
tioner being informed that an act of Parliament does 
prohibit bells to be caryed out of this kingdome, does 
most humbly pray your Excellencyes favour to permit 
yo r petitioner to transport the said bell ; it being a guift 
to the said church. * 

And your petitioner shall ever pray. 

J. Winthrop. 

[No date.] 

Indorsed, " Petition to the Lords Justices for liberty to transport a bell 
to New England." 


I am very sensible of y e fauour of y r letter, yo r kinde 
congratulations & y e advantage of y r prayers, w ch haue 
contributed much to my preseruation ; & tho whilst abroad 
I haue been accompanyed with many difficultves & 
troubles, and visited with sicknes allmost to death, yet it 
pleased God to save me & returne me hither in safety. 
I am thankfull to God, who gave me opportunely to serve 
my country euen at that tyme when their liberty & priu- 
ileges, the blessings they vallued [&] most desired, were 
in danger, & God be thanked they are now under better 

* The meeting-house at New London was burnt probably in June, 1694 ; and in July 
it was voted "that a new meetinghouse shall be forthwith built." In July, 1698, the 
town passed a vote to Governor Winthrop for the gift of the bell. See Caulkins's History 
of New London, pp. 199, 200. — Eds. 


circumstances. Y e renewed instances of y e Kings grace 
& fauour has put them into y e full & free exercise of 
authorety as in y e begining, & renders them able to 
ad nance y e lion* of y e governm* & support their greet 
priuileges not now to be attayned. S r , I remember very 
well the sincere freindship betwene our predicessors, & 
haue often had yo r fathers blessing & good wishes, & shall 
doe my part to continue y e same freindship & intercourse 
with y r self; and tho I am not hapy to be acquainted 
with you, yet that disaduantage is made vp to me in con- 
templating y e extraordinary character you haue justly 
acquired in these parts, and tis happy to know you are 
made a blessing to y e good people God has put under yo r 
care. I haue onely to pray you to accept of my affec- 
tionate salutations & y e assurance that I am 

Yo r affectionate serv* 

Mar. 28th, 1698. 


My Lord, — I haue the hon r of yo r Excellencyes letter 
of the 6 th instant, but by a mistake or negligence of the 
post it was left at Saybroock, and came not to my handes 
till the last night, and beino; soe late it will be difficult 
to be able to attend yo r Excellency with comission™ to 
accomodate the difference respecting the boundes of the 
prouince of New York & this collony; yet to expres to 
yo r Excellency my readenes to attend every thing for 
his Ma ties service as fast as yo r Excellency shall please to 
propose to me, and allsoe that I may not be wanting in 
my duty & care to promote & secure the intrest & boundes 
of this his Majesties Gouernment, and now perticulerly 
in this affaire soe neerely concerning vs, I haue giuen 
order for such gent m of the Councill to be convened as is 
possible in the litle tyme yo r Excellency is pleased to 


allow, and if the records of the Gen 1 ! Assembly respect- 
ing this affaire, w c ^ are at Hartford, fifty miles distant 
from this place, can be attayned to be ready for the tyme 
mentioned, I will then appoint comission rs authorised to 
negotiate according to the contents of yo r letter, and 
hope to make appeare before yo r Excellency the right of 
this colony to the boundes first staked by comission rs and 
then confirmed by King Charles the Second, & that noe 
persons after that setlement had power to pas away or 
alienate any part of his late Maj. charter to this collony. 
I am the less sollicitous about the management of this 
affare, as being most assured of your Excellency es justice, 
one of those cardinall virtues for w ch the world calls you 
great, and am not concerned where this controversy will 
be debated, since yoy Lordship will please to hon r it with 
yo r presence, where is order, justice, & equety. My Lord, 
I will loose noe tyme to dispatch this matter, & if it 
be possible the comission rs shall be at New York the 23 d 
instant; but if Prouidence shall disapoint this purpose, 
I hope then to haue yo r Excellencyes excuse till yo r 
returne from Allbany, when noething shall hinder y e 
houre appointed for this affaire. I haue onely farther 
to confes my obligations to yo r Excellency, w ch are great 
& not to be exprest. I wish yo r Excellency & my Lady 
(to whom I am most dutifull) a confluence of all bless- 
ings, and am, my Lord, 

Yo r Excellencyes most humble serv*. 

N. L., June 13th, 1698. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lord Bellomont, June 13th, 1698." 


My hon rd Frikdes, — I will mention noething now of 
y e fauour of y r former letters w ch came to my handes in 
y e hurry of my preperation for sending to New York, & 


twas impossible to make any perticuler returne at that 
tyme ; but I haue now a minute of more leasure, yet but 
just enough to thank you for yo r last two dayes since, 
with those papers very fit to evidence our right to y e 
extent of our charter w ch I presently dispatched to our 
comission™ at Stonington, where they had an intervew with 
the comission rs for Rhode Hand, who came thither with 
full power under y e seale of their collony, but scrupled 
our power and would not procede unles I signed & sealed 
a comission to our comission rs to treat with them, w c]x 
I presently dispatched ; and just now our comission rs in- 
forme me by post that all y e prelimineryes of our treaty 
are concluded with gen n satisfaction, & are entering vpon 
y e treaty, & tis hoped there may be an inclination in 
them to agre with us, but how it may proue I can not 
yet tell ; I knew not that I was added in y e last comission 
for this treaty till a few dayes before y e tyme ; how euer, 
for some reasons I did omit it, and shall be accountable 
to the Gen 11 Court for it. I thought fit, with the opinion 
of the Council here, to ad Mr. Saltonstall in the comis- 
sion, and am glad yo r selues did allsoe intend it. I am 
sorry I have not y e aduantage of yo r opinion and aduice 
in these difficult matters, and can think noething well 
done that has not yo r sanction & approbation ; I expect 
every houre an ace* of their procedings, w ch shall be pre- 
sented to yo r selues vpon all occations. The bearer waites 
whilst I write this, and can onely add my affectionate 
salutations, and am 

Yo r affectionate seru* ? 

J. W. 

New London, June 29<*s 1698. 

For Sam 11 Willis, Caleb Stanle}', 

Nathe 11 Stanley, Esq?, at Hartford. 



For Sam 11 Mason, Danyell Witherall, Esq™, Rev d M' Noyse, M r Gurdon 
Saltonstall, fy M r Christophers, Comisson™ at Stonington. 

Gent m , — Tis this minute that I receive the enclosed 
from Hartford, wherein you will se that the gent m of the 
Council are very sollicitous to procure every thing w ch 
may explaine our right to the Naroganset country ; & 
that I may not detayne you from the aduantage you will 
have from the severall intimations mentioned in the en- 
closed, I haue dispatcht them to you the same minute I 
receive them. I hope you will forese all aduantages for 
our intrest. I wish well to every step in yo r proceding, 
& espetially as you are persons soe much depended vpon 
to bring this matter to a good issue. I expect to heare 
from you vpon every occation, & desire you not to 
straighten yourselves of tyme if any prospect of accomo- 
dateing the difference. When you returne you will be 
most welcome to me as serviceable to y e country, & noe 
body will joy more for your good succes. My affection- 
ate salutations to all your selues is all at present from 

Yo r affectionate freind, 

N. London, June 29^, 1698. J. WlNTHROP. 

Yo r famelyes here are well. 


For Sam 11 Mason, Danyell Wither ell, Esq™, M r Noyse, M r Saltonstall, 
S? M Christophers, Comisson rs at Stonington. 

Gent 5 ?, — I am sorry any omition should be found on 
our part at your first intervew, but yourselues must make 
a fitting excuse about it ; and since the draught you sent 
to me will answere their objections, all may yet doe well. 


I think it will not be aduiseable to refuse any reasonable 
adjournment of your present meeting, if you finde it will 
tend to a good issue, and doe wholy refer that matter to 
your approued discretion, recomending to yo r obseruation 
any motion for England ; I sent to you nine houres since 
some letters and wrightings w ch I receiued from Hartford, 
w ch I belieue are with you before this tyme ; I hope for a 
good issue from yo r management, &, with affectionate salu- 
tations to yo r selues, remaine 

Yo r affectionate freind, J. W. 

New London, June 29th, 1698, foure of y e clock. 

You will concider whither it be needefull to shew any 
more of y e Lords letter then concernes this affaire, or the 
first side of it. Please to dispose of me to the gent? as 
you shall think fit. 


Hon ble S R , — I am under great obligations for the hon r 
of yo r freindship & fauour in my attendance at Court in 
behalf of his Maj. Colloiry of Conecticot, whose welfare & 
hapy repose under the aduantages of their constitution is 
very much oweing to yo r fauour & intrest. The station 
you justly acquire in the great Comission of the Council 
of Trade, & yo r generall influence over all the plantations, 
inables you to the greatest good, & yo r generous inclina- 
tions for the welfare of this wildernes giues me assurance 
wee shall have a share in the great benefits w ch you comu- 
nicate from the trust reposed in you. I remember with 
a great deale of thankfulnes yo r fauourable interpretation 
of some complaints made against this gouernm', & we 
owe much to yo r justice & inquiry into them for our vin- 
dication, w ch set us right in the opinion of the Court. And 
that we may yet be well in yo r fauour, and take off any 

* At that time a member of the House of Commons and one of the Commissioners for 
Trade and Plantations. See Burke's Landed Gentry. — Eds. 


malitious reports suggested against us, I may safely as- 
sure yo r hon r that as to the acts of trade & navigation this 
gouernm* has never yet made any trespas vpon them, 
or ever given incouragem* or countinance to robers or 
pirates ; our improuements here consist cheifly in hus- 
bandry, & are in a maner wholy cut off from any con- 
siderable trade & correspondence abroad ; and soe, not 
thoughtfull for the aduantage of that forbiden fruite soe 
pernitious to his Maj. intrest, I haue troubled yo r hon r 
beyond my intentions, and will onely ad farther that the 
fremen of this corporation haue pleased to put the care 
of this gouernm* into my hands for the yeare ensuing, 
w ! 1 will be more easy to me if I may haue y e fauour of 
yo r good opinion therein, assuring y? hon r noething shall 
be wanting in me to promote his Maj. intrest & y e growth 
& good improuement of this collony. I shall be very 
hapy to haue yo r comandes, & to be accepted, hon ble Sr., 
Yo r hon rs most obedient humble seru*, 

J. W. 

New London, in Conecticot Collony, N. England, July l s . fc , 1698. 
Indorsed, " Copy to Mr. Blathwayte." 


Hon rd Sir, — I was very unhapy to leaue London 
before I had thankt you for many fauoures w ch I re- 
ceived from you ; but a letter from the cap* of the ship 
ready to sayle made me hurry out of towne sooner then 
I expected, and soe was forst to omit my acknowledg- 
ments soe much intended. The letters w ch I had in 
charge of yo r self from the Eight Hon ble the Lords 
Comission rs of the Council of Trade, &c, were carefully 
deliuered to the Gou r and Company of the Collony of 
Conecticot, who haue a due sence of the hon r of their 

* At this time Secretary of the Board of Trade, and afterward Governor of Ber- 
muda. — Eds. 



Lordships letters, and to be remembred among the rest 
of the plantations. The election of the Gov r of this col- 
lony being in the handes of the fremen, they haue for 
the yeare ensuing put the care of the gouernment into 
my handes, w ch for that tyme I shall with all the care 
imaginable promote his Maj. intrest and doe my duty to 
the trust reposed in me. I shall be very hapy to haue 
intercourse with you, & how I may perticulerly serue 
you in this part of the world as very sollicitous to expres 
the obligations you have layde vpon me. I am, with all 
respect, hon r . d S r , 

Yo r most obedient seru* 

N. Lond., July 1st, 1698, in ye Collony of Conecticot, N. Engl* 
Mr. Popple. 


May it please yo r Lordships : — 

The hon r of being accepted by yo r Lordships whilst 
I was in England in behalf of his Majestyes Collony of 
Conecticot, and yo r singuler fauoures in many instances 
of regard to the welfare of this government, oblige me 
to the most dutyfull acknowledgments ; and the people 
here, haueing put the government of this collony under 
my care for the yeare ensuing (w c . h I hope may not be 
unacceptable to yo r Lordships), haue desired me in their 
name humbly to present to yo r Lordships their steady 
resolution to his Majestyes intrest, & that they will be 
hapy to haue yo r Lordships directions in all thinges for 
his Majestyes service ; and I am farther to p r sent that this 
collony has a deepe sence of yo r Lordships fauoures soe 
much conduceing to their hapines, and that they depend 
greatly vpon an intrest in yof Lordships continued good 
opinion and fauour, w ch will strengthen their handes & 
make everything easy for his Majestyes service, a great 


designe in all our improuements. The Kings letter of 
Aprill 22 d , 1697, and that from yo r Lordships of Aug. 
26'*, w ch were recomended to my care, I delivered to the 
Gouf & Company of this collony, and they haue taken 
under consideration all the perticulers comanded therein. 
I am allsoe to p r sent to yo r Lordships that yo r letter of 
Feb. 23 d , 1697-8 is received, with the proclamation pro- 
hibiting all his Majesty es subjects to enter into the ser- 
vice of any forraine prince or state, w ch was imediately 
proclamed ; and in the same letter yo r Lordships are 
pleased to comand that the lawes & acts of this col- 
lony should be transmited to yo r Lordships, w c . h I shall 
recommend to the next session of the Gen 1 . 1 Assembly for 
spedy dispatch. Yo r Lordships letter allsoe of March 21, 
1697-8, is lately come to my handes, with a copy of an 
act passed in the island of Jemaica for restrayning pi- 
rates and robers, w ch act I finde in the records of this 
collony, & put in force in the yeare 1684 (a copy is here- 
with presented), such was their constant care to prevent 
the growth of that mischeif. I haue now allsoe, in obe- 
dience to yo r Lordships comandes, ordered the said act 
to be reinforced by proclamation, and I may faythfully 
assure yo r Lordships that noe one vessell was ever fitted 
here vpon a pirate designe, or harboured in any of the 
ports of this collony, and that for the future his Maj^f 3 
pleasure in this matter, as in all thinges within our 
power, shall be most punctually observed. My Lords 
yo r Lordships continued fauoures will greatly contribute 
to the growth and prosperety of this collony, and tis 
under yo r Lordships influence we hope to be happy. I 
am, most dutyfully, my Lords, 

Yo r Lordships most obedient, faythfull, humble serv*, 

J. Winthkop. 

New London, July 1st , 1698, in Conecticot Collony, New England. 

Indorsed, "Copy to the Lords Com™ of the Council of Trade, &c, 
July 1st, 1698." 



My Lord, — I haue y e hon r of yo! Excellencyes letter 
of June 28 fc . h , and am thankfull in behalf of this collony 
for yo r Excellencyes countinance & fauour to our comis- 
sion rs , & yo r readines to dispatch the controversy betwene 
the two gouernm ts . It had been a fauour in yo r Excel- 
lency, if vpon our comission r . s presenting yo r Excellency 
with y e reason of their claime to y e townes of Rye & Bed- 
ford, wee might at y e same tyme haue received from yo r 
Excellencyes com rs their demandes & state of y e case, as 
it was intended to be presented to y e Lords Comissi rs of 
y e Council of Trade in order to his Maj. determination 
of y e difference. My Lord, vpon y e aduice yo r Lordship 
gaue me of one Josiah Rayner, a pirat, being in this col- 
lony (whom I neuer heard off before), I imediatly granted 
a writ to y e high sheriff for y e seazing & aprehending of 
him, since w c . h I am informed that before y r Lordships 
letter came to my handes he, y e s d Rayner, with one Tho: 
Conclin (reported to be a pirat allsoe), who came from 
Long Hand, from whence y e s d Rayner lately remoued 
into this collony, did goe through some of y e vpper 
townes in this collony, pretending to be bound for 
Boston ; the w ch as soone as I had notice I imediatly 
sent away a post to y e hon b ! e L* Gov r Stoughton, giueing 
him all y e information I could about it. 1 have onely 
farther to wish yo r Lordship a continued course of hapi- 
nes, & that every thing may contribute to yo r ease & 
con ten tin*. I am, my Lord, 

Yo r Lordships most obedient faythfull serv% 

J. W. 

My Lord, just as I haue wrot this I haue a letter from 
L fc Gov r Stoughton, who giues me ace 4 of his receipt of 
my letter, & that he will diligently persue Rayner, &c. 

Indorsed, " Copy to my Lord Bellomont, July 13 th , 1698." 



Hon b ^ e S R , — I am very thankfull for y e fauour of 
youres by y e last post, and accordng to the desires men- 
tioned therein I haue herewith sent blank comissions for 
the port townes in the countyes of New Hauen & Fayre- 
feild, and in treat yourself (as best knowing what persons 
are fitt to be entrusted in this imployment) to put in the 
names of such as yo r self knoweth will faythfully intend 
the Kings service, and answere our owne dependence in 
this governm 1 , and shall rest well satisfied & secure with 
such as you shall think fit to incert therein. I wonder y e 
collector should make any difficulty about M r Koswell, 
who I think, with yo r self, y e most fitting person, and not 
to be layde aside. I haue noe newes from Boston. When 
any thing comes to my handes worth your notice it shall 
be hastend to you ; w ch is all at p r sent, but my affectionate 
salutations, and that I am, most sincerely, 

Yo r affectionate & faythfull serv*. 

New London, Aug. 10th, 1698. 
L* Gov r Treat. 


Hon rd S R , — I am thankfull for the fauour of yo r letter 
of the 13 instant, w ch came not by the Mohege capt. as 
you mention, but was delivered to me by M r Graues, and 
am glad to heare M r . Woodbridg is well returned, whose 
assistance is soe very necessary with yo r selves at this 
tyme of reviseing the lawes, and I should not be easy 
without his presence among you. As to what you men- 
tion of y e gent 1 ! 1 goeing for England, you neade not be 
thoughtfull of any damage to us therein, if you recolect 
the contents of the letter from the Right Hon b ! e the Lords 
Comission r . s of the Council of Trade, who direct good steps 


in that affaire, and we must haue fayth for what they 
suggest to us therein. The perticuler you haue incerted 
of Coll. Hamilton his purchase of my Lord Arrans right 
to his claim in these parts I think neede not much af- 
fright us, since the Lords of the Council of Trade have 
assured us that what motions are made in that matter 
shall be comunicated to us, and I doe not doubt of it. 
The matter you mention of y e excise as a grevance this 
harvest tyme is not a new thing, but standes in force by 
virtue of a former act, and is now onely reviued from a 
too careles omition in tyme past, and I am sure we are 
excedingly obliged to M r Woodbridg and M r Saltonstall 
for remineding us of that, as well as their seasonable 
projection of those severall perticulers presented to the 
last Gen 1 . 1 Court. The difficulty es you propose to finish 
the lawes must not obstruct it, but must force yo r way to 
an issue of that affaire, that they may be ready for the 
ships in October. I haue but a minute for these lines, 
and must be excused that I doe not well answere the 
perticulers in your letter, and that I cannot now salute 
M r Woodbridg with a word or two, and to recomend to 
him (as neadfull) an issue of y t affaire w ch he form r ly men- 
tioned to me ; w ch , with my affectionate salutation to y e 
gent? of y e Councill, M r Woodbridg, and all yo rs , and am 

Yo r affectionate freind, 

J. W. 

N. L., Aug. 14, 1698. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Mr. Willis, Aug. 14, 1698." 


Hon ble S R , — You haue put a great obligation vpon me 
by recomend ing to me fit persons for naunll officers, & 
doe fully concur with yo r opinion of their fitnes, & abil- 
lety for that service. I am sorry it was omitted to send 

1698.] FITZ-JOKN" WINTHROP. 351 


a comission for a nauall officer for y e port of Milford, w 
should first haue been appointed, as it is yo r seat & y e 
place of your perticuler respect; and to make vp that 
mistake, I haue herewith sent a comission to M r . Alex- 
ander Bryan for that seruice, and shall allwayes regard 
every thing that is yo r inclination & intrest, & pray you 
to be assured of it. It will be neadfull (as direction to 
the severall nauy officers), to haue by them the Book of 
Rules, w ch I think does fully instruct them in their duty, 
and may be had from Boston by y e post. Your kinde 
intercourse does excedingly please me, & I shall not omit 
to giue you ace* of what ever happens worth yo r notice. 

I am, most sincerely, 

Yo r most affectionate serv fc , 

J. W. 

New London, Aug. 24«\ 1698. 
L* Gov r Treat. 


My Lord, — I am very happy that yo r Excellency and 
my Lady (after the difficultyes of your expedition) are 
safely returned to New York, and to heare the succes 
of yo r intercourse with the Five Nations ; such has never 
been knowne ; their renewall of the covenant chaine ; 
their resolution to a firme and lasting freindship ; all this 
is oweing to your Excellencyes great conduct, and will 
much conduce to the welfare of all his Majesty es govern- 
ments ; and I hope this collony, as their neere neighbour, 
will perticulerly share in the intrest of that freindship 
your Excellencyes wisdome & prudence has obliged them 
to obserue. The murther of the two English at Hatfeild 
keepes the people of our vpper townes very uneasy ; but 
wee hope the influence & power your Excellency has 
over these Fiue Nations will oblige them to finde wayes 
to discover that matter. My Lord, I haue noething by 


the post from Boston worth yo r Excellencyes notice, and 
haue onely farther to assure yo r Excellency of my seruice 
in all thinges within my power, and doe intirely wish a 
confluence of all blessings vpon yo5 Excellency and my 
Lady, and am, my Lord, 

Yof Lordships most obedient, faythfull, humble seru*, 

J. W. 

New London, Sept. 14*, 1698. 

Indorsed, " Copy to my Lord Bellomont, Sept. 14th, 1698." 


May it please yo r Lordships : — 

The Gen 1 ! Assembly of his Maj. Collony of Conecticot 
(by their comitte), at the receite of yo r Lordships letter 
of Feb. 23^, 1697-8, were under consideration for revise- 
ing the lawes of this collony, in order to some emenda- 
tions and enlargements as should be found necessary for 
farther benefit & service to his Majestyes subjects, but 
could not possibly digest them for your Lordships perusall 
in tyme to send by the ships now goeing from Boston. 
The Gen 11 Assembly doe therefore, in most humble regard 
to your Lordships comandes, herewith transmit to your 
Lordships favourable opinion the present printed lawes 
by w ch his Majestyes subjects are at this tyme governed, 
and allsoe the transcript of other necessary and locall 
lawes suitable to the constitution of the affaires of this 
wildernes, as they haue been enacted at the successiue 
sessions of the Gen 1 ! Assembly, and are such as haue 
been found serviceable to his Maj. intrest and effectuall 
to the preservation of their libertyes & priviliges most 
gratiously granted to them, and by the authorety of these 
lawes religion has nourished and is made eminent in all 

1698.] FITZ-JOKN" WINTHROP. 353 

the parts of the government, and here has been noe 
crye of oppression or complaints against the execution 
of these lawes in matters civill or ecclesiasticall, unles by 
bold and incorageable offendors, whom noe indulgence 
would reclame, and whose offences here would by the 
comon law of England haue been most extremely pun- 
ished. My Lords, I am farther desired by the Gen n As- 
sembly humbly to assure your Lordships of their readines 
to his Majestyes service, their care in all thinges for the 
well governing this people according to the trust reposed 
in them, and that the growth & intrest of this collony 
will be made great by your Lordships fauour and counte- 
nance, and your Lordships will greatly honour & prosper 
it by any kinde intimations for their aduantage, w ch in my 
litle tyme shall be most humbly acknowledged in their 
behalf by, my Lords, 

Yo r Lordships most obedient humble servant, 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, in Conecticot Collony, Oct. 27 t ; h , 1698. New-England. 

Indorsed, "Copy to the Lords Comission rs of the Councill of Trade, &c, 
Oct. 27tb, 1698." 


Hon rd S R , — By the ships in July the 1 st , 1698, I did 
present to the Right Hon ble the Lords Comission rs of the 
Council of Trade that I had received their Lordships 
letters of Feb. 23? and March 21 st , 1698, with the 
proclamations against priuateres, and forbiding his Majes- 
tyes subjects to enter into the service of any forraine 
prince or state, w ch were imediately proclamed, and in 
one of the s d letters was comanded that the lawes & acts 
of this colony should be transmitted to their Lordships, 
w cb I did comunicate to the Gen 1 ! Assembly, who I under- 



stood were then by their comitte under consideration for 
reviseing their lawes in order to a more compleat body 
for the press ; but it being impossible to haue them ready 
to send by the ships now hastening to sayle, the Gen! 1 
Assembly haue therefore, to comply with their Lordships 
comandes, dispatched the present printed lawes of this 
collony, and the transcript of other lawes as they haue 
been found neadfull to be passed by the Gen u Assembly, 
and hope to haue their Lordships good opinion concern- 
ing them; they are such as haue preserved his Majestyes 
Gouernment in peace & maintayned his subjects in all 
their just rights & priuiliges, and here is noe just com- 
plaint against them. If their Lordships shall please to 
consider any of them unfit or useles to his Majestyes 
service, or the welfare of this government, the Gen! 1 
Assembly will be very hapy to haue their Lordships 
sence & intimation about them. S r , I am still sensible, 
(as I mentioned in my last) of my disapointment of ac- 
knowledging my many obligations to yo!"self, and you se, 
S r , what fredome I take with you & the dependance I 
haue vpon you in behalf of this collony, that you will 
improue yo r intrest and recomend to their Lordships that 
wee may be hon rd with the aduantages and fauours w ch 
their Lordships are pleased to comunicate to the other 
plantations. I shall be very hapy to heare from you & 
to know how I may serue you in this remote part of the 
world, and am 

Yo r obliged humble seru*, 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, in Conecticot Collony, Oct. 27* h , 1698. New England. 
Mr. Popple. 

Indorsed, " Copy to W r m Popple, Esq., Secretary to the Right Hon^e, the 
Council of Trade, &c, Oct. 27th, 1698." 



For William Cowper, Esq., at his Chambers in the Temple, or at his 
Lodgings in Nation Garden, England. 

Hon rd S R , — I haue more excuses to make to yo r self 
then can be expressed in this paper roome, and cannot 
forgiue myself for goeing out of London before I had 
thanked you for many obligations you haue put vpon me; 
but the comander of the ship in w ch I had passage to this 
country gaue me notice from Portsmouth that he would 
sayle in a few dayes, w ch made me leaue London in a 
very great hurry, allmost without seeing my relations, 
and w ch was worst, that I could not wayte vpon yo r self ; 
but I hope yo r wonted goodnes will excuse me. It 
pleased God to giue me a very happy voyage to this 
country. Wee came from Cowes, in the He of Wight, 
the 8 th of Nov. last, in company with his Excellency the 
Earle of Bellomont, and severall ships to these parts, but 
in a few dayes were seperated by bad weather ; yet with 
one ship in company wee arrived at Boston, the cheif 
towne in this country, in 28 dayes ; but my Lord Bello- 
mont, who intended to New York, about 270 miles from 
Boston, was put off the coast of New Eng d to Barba- 
does, and did not arriue at N. York till the latter end 
of March. At my arriuall here I found this gouernm* 
well satisfyed with the settlement of their affaires at 
Court, and much is oweing to yo r assistance therein, and 
may let you know that the people of this collony haue 
put the care of the gouernm* (w ch is electiue) into my 
handes for the yeare ensuing, & shall be very hapy if any 
occation shall giue me opportunety to serve you. I am 
greatly satisfyed as well as surprised at this opportunety 
to salute you. One M r John Clarke, a Hartfordshire man, 

* Afterward Earl Cowper and Lord Chancellor. — Eds. 


who is lately come from England to visit some relations, 
as well as to purchase some small peices of land in Eng d 
belonging to some persons here, has brought his wright- 
ings & two persons to me to testefy to the truth of them, 
& may let you know that I am acquainted with the sev- 
erall subscribers to the articles of agreement & to the 
letters of attorney, but the wrightings should haue been 
more formall & haue had the seale of the collony. But 
the bearer came to me, being then at a small planta- 
tion w ch I haue, about 5 miles out of towne, and he being 
in hast I could doe noe more for him then what you will 
se in his papers ; but there neade not be any doubt to his 
disaduantage, and he desires me to recomend the matter 
to you. I haue onely farther to ask yo r excuse for this 
trouble, and to thank you for all yo r civilletyes, and shall 
be glad of any opportunety to serue you in this wilder- 
nes ; w ch , with most affectionate salutations & my good 
wishes for yo r hapines, is all at p r sent from, hon rd S r , 
Yo r most affectionate, humble seru*, 

J. Winthrop. 

New-London, in the Collony of Conecticot in New England, Nov. 12* h , 1698. 

S R , — I pray yo r fauour to giue my humble seruice to 
S r Henry Ashurst, to whom I am obliged for many civil- 
letyes, but tis impossible now to acknowledg them to 

You will doe me a great hon r to fauour me with two 
or thre lines at y r leasure. If they be put into the bag 
of any ship bound to this country they will come safe ; k 
any papers of newes w ch you throw away will be very 
acceptable, & a bundle of them as well as a sheete will 
come alike safe & easy. 



Kev rd S r , — I haue yo r ? of the 16 th instant, and shall 
doe all that I may to promote the charitable expressions 
of the people for the redemption of the poore captiue 
under his sorrowfull and misserable circumstances. Mf 
Saltonstall and other gent m of the councill here are now 
goeing to meete the comittes (w ch yo r seif knowes) at 
Haddam, by whom I shall recomend yo r desire to Gouf 
Treat for his opinion what may be done in the absence 
of the Gen n Assembly, and you may be assured that as 
this matter could not haue been recomended to me by a 
more acceptable hand, soe it shall not want my assistance 
to promote it, and shall be ready to serve any charitable 
& good occation w ch you shall at any tyme offer to me. 
I haue onely farther to ad my affectionate salutation, and 
that I am, sincerely, 

Yo r affectionate seru*, 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, Nov. 22<* , 1698. 

Indorsed, " Copy to M r . Sam 11 Mather, in answere to his desire of a Brief 
for the Redemption of M r . Thatcher, taken into Sally." * 


Hon ble S?, — About a fortnight since a ship came to 
anchor on y e south side of Long Hand against South- 
hampton. They all agree that they come from England 
y e 16 th of March, 1697-8, in y e s d ship Aduenture, 400 
tons, 22 guns, 47 men, Capt. John Gullet, comander, an 
interloper bound to y e East Indies; they first touched 
at y e Grand Canaryes, then at Cape de Verd Islands for 
provision, & wood & water, from thence to Sumatra, and 

* Saline, a port on the coast of Morocco. — Eds. 


then to Pollinees ; there y e capt., supra cargo, y e doctor, & 
2 mates went on shore with about 30 men in y e long boat 
& yaule, Sept. 17, 1698. About 15 returned in y e long 
boat with wood & water, entred y e ship & made them 
prisoners ; then they cut their cable & came to sayle, 
designing to y e Morashees, where they stayed about 17 
dayes, then sayled to Ascension, took some turtle, & in 
about 12 weekes came to anchor against Southhampton, 
where one Bradish (of Cambridge), then master of y e ship, 
went on shore with a considerable sum of mony, but 
returned noe more, yet sent a pilate on bord y e ship & 
ordered her to sayle ; they cut their cable & stretched 
over to Block Hand, where some of their men went on 
shore & two of them went to B. Hand, & bought a sloop 
w ch y e Gov* seised upon suspition of y m ; whilst y e ship 
was about Block Island a sloope one went on bord hir 
& loaded with such goods as they desired, w ch y e saylers 
gaue to them, then fyred 6 great guns into y e hold of y e 
ship & retired into y e sloope, and in a litle tyme y e ship 
sunck, then y e sloope went into Stonington & landed 
some of their men who bought horses & went towards 
Boston ; those w ch were left in these parts I have seised, 
with what mony they haue, & think it neadfull to giue 
yo r hon r this acc fc that all meanes may be used to finde 
out y e rest, who eyther haue with them considerable sums 
of mony, or by y e assistance of some persons haue 
secured it, & noe doubt vpon their examination they will 
discouer y e persons. This is all y e ace* can be giuen yo r 
hon r at p r sent by 

Yo' lion 1 ? most faythfull humble serv*, 

J. W. 

Aprill 4tb, 1699. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Liu* Got* Stoughton, April 4, 1699." 



Hartford, May 11, 1699. 

The Hon ble Govr mooues to this Hon ble Assembly, 
That whereas, in prosecution of a former graunt to his 
hon r . d father he hath settled diuers inhabitants in a con- 
venient place for a plantation at Quinebaug, the said 
inhabitants soe settled and others that shall here after be 
orderly settled in the plantation there allready layde 
out may have graunted unto them the usuall powers & 
priuiliges of a towneship for the carrying on of publique 
affaires, civill & ecclesiastick, among them, excepting 
onely the power of granting the fee as that w c . h is allready 
uested in himself. J. W. 

The aboue said plantation bounded on Norwich & Pres- 
ton on y e south ten miles, & on the west by Windham 
towne & land purchased by y e s d towne of Windham, 
eight miles, & soe to be a square of ten miles one way & 
eight y e other. 


N. London, May 16*>, 1699. 

May it please y r Lordships : — 

I have read y r Lordships letter, dated Octob r the 25% 
1698, which came enclosed to his Excellency the Earl 
of Bellomont, and have communicated it to the Generall 
Assembly. The body of our laws which your Lordships 
write for were sent, according to y r Lordships direction, 
Oct. 27, 1698, with a signification that the Gen! 1 Assem- 
bly had ordered a revisall of them, which is not yet com- 
pleated, but will be ready for y r Lordships inspection as 
soon as we may understand y r Lordships pleasure con- 
cerning them. We haue taken all care to execute the 


law of this colony ag* pirates or privateers, which hath 
had y r Lordships approbation ; and before the receipt of 
y r Lordships letter above mentioned severall pirates, who 
had run away with a ship from Polonis in the East Indies, 
the 16 th of September, 1698, whereof Capt. Gulleck was 
coiiiander, and bound for Borneo, in y e East Indies, and 
sank the s d ship w th most of her lading upon this coast, 
were seized here, ten of them, and now in hold in this 
colony ; the rest, as I understand, are imprisoned at Boston 
and Rhode Island. I have not been wanting to seize 
what goods and money stolen by them could be come 
at, which your Lordships will perceive by the enclosed 
proclamation, and it amounts to about two thousand 
pounds; what is acknowledged by them and otherwise 
evident ag* them I conclude will convict them upon 
triall, and shall be glad to receive y r Lordships advice 
concerning the money & goods taken with them. I have 
clone the best I could to discover such East India goods 
as might be suspected to be imported from Madagascar, 
and may inform y r Lordships that there is not the least 
toleration of any such correspondence with persons con- 
cerned in that illegal trade, and what your Lordships 
mention concerning the oppositio that was made ag* the 
seizure of some East India goods by Capt. Culliford, at 
Stamford, in MajF Sellechs & his sisters houses, y e begin- 
ning of July last, I have made strict enquiry into, and 
cannot find but that his Maj ties officers of justice in those 
parts were ready to yeild all the assistance they could 
possibly in that affaire ; and the goods that were endeav- 
oured to be seized by some of Capt. Cullifords men, it 
appears, were goods bought by Majf Sellechs sisters hus- 
band (deceased some years since) at Barbacloes, and 
improved in her house above twelve years, which is the 
truest that I am able to give jour Lordships upon the 
most carefull examination ; and I may further assure y r 
Lordships that the sence we have of his Maj tie8 pleasure, 



and our duty relating to the acts of trade, will oblige us 
to the utmost diligence and care that the violation of 
them shall not be in the least degree connived at. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lords Commissioners." 


N. Lond., June, 1699. 

May it please y* Lordships : — 

His Majesties instructions relating to the observation 
of the acts of trade in this his Maj ti . es colony, with the s* 
acts of trade, I have lately read with y r Lordships letter, 
dated Feb. 3?, 1698-9, and am taking care that all offi- 
cers concerned in any matter relating to the s d acts of 
trade should have a full understanding of those instruc- 
tions ; neither shall I at any time neglect such an inspec- 
tion as may be needfull to oblige the afores* officers to 
the most carefull observation of them. His Majesties 
royall favour, in so plaine a declaration of his pleasure, 
we most humbly, acknowledge as of the greatest advan- 
tage to us in the observation of those acts, and we hope 
our effectuall care therein (w ch we shall, as occasion doth 
present, give y r Lordships an account of) will procure y r 
Lordships good opinion that such reports as have charged 
this government with any irregularities in things of that 
nature have been groundles. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lords Commissioners." 


N. Lond., June, 1699. 

Right Honourable, — Immediately upon the signifi- 
cation of his Maj ties pleasure (relating to the ships of 
force, fitted out in Scotland, arrived at St. Thomas, & 



designfg to settle themselves in some parts of America), 
which I reed by y r hon rs letter of 2 Janu ry , 1698-9, I 
took the speediest care I could that it should be punctu- 
ally observed, as y r hon r will perceive by the inclosed proc- 
lamation, which was forthwith issued out, and shall not 
faile to use the most effectuall means to prevent any such 
correspondence with them as his Maj ty prohibits. I cannot 
learn that any persons of or from this colony have as yet 
attempted it, nor shall any inspection of mine be wanting 
to hinder it. I am also to enform y r hon r that severall 
persons to the number of ten, who, with others, did some- 
time in Septemb 1 last run away with the ship Adven- 
ture, of London (Capt. Gulleck commander, and bound 
for Borneo in y e East Indies, as they confess), from Polonis 
in the East Indies, where they left y e s d master with 
severall others of their company, and brought the s d ship 
on this coast, where they sank her, with the principall part 
of her lading, are taken and in custody here. There was 
taken with them in goods & money to the value of about 
two thousand pounds, which is secured here ; the rest 
of y e confederates, with a considerable quantity of their 
money and goods, are likewise seized at Boston & Rhode 
Island. They that are in hold in this colony do so far 
confess the horrid felony they have been guilty of, as I 
conclude will convict them. And if y r hon r please to 
favour mee with his Maj ties pleasure concerning the afores d 
money & goods taken with them, it will bee a great 
obligation to, Right IIon We , 

Y r Hon? 


Rigiit Hon ble , — On the 8^ instant I did present to y r 
hon r that I had received yo r letter of Jan ry 2 d , 98, and 
therein his Majesty es comandes concerning the ships of 

1699.] FITZ-JOKN" WINTHROP. 363 

force fitted out in Scotland & arrived in the island of 
St. Thomas, intending to settle themselves in some part 
of America, and that I did imediatly issue out a procla- 
mation forbiding all his Majesty es subjects to giue any 
ayde or assistance whatsoever. At the same tyme I 
gaue y r hon r ace* y* severall pirates did some tyme in 
the month of Sep*, 1698, run away the ship Adventure, 
of London, Cap* Gullock comander, from Polonis, in the 
East Indies, and brought hir into this sound, where they 
sank the said ship and most of hir loading, and that ten 
of the said pirates are seized here, and mony and goods 
to the vallew of about two thousand poundes, w ch I haue 
secured, & wayte for his Majesty es pleasure therein. I 
haue allsoe received their Excellency es the Lords Justices 
instructions, dated the 10 th of Nov., 1698, relateing to the 
nauall officers in this collony, that they doe giue securety 
for the due discharge of their trust according to the direc- 
tions in the act of Parliament. At the same tyme I 
received yo r hon rs letter of Nov. 23 (both w ch came not to 
my handes till a few dayes since), for the apprehending 
of Cap* Kid and his accomplices ; and tho it has not fallen 
to my share to seiz him and his treasure, yet he is happily 
fallen within the power of his Excellency the Lord Bello- 
monts government, where he is secured to giue ace* of 
his voyage. I haue onely farther to add that the affaires 
of this his Majestyes Collony of Conecticot are all well, 
and a generall contentment under the influence of his 
Majestyes continued grace and fauour. I shall be very 
hapy to serue your honf in this part of the world, and 

Yo r hon rs most faythfull humble serv*, 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, in the Collony of Conecticot, June 15, 1699. 
James Vernon, Esq r ., Sec7 of State. 



My deare Cousin, — I wrot to you on the 8 of June 
last, w ch I hope will come to yo r handes, that you may se 
I doe not forget you nor the many obligations you haue 
layde vpon me. It has pleased God to uisit me with a 
feauour about 13 dayes, w ch has been very hard vpon me 
and would very justly be an excuse to omit this oppor- 
tune ty to yo r self ; but an intimation from the bearer, Mf 
Adam Winthrop, my neere & deare kinsman, the second 
branch and very much the hopes of our famely, that he 
is now vpon his voyage (formerly intended) to London, 
obliges me, tho with great difficulty, to salute you by him 
and to recomend him to yo r freindship & aduice. He has 
spent his youth at the Universety here to great aduan- 
tage, & past the degrees of that society, and being now 
come to his owne years, his genius leades him to enquire 
into the art and way of merchandizeing, and soe will 
indeauour to settle a correspondence to cary on a trade 
betwene England & this country. He is the onely son 
of a pious & worthy good man, welthy and all aduantages 
for the accomodation of soe hopefull a son. This is his 
first aduenture into the trouble & hazards of the world, 
and his first impressions should be well directed, and I 
haue great hopes of his good conduct, as his inclinations 
are vertuous and leade him to all good behauour, and 
pray you to contribute all you can with yo r good aduice 
and intimations to him of the best steps for his aduan- 
tage. I am much indisposed and must be excused that 
I can mention noething of yof perticuler concernes at 
Salem, &c, where I hope to inspect yo r intrest in two 
or thre monthes, if it please God to recover me. My 

* Samuel Read was, at this time, the only surviving son of the writer's maternal 
uncle, Colonel Thomas Read. — Eds. 


deare affections & salutations to yo r self & all yours, both 
my cousins Lyde, Madam Rawlins, and all the pretty 
branches, &c, and am 

Yo r most affectionate & obliged kinsman. 

New London, July, 1699. 

I desire my cousin Lyde to giue this gent m his coun- 
tenance & fauour for my sake, and desire to be excused 
that I cannot perticulerly salute him at this tyme. 

Indorsed, " Copy to my Cousin Read in London, 1699." 


My Lord, — I haue not willingly omitted to congratu- 
late your Excellencyes happy arriuall to the best seate 
of your severall governments, where your Excellency has 
brought joye and gladnes to that great people ; # but your 
pressing affaires and the constant adresses to your Excel- 
lency, w ch haue noe end, has held my hand from troubling 
your Excellency, but hope tis not too late to offer my 
tribute, my good wishes for your hapines, and none can 
be more sincere. I must allsoe in my publique station 
present your Excellency with the joy of this government 
for yo r Excellencyes accession to that of yo r governments 
soe neere them with whom they haue been as one body 
both in their religion and lawes, & their comon intrest 
has been supported by a most freindly association both 
in peace & war, and their united intrest has been strong 
to their great aduantage and safety ; and after all this 
hapines wee cannot but hope for yet great blessings from 

* Richard Coote, Earl of Bellomont, was appointed Governor of New York, New 
Jersey, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts in November, 1697. He went first to New 
York, where he arrived in April, 1698, and spent more than a year. He readied Boston 
in the latter part of May, 1699. See Palfrey's Hist, of New England, IV. 165, 170, 
171. — Eds. 


the generous conduct of soe great and good a neighbour, 
whose lasting government we hope will influence a gen- 
erall good to all this wildernes. My Lord, I haue received 
two letters from the Right Hon ble his Majestyes Secretary 
of State : that w^ comandes the seizeino* and securing: 
Capt. Kid and his accomplices I haue enclosed to your 
Excellency, least any of yo r letters should haue mis- 
caryed ; the other was his Majestyes comandes to forbid 
all his subjects of this collony to giue any ayde or releife 
to the ships of force fitted out in Scotland and arriued at 
the Island of St. Thomas, with intentions to settle them- 
selues in some part of America. That w cb your Excel- 
lency was pleased to cover to me was from the Right 
Hon ble the Lords Comission rs of the Council of Trade, sig- 
nifying their receipt of our lawes, &c, and your Excel- 
lencyes excuse for opening of it was too much. My Lord, 
I wish your Excellency and the Countess perfectly happy, 
& your Excellency freed from all anguish and paine, and 
blest in the prosperety of all your gouernments. I am 
Yo r Excellencyes most faythfull humble seru*, 

J. Winthrop. 

New-London, July 20th, 1699. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lord Bellomont, July 20«s 1699." 


My Lord, — I haue the hon r of your Excellencyes 
letter of Aug. 2% but could not acknowledg yo r fauour 
by the returne of that post, being under much indisposi- 
tion by a relaps of a former illnes not well recovered, and 
yo r Excellency being then at Piscataqua, I concluded it 
would be more acceptable not to trouble your Excellency 
till your returne to Boston, from whence I hoped yo r 
Excellency would be pleased to signefy the tyme of your 


goeing to Rhode Island ; but yo r Excellencyes instructions 
to my brother to informe me in that matter has beeri 
obeyed, and noething could be more contentfull to me 
for the service of this collony then yo r Excellencyes 
condescention to heare the controversy betwene this 
government and that of Rhode Island, who, by their 
unreasonable dispute with us, has occationed many un- 
hapy circumstances and hindered the quiet settlement of 
our people ; but now wee hope this will be the tyme (in 
yo r Excellencyes presence) that wee shall haue oppor- 
tunety to convince them of our right to the governm* 
& propriety of the Naroganset country, w ch will be made 
yet more acceptable to us by yo r Excellencyes good 
opinion concerning it. My Lord, I haue given notice to 
our comitte appointed by the Gen 11 Court to attend yo r 
Excellency at Rhode Island at the tymes appointed. I 
beg yo r Excellencyes excuse for this trouble, and am, my 

Yo r Excellencyes most faythfull humble serv*, 

J. W. 

New London, Aug. 31st, 1699. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lord Bellomont, Aug. 31st, 1699." 


My Lord, — The hapines of yo r Excellencyes health 
is not onely joyfull to all your governments, but perticu- 
lerly wished for by this province, and most sincerely hope 
that Gods spetiall providence will preserue your Excel- 
lency to be a rich blessing to this great country. In 
answere to yo r Excellencyes enquiry about the act against 
pirates w ch the Lords of the Council of Trade sent to this 
governm', I may informe yo r Excellency that the very 
same act in July 5 th , 1684, was made an act of this col- 
lony and has been in force ever since. I sent a copy 


thereof to the Lords of the Council of Trade and an 
other to your Excellency, and if yo r Excellency shall 
please to remember me of anything farther needfull to 
be done therein, I shall aduise the Gen 11 Assembly thereof 
at their next sessions, who will thankfully acknowledg 
yo r Excellencyes kinde intimations to them. The bond 
w ch is required from me in behalf of this government is 
to a great vallew, yet, for their sake, I will not now refuse 
it, but hope the next yeare some other person will be 
found better able to make soe great an aduenture whilst 
wee are under soe many misrepresentations at home. 
The gent 1 ? of our comitte were setting forwards this day, 
with whom I hoped to kiss yo r Excellencyes handes, but 
will now attend the farther tyme your Excellency has 
appointed. I wish the continuance of your Excellencyes 
health, and am, my Lord, 

Yo r Excellencyes most faythfull humble seru fc ? 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, Sept. 7*, 1699. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lord Bellomont, Sept. 7 th , 1699." 


My Lord, — Your Excellency has put a publiqe hon r 
vpon me by yo r letter of the 9 th instant. I am very hapy 
yo r journy to Rhode Island is delayed, and wish yo r Ex- 
cellency had pleased to defer it a few dayes longer. 
Some of our comitte being obliged to be present at our 
County Court, w ch begins on Tuesday, will make it im- 
possible to be at Rhode Island till the latter end of the 
weeke, and I must allsoe of necessety be neere the court 
at that tyme vpon a perticuler occation, and hope yo r 
Excellency will excuse my attendance till about Thirsday, 
and I hope then to giue yo r Excellency the ace* of all 
that I know concerning M r Clark, his tradeing in these 


parts. My information of him was from Liv fc Gou r Nan- 
fon, and I did comissionate the person w ch he recomended 
to me to make search for all prohibited goods, and hope 
he has done his duty therein. I wish yo r Excellency 
perfect health, and am, my Lord, 

Yo r Excellencyes most faythfull humble seru*, 

J. W. 

New London, Sept. U% 1699. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Earle of Bellomont, Sept. 14th, 1699." 


My Lord, — Your Excellency has greatly honored me 
in covering the letter from M r Secretary Vernon, w ch sig- 
nifyes his Maj. pleasure concerning the Scots Expedition 
to the West Indies, now settled at the Bay of Cairat, 
neere the Bay of Darien, betwene Cartagena and Porto 
Bello, and are fortifying themselves there, semeing re- 
solued to mainetayne it by force against the Spanyards. 
His Maj. expects his former orders to us should be strictly 
observed, and that noe correspondence should be kept 
with the said Scotch collony. Yo r Excellency was allsoe 
pleased to enclose the papers w ch I presented to your Ex- 
cellency at Rhode Island, w ch I haue this day comunicated 
to the gent m of the Council, and haue giuen a warrant to 
the high sheriff of this collon}^ to apprehend M r Clark, 
according to the warrant of request from Liv* Gov r Nan- 
fan. I hope yo r Excellency will not omit yo r letter to 
the governm* of Rhode Island, w ch will quiet the people 
on the mayne till his Maj. pleasure be farther known. 
I rejoyce in yo r Excellencyes safe returne to Boston and 
the continuance of yo r health, and am, my Lord, 

Your Excellencyes most faythfull humble seru* 

Hartford, Oct. 6*, 1699. 



The superiour of the Jesuits & y e French gent m went 
from Milford the same day they arrived there, with all 
accomodation needfull. I hoped y r Excellency would 
haue pleased to returne M r Secretary Vernons letter, w ch 
related to y e securing Capt. Kid, our Gen 11 Court being 
neere and none of y e gent m yet seene it. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lord Bellomont, Oct. Q&, 1699." 


My Lord, — I had the hon r of yo r Excellencyes letter 
of the 16 th of October whilst I was at Hartford, and 
therewith a letter from the Lords Justices of Engl d . 
The Council there, vpon my report of your Exc llyes desire 
& y e letter of request from Liu* Gov r Nanfan, have ordered 
Capt. Clark to be seized & sent to New York, and haue 
giuen orders to secure what mony or goods shall be found 
in this collony brought from on bord Capt. Kid, & hope 
noething will escape the dilligence of our officers. I 
haue allsoe yo r Exc llyes letter of y e 17 th of Oct, by Capt. 
Gullock, and shall doe him all y e justice I am able. & hope 
he will be well satisfyed of y e care has been taken to 
secure his intrest in these parts, and am gathering 
together all y e mony and goods saued here that he may 
not be delayed. I shall be very hapy to serve your 
Exc lly in all thinges within my power, and am, my Lord, 
Yo r Exc lly most faythfull humble seru', J. W. 

Nov. 2d, 1699. 

Indorsed. " Copy to Lord Bellomont, Nov. 2d, 1699." 


For Cap" 1 Thomas Gullock, at Rhode Island, per Cap tr } Hunt. 

S R , — I haue the favour of youres of the 10 th instant, 
and am glad you haue soe soone & safely arrived at 
Rhode Island. I am sorry you should remember any 


accomodation here, w ch in truth was too poore for soe 
good a ghest, and for whom I haue many respects w ch I 
would gladly perfict now you are soe neere me. It is 
impossible to giue you soe soone an answere as you ex- 
pect about the tryall of the prisoners here, haueing all- 
ready given the king an ace* of them, and of the treasure 
taken with them, and I am in daly expectation of his 
Maj. comandes concerning them, w ch is your owne expec- 
tation allsoe, as you intimated to me. As to what you 
mention of the prodigious charge brought to the ace* of 
your imployers for seizeing and mainetayneing the pris- 
oners, I can now onely reminde you that the preserva- 
tion of your intrest did require it, and we thinke those 
generous & eminent cittizens concerned with you will not 
esteme y e charge you mention more then a farthing, as it 
has helpt to regain for y m aboue two thousand poundes ; 
and it must be remembered that y e force of authorety 
onely could never haue recovered those great sums, but 
were gathered together by y e intrest & endevoures of one 
or other out of a just sence of your misfortune; and as 
you shall haue any farther assistance from me, soe you 
may be assured I will serve you as a duty incumbent on 
me. Sf, I perceive you haue left noe order for disposeing 
those things w ch you left in your chamber, and I must 
chide you for something elce, w ch lyes ready for your 
order ; if you add it in your other requests to M r Salton- 
stall he will serue you therein, and if a price be set vpon 
them some will be bought here. I shall be very glad to 
haue your company many tymes more, that I may make 
your last hardships more easy, and assure you how much 
I am 

You r affectionate seru*, 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, Nov. 14^, 1699. 



Hon rd S R , — I thank you for yo r letter of Nov. 28 th , 
which I haue comimicated to the Council for their consid- 
eration of the several intimations therein respecting the 
intrest of the Naroganset country, and they haue wrot a 
letter to the Gov r and Council of Rhode Island, forewarn- 
ing them not to levy any rates, taxes, or impositions what 
soe ever vpon the inhabitants of the Naroganset country, 
w ch I hope will haue a good effect for the peace of those 
people. A copy thereof I haue sent to you by [blank], I 
am hastening what I can to lay that matter before the 
king, and hope we shall haue a good issue of it. I shall 
allwayes be glad to heare of yo r welfare, & pray you not 
to spare me wherein I may doe you service. 

I am yo r affectionate seni* 

New London, Dec. 18, 1699. 

Pray giue my service to M rs [illegible] & when she has 
any beetes pray hir to remember my garden ; my service 
to Coll. Sandford, Capt. Codington, & yo r brother. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Mr. Brinly, Dec. 18, 1699." 


Gent m , — By the last post I haue a letter from his Ex- 
cellency the Lord Bellomont, and therewith a letter from 
M r Vernon, Secretary of State, signefying that his Maj- 
esty is informed that wee haue secured severall pirates 
and their effects, and that his Maj. approves of our dilli- 
gence therein, and farther comandes him to signefy his 
pleasure to vs that wee put the said pirates and their 
effects into the handes of the Earle of Bellomont, to 
whom his Maj. has sent his orders about sending home 

1699-700.] FITZ-JOHN WISTTHROP. 373 

Kid and other pirates who haue been seized in any of 
the plantations in order to their being tryed in England, 
and that his Excellency is instructed by his Maj. to con- 
vey to England all the effects belonging to the pirates, 
and consigne them to y e Lords Comission rs of his Maj. 
treasury ; and his Exc n . y informing me that [he] has orders 
to receive the pirates in this gou fc , & desiring me to 
deliuer them to Capt. Gallop, high sheriff of y e county 
of Bristol, I haue accordingly ordered the sheriff of this 
county to convey them to Rehoboth, where I hope the 
sheriff of Bristol will receive them ; and his Exc lly desires 
me to send with the prisoners those evidences w c . h haue 
been taken against them, certefyed by myself to be 
true, and that they may be farther authentick, does ad- 
uise our affixing the publiqe seale of the collony, w ch is 
the course he intends to take, and he is soe comanded by 
y e King. His Exc lly ads in his letter that a 4 th rate man 
of war, Capt. Wyn comander, arriued at Boston about y e 
I s * instant, six weekes passage. He is sent on purpose to 
cary away all y e pirates to England, & his Exc ny is now 
sending his orders to all y e gouerir? on this continent, w ch 
requires them to send all such pirates as they haue taken, 
together with their treasure & effects, to him in order to 
be sent to England, but will not stay for any others but 
those here and at Rhode Island, haueing another man 
of war that shall cary home those to y e westward of vs ; 
his Exc Uy ads farther that his letters of Dec. 10^ from 
England informe him that y e king was then in good 
health, the Parliament sitting, and a perfect good agre- 
ment betwene the king and both houses. I have last 
night a letter from his Exc 1Iy , & therein y e copy of his 
letter from Coll. Schyler of Albany, the I s .* instant, w ch 
informes that he sent him a letter from y e Gov r of Can- 
ada, & that at Albany they haue newes out of y e country 
that y e settlement at Cadaraque by y e French are soe 
much in want of provitions that they must be supplyed 

374 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1699-700. 

by y e Onondagoes & the Sennecks, and as far as he 
understands is very scarce at Canada, and ads all is well 
here. I shall hasten to haue y r evidences made ready for 
y e seale, and then shall send them to y e secretary. I 
have noething farther to ad at p r sent but to desire that 
M r Wyllis, who is allwayes at the Council, and M r Wood- 
bridg may be acquainted herewith, and haue refered M r 
Bull and y e officers to yo r selues for y e intelligence herein. 
I am 

Yo r affectionate seru*, 

J. W. 

New London, Feb. 15th, 1699-700. 

For y e gent? of the Council at Hartford I have sent a 
Gazet, w ch I desire you to returne. 


S R , — I could not possibly answere yo? letter of the 5 th 
instant, being then hurryed with some publiqe busines ; 
but Capt. Hunt, who has intrest in you, has promised me 
to make my excuse. I have a letter from the Secretary 
of State, wherein his Maj. comandes that all the pirates 
& their treasure w c . b have been seized in this gouernment 
be delivered to his Exc lly the Earle of Bellomont, and I 
have ordered them to be delivered accordingly ; but the 
treasure taken with them was formerly delivered to yo r 
self. I shall be sorry if I am not able to serue your 
intrest at y e last houre of your busines, but it shall not be 
my fault. I perceive the gent m of y e Councill, both here 
and at Hartford, are not willing to be at any charge 
about y e pirates, but that y e effects taken with them must 
pay y c charge, according to an act of y e Gen 1 . 1 Assembly in 
Oct. last. I cannot now giue you ace* of y e expence of 
y* mony left here to defray y e charge of y e prison™, the 

1699-700.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 375 

ace* not being made vp with those concerned. Because M r 
Hallam would not pay his bill of 90 peices 8, I sent y e 
sheriff to arrest him a few dayes since, w ch made him a 
little plyable ; but haueing not mony sufhtient, y e sheriff 
was forst to take some English goods, w ch he must take in 
part of what is due to him. I am still in persute of more 
mony suspected to be at Stonington & Lyme, and some 
of the persons will, I hope, be examined today, of w ch you 
shall have acc*, and you may be assured of all I can doe 
that I may haue a desire of serving you. You forget still, 
or yo r orders haue miscaryed, to giue order about those 
things here omitted in yo r hast. I am 

Yo r assured friend, 

J. W. 

Feb. 26, 1699-700. 

I spoke with M r Fosdike before Cap fc Hunt, and he is 
willing to pay but 40 shillings ; your self must wholy 
direct in that matter. 

Indorsed, " Copy to Cap*. Gullock, Feb. 26, 1699-700." 


Hon ble S*, — Yo r letter of Nov. 30 th , 1699, directed to 
the Gov r of his Maj. Collony of Conecticot, I received 
the 6 th instant, and therein the signefication of his Maj. 
pleasure that all y e pirates and their treasure w ch have 
been seized in this governm* should be delivered to his 
Excellency the Earle of Bellomont, and I have, in obe- 
dience to his Maj. comandes, delivered them accordingly. 
These pirates ran away the ship Aduenture, Capt. Gul- 
lock comander, belonging to severall merchants of Lon- 
don, and bound on a voyage to Borneo in India, of w c . h 
I gaue your hon r an acc* formerly. Here was seized with 
them about two thousand pounds in mony & goods, and 

376 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1699-700. 

the justices of the peace at the same minute ordered an 
exact ace* of y e perticulers to be taken by sufficient per- 
sons under oath, w ch was secured, and afterward their 
Exc llyes the Lords Justices of England did by their order, 
bearing date the 14 of July, 1699, under the hand of 
y e Lord Jersy comand the said mony and goods to be 
delivered to Capt. Gullock, w c . h , besides the necessary 
charges in discovering and seizeing the said mony & 
goods, he has received in the presence of the gent 81 who 
took the aforesaid account vpon oath, and Capt. Gullock 
gaue a receipt for it. I haue herewith sent to your hon r 
under my hand and the publiqe seale of this collony the 
examination of the said pirates and the evidences taken 
against them, w ch is all I am able to informe concerning 
them. Capt. Kid came not into this gouernment, and I 
have had noe opportunety to seize any other pirates or 
their mony since the gouernm* has been in my hancles, 
but shall carefully indevour, to the outmost of my power, 
to seize all such persons and their effects as they shall 
come into this gouernment. I shall be very hapy to 
serue your hon r vpon any occation in this part of the 
world, and am 

Yo r hon r . s most obedient humble seru fc , 

J. W. 

Conecticot, New London, Feb. 26th, 1699-700. 
Mr Secretary Vernon. 


My Lord, — I am very thankfull for yof Exc llycs opinion 
in yo r last letter, and haue accordingly sent to Mf Secre- 
tary Vernon, under my hand & the publiqe seale of the 
collony, the examination of the pirates taken in this col- 
lony, & the evidences against them, and leaue them open, 
praying yo r Exc 11 ^ oversight of them & their fitnes to be 


sent with y e pirates ; and if yo r Exc Hy shall please to ap- 
prove thereof, I beg y e fauour that they may goe with 
your Exc llys pacquets. I heare noething farther about the 
motion of y e Indians. What ever occurs worth your Exc llys 
notice shall be presented. I am, my Lord, 

Yor Exc llys most faythfull humble seru*, 

J. W. 

New London, Feb. 26th, 1699-700. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lord Bellomont, Feb. 26<fc, 1699-700." 


My Lord, — I haue the hon r of yo r Exc llys letter of the 
5* instant, and am very hapy to know that yo r Exc lly has 
soe effectually sent to the 5 Nations, w ch will be of great 
aduantage ; and none can be fitter for that trust then 
those gent? yo r Exc lly has instructed in that affaire, and 
doubtles they will haue succes answerable to yo r great 
intentions of good, w^ will reach all his Majesty es gov- 
ernm ts on this continent. Noething has lately occurd to 
my observation respecting the designe of the Indians 
against us. John Sabin of Woodstock came hither last 
night. Noething new is discovered there ; the sould 1 ? all 
well, and incourageing the inhabitants. Wee here are 
noe sooner recovered from our feares of the Indians but 
(w ch is worse) the Philistines, the successors of Dudley 
and Empson, are vpon us. The sheriff of Rhode Island, 
by colour of a warrant from that governm* contrary to 
reason and yo r Excellency es aduice to them (which would 
haue made them happy), has entred our borders with an 
armed force on this side Paucatuck River, frighted our 
people, and robed them of silver, &c, and snapt a pistoll 
at one of them, but by great Providence it did not fyre, 
w ch obliged our people to desire assistance of the next 



authority to secure the said sheriff and his accomplices, 
who were brought hither and examined in Council and 
convicted of a riote, and stand comitted to answere for 
the same according as his Majesty es lawes doe provide. 
This is an action and violence soe unbecomeing the pro- 
fession of a non-fighting congregation that one would be 
afraid they would hang and draw, cut and saw & kill, when- 
ever the spirit mooved them. I beg your Excellencyes 
pardon for this digression from more fitting and necessary 
informations to yo r Exc Uy , & am, my Lord, 

Yo r Exc 11 / most faythfull humble seru*, 

J. W. 

New London, Aprill 12*, 1700. 

Indorsed, " Copy to the Lord Bellomont, April 12th, 1700. " 


My Lord, — I haue received his Majesty es letter 
directed to the Gov r and Company of the Collony of 
Conecticot, under your Excellencys cover of the 7 th in- 
stant, w c . h I will deliver at the session of the Gen 11 Assem- 
bly, w ch will be on the 10 th of Oct. next. Tis very happy 
that your Excellency has soe effectually regayned the 
affections of the 5 Nations, who, by the powerfull insinu- 
ations of the Jesuits, were inclining; to the French intrest, 
and I hope your Excellencyes conclusion with them will 
be a seasonable curb to the insolence and rebellion of the 
Pennecook and Easterne Indians. My Lord, your Excel- 
lency was pleased to grant a petition presented by myself 
and my brother for the confirmation of a tract of land 
on the south side of Long Island, and that it might be 
erected into a mannor, w ch land wee now stand seized of 
by virtue of a purchase from the Indians and a grant 
from S r Edm d Andros, formerly Gov!" of the Province of 

1700-1.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 379 

New York; and being now contriveing to make some 
improvement on the said land, I doe humbly pray your 
Excellency to grant our just & reasonable request that 
your Excellency will be pleased to giue order that the 
seale may be put to the pattent, it being allready in- 
grossed & recorded in the secretaryes office, as I am 
informed. The said land was purchased of the Indians 
before the king had the governm* of those parts, and soe 
I would hope it cannot justly haue any demand of quit 
rent vpon it. My brother is now wayting vpon your 
Excellency, and haue desired him to pray your fauour 
vpon this occation, w ch shall be acknowledged a perticuler 
favour put vpon, my Lord, 

Yo!" Excellencyes most faythfull humble seru*, 

J. Winthrop. 

New London, Sept. 18^, 1700. 
The Lord Bellomont. 


My Lord, — Noe thing could be more acceptable at this 
juncture then yo r Exc Uys letter, w ch , conteyning yo r resolu- 
tion to finde the disposition of the 5 Nations, will at once 
very much quiet the mindes of his Majestyes subjects of 
this collony ; and it is a perticuler fauour I am desired by 
the gent m of the Council to beg of your Exc lly that wee 
may haue a right understanding with the 5 Nations, w c . h 
will be the greatest securety, or otherwise the most 
dangerous alarme to vs. I had an expres last night w ch 
gaue me ace* that a party of yo r Exc llys sould rs were got 
into Woodstock, and the gent n there hastned the intelli- 
gence to me to prevent fresh succors w c . h I was raysing 
for their releif. What ever occurs worth yo r obseruation 
shall imediately be presented to yo r Exc lly . Your Exc llys 
vigor, accompanyed with the dilligence and resolution of 

380 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1700-1. 

the Hon b ! e the Council and House of Representatives, will, 
I hope, break the measures of these combined villanes, 
and 1 am sure this gouernm* will heartely joyne with yo r 
Exc lly as they are able for the presentation of all his 
Majestyes subjects. Yo r Exc llys health will greatly con- 
duce to a gene rail good and safety, and is all way es wished 
for by, my Lord, 

Yo r Exc llys most faythfull humble seru fc , 

J. W. 

New London, March 20% 1700[-1]. 

Indorsed, " Copy to his Excellency, the Lord Belloinont, March 20 th , 


Gent m , — On the 20 fc . h instant I had an expres from 
Woodstock informeing me that Coll. Page was come 
thither with 26 sould rs for the releif of that plantation, & 
ordered to leaue 20 men if the place was in danger. The 
next day I received a letter from his Excellency the Lord 
Bellomont, signefying to me that the Gen 11 Assembly of 
that province was convened, and that he was putting the 
country into a posture of defence, and adds that the 
Council and House of Representatives are vigorous and 
dilligent for securing the country in case of any disturb- 
ance from the Indians, and that he is sending instructions 
to the principle gent. m of Albany to finde the disposition 
of the 5 Nations, and whither the French haue not used 
meanes to debauch them from us. I haue allsoe a letter 
from M r Livingston of Albany by the post from the west- 
ward, giveing me ace! 1 that he has heard the rumor of the 
Indians designe against the Christians, but does assure 
me that they know noething of any such designe, neyther 
can they beleiue it, their Indians being all gon out a 
hunting, and knowes not that soe many of the 5 Nations 
haue been out a hunting in 10 yeares before, and haue 

1700-1.] FITZ-JOHN WINTHROP. 381 

not the least jelousy of them ; all their feare is that the 
French will draw them from vs. Maj r Ting of Dunstable, 
by order, sent 6 English hunters to fall in with the In- 
dians at Penacook in their hunting, who are returned ; & 
Wetanumman, one of the Penacook sachems, whom he 
had sent for to come with them to his house, sayeth that 
the belt of wampom was sent to Owaneco onely in token 
of freindship the last somer or fall. The Indians, they 
say, are all quiet in their hunting, and Wetanumman has 
promised to goe to Boston about a month hence and will 
carry Tobey with him. I think it needfull to hasten to 
yo r selues the severall acc* s herein, w c . h , for the satisfaction 
and information of the people in yo r parts, I desire may 
be comunicated to them, and that I will loose noe tyme 
to gaine what farther intelligence I can of the designe 
and motion of the Indians, and if any thing of moment 
occurr to my observation, it shall be hastned to you ; but 
doe order y* notwithstanding these hopefull reports sent 
to me that all the townes in y r parts, as well as these here, 
be vpon y r guard & in a good posture to defend them- 

I haue onely to add my affectionate salutations to yo5 
selves, M r Willis, M r Woodbridg, and the gent m in Coun- 
cil with you, and that if this be not an acceptable charge 
I will pay the bearer vpon his returne. I am 

Yo r affectionate seru*, 

New London, March 23d, 1700[-1]. J. WlNTHROP. 

The Gent m of the Councel'at Hartford. 



Deare Brother, — The affection y* I beare to you will 
not let me omitt any opertunity of writeing to you, for I 
hope y* that vast sea w c is betwene us shall never make 
me forgetfull of you. I can scars yet digest it, y fc thare 
being but two of us in y e world y fc we should live soe 
many thousand milles asunder ; and I would it ware my 
happiness once to see you heere againe, it would exced- 

* Wait Still Winthrop, second son of Governor John Winthrop the younger, was 
born in Boston, Feb. 27, 1642. He was the first of his family to bear a middle name, 
which is supposed to have been given him in compliment to his father's great-uncle, 
Dr. John Still, Bishop of Bath and Wells. It has been conjectured that he was named 
Wait for one of the early settlers of the town of Ipswich, which was founded by his 
father. On the other hand, it has been frequently assumed that both names were intended 
to be joined together, and were one of those quaint designations so common in Puritan 
times. Be this as it may, he was always known as Wait Winthrop, or, in later life, as 
Major-General Winthrop, from his having been for a very long period Major-General of the 
Colonial Militia. 

A Commissioner of the United Colonies from 1672 to 1675, and a member of the 
Executive Council of Massachusetts in 16S5-6, he joined in the overthrow of Sir Edmund 
Andros, was again for many years one of the Council, some time Judge of the Court of 
Admiralty, and Chief Justice of the Superior Court. His private affairs obliged him to be 
much in Connecticut, but he continued to make Boston his home, and died there Nov. 7, 
1717. Judge Sewall, in his Diary, calls him "the great stay and ornament of the Council, 
a very pious, prudent, courageous New England man," and says his funeral cost the State 
£1000, owing to the great parade of troops. 

He married, first, Mary, daughter of Hon. William Browne, of Salem ; and, secondly, 
Katharine, daughter of Hon. Thomas Brattle, and widow of John Eyre, of Boston. By 
his first marriage he had, with other children who died young, a son, John Winthrop, 
F.R.S., who lived chiefly in England, and a daughter, Anne, wife of Hon. Thomas 
Leclimere. Like his father, Wait Winthrop was addicted to the study of medicine, and 
often practised gratuitously among his poorer neighbors. — Eds. 

1670-1.] WAIT WINTHROP. 383 

ingly rejoyce me. I am now resident in Cambridg, at 
y e colledg. I receved yours dated in March about 3 
weakes agoe, for w c I am very thankfull ; and I desire 
you not to omitt any opertunyty of seding to me, though 
it may be you may be taken up w th grate matters con- 
serning y e company ; yet I hope you will not forget me. 
Y e man y* you enquired after in youre letter is prety 
well to live, though far inferioure to her. He livith at 
Wenham, nere Ipswich. His wife is well ; I meane my 
sister Elizabeth. My sister Margaret alsoe is well ; she 
liveeth w th her now. Conserning y fc w ch I wrot to you 
for last yeare, if you please to send me y m if you can, I 
shall be thankfull. We all hope to se you heare y e next 
yeare. But I cannot persist, becaus I am to goe to Cam- 
bridg to night, and it is allmost night allready, for w c I 
craue youre pardon ; John Stanton waits for me. As 
touching news here is none, but y* just now M r Hooper 
com w th youre black mare to water her at y e spring. 
I have not sene her before sence you went. M r Bruster 
also died at New Londo about a fortnight agoe. But I 
can not persist. Adue, my swet bro., w th teares in mine 
eyes for you, desiring y e Allmyghty to keepe and bless 
you, and desireing you not to forget him who is 
Your loueing bro. till death, 

Wait-Still Winthrop. 

From M R Richardsons, y e 12 of September, 1659. 

M r William Whittinghous presents his respects to you, 
likewise M r John Stanton. 


Honored S r , — Since my last I haue agreed with the 
Notomye men for the grate medow only at seven pounds 
ten shillings the acre, which was the most I could bring 


them to. Thay flew from theire first proffer, which I wrote 
you of, after thay had veiwed it againe, judging it not soe 
much as they thought there had bin. Whittmore like- 
wise complaened of his bargaine, and would not stand to 
it unless I would bate somthing ; and rather then lose 
the sale of it, which perhaps noe body els would haue 
bought, I bated forty shillings of the 45^. Thay prom- 
ised to bring the mony and make theire writeings the 
last weeke, but I suppose the raine prevented them. 
Thay judg the letter of atturney not to be according to 
law, not being acknowledged before a magistrate, which 
I suppose M r Danforth put into theire heads to be carefull 
of; but I promise them that you will confirme the write- 
ings when you come. Nathaniel Haward has the farme 
for this yeare for 40 m , half mony, half corne, which is as 
much as he would giue for one yeare (considering how 
his father left it ; the ground not being plowed before 
winter, noe dung carried onto the land, and the fence 
being much doune and decaied), unles he might haue had 
it for some number of yeares, which might not haue bin 
convenient in regard it is upon sale. I mett with 
M r Viall the other day, and asked him somthing about 
that which you write of. He told me he was then in 
hast, but he would speake farther with me about it 
quickley. I speake latly with M r Oxenbrids and M r All in 
about that which you mentioned formerly, and thay are 
very forward to promote it, but I find few els but what 
are very cold. M r Wharton tels me he has r d a letter 
from France about some that are coming this sprTg to 
make rosin, and w T as inquireing whether Fishers Island 
might not be a convenient place for them to set up theire 
trade. His letter, I suppose, was not lately. Here is 
noe newes, only a grate mortallyty in Barbados, soe 
that the people leave the island and goe downe to 
Me vis. Thay think tis something like the plague. Thay 
have here ordered the castle to stop all vessells from 



thence. Here is one M r Estwick that came lately from 
Nevis and Antegoe. He tels me he was at my vncles 
house about six weekes since. He has buried the eldest 
of his two sonnes that ware here last; his name was 
John. M r Sin John, whoe married his daughter, is dead. 
M r Bridgam died here not long since. I shall only ad 
my dutye to yourself and mother, and my loue to my 
sister, and remaine 

Your dutyfull sonne, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Boston, March 21 st , 167$. 

S r , Thomas has bin in his last yeares frame all this 
winter. I send the key & buttons by John Haly. I 
desire you would send me a little salt of tartar. I have 
made up that which you left at Salem, and tis almost 
gone ; here is noe niter to be had, els I would make 
some. Pray send some directions for convultion fitts in 
children, thay being often troubled with them here ; alsoe 
for M rs Mary Maning for her old distemper, which you 
have given her somthing for formerly. She has bin 
very bad a prety while, voyding much blood, and the 
fundament falling downe, yet very costiue. Likewise 
about a poore woman that is excessive bigg like a barrill, 
notwithstanding she has bin delivered of a liuing child 
about seven or eight weekes. She complaines much of 
wind runing about her, and is som times in grate paine. 
Her thighes and legs weare as bigg as a boys midle, but 
thay are much fallen. Much water has come from her of 
late, besids urin. She semes to be somthing better, and 
her stomack, which was quite gon, begins to com to her. 
The midwife thinkes there is neither dead child nor mola 
within her. Twill be wonderfull if she recover. I hope 
the gentlemen at Conecticutt will not alltogether forgett 
what you are out for them. Twer a small matter for 
them to discharg, if not all, yet a good part of it. 




To Cap tn John Winthrop in New London. 

Brother, — I rec d yours by M r Yale, and haue enclev- 
ourecl to procure those things you writt for. The saddle 
Doctor Tayler has bought of M r S., and will not part with 
it. I haue sent a smale meridional compas by M r Perigoe. 
I can not get such a kind of knife as you writ for in all 
the shops. I haue sent likewise a peece of Duffels, which 
I had of M r Ship way, and am to pay him in August next ; 
tis none of the best, but tis cheape at fower shilling 
f> y rd , wheras the best is sold at 5 s : 6 d or 6 s . It may doe 
for that use as well as better. There must be some thing 
produced to pay him at y e time for it. The peece of 
trading cloth conteynes forty-five yards and a half; it 
comes to about nine pounds. If you send downe them 
horses, I suppose I can make mony of them. I could 
procure some cotton of M r Gibs, if that weare paid which 
is allready owing to him. There is 2 cravatts, which is 
all I can finde. The sooner you send the horses after 
grasse comes the better ; they may run at the flirme, and 
I can take my opertunyty to sell them. There is 2 or 3 
more, I suppose, on Caryes side, which were as good be 
sold or run there. The Duffels is on bord M r Parker. 

Your louing brother, 

Wait Winthrop* 

Boston, Aprill 17* : h 1671. 


Honored S R , — I wrote latly by M r Lewisse, but had 
time only to lett you know we weare all well. M r Hinks- 
man apointed to meete me at the farme with some others 
of his partners who I know not, but weare prevented by 
reason of the grate snow which fell just the night before 

1671.] WAIT WINTHROP. 387 

thay weare to meete me, and I feare I shall not gett them 
to veiwe it till the snow be off the ground. I spake this 
day with M r Hinksman againe, and he tells me that thay 
(espetially one of them) haue resolved not to meddle 
with any of it unless thay may haue all of it together, 
housing and orchard and all, tho he sayes he should 
rather incline to buye only land ; but I beleive that is 
only to trye if thay can haue it ail together, possibly 
imagining that it will be the same prise if they haue it all 
as if there be a reserve. Therefore I desire you would 
send word by the first opertunyty what your minde is, in 
case thay should continue in the same resolution to buye 
all or none, tho I suppose I shall bring them to other 
termes. I haue agreed with Goodman Hutchison for that 
bitt of medow, with a small peice of the corner of the 
feild, for fortye pounds, 17 a downe and 23 by the first 
of March next. I haue not gott that of Notomye men 
yet. I spake with M r Russell two or thre times about 
that mony, whoe gives me hopes of one hundred pounds 
if M r Way payes it at the time, which is the 15 th of this 
month ; but Way sayes he feares he shall not get it ready, 
and M r Russell thinkes there will be nothing don with 
M rs Willowby. I have not heard any thing from M r Cur- 
rier about that since you went. Here is noe newes from 
England since you weare here, neither doe I here any- 
thing of M r Pell his wife. Greeno is thought to be blown 
off the coast, here being noe newes of him. M r Gibs 
sent me an accompt yesterday of 14 fc , which is owing to 
him, he being in more then ordinary strayte at this time 
for mony. I haue not farther to ad at present but my 
dutye to your self and my mother, and loue to my sister, 
desireing your prayers for your dutifull son, 
„ ^ . Wait Winthrop. 

Boston, Decemb. 

I sent two ounces of jalap by M r Lewisse. Here is noe 
newes from any part. I intend to send the letters by 


M r Martin, whoe sailes next weeke. Here was a man 
drounded that night the snow fell by the majors wharfe, 
coming with a boat loade of wood, and an other scaped 
hardly. Deacon Truesdall has lyen a dying all this day, 
and just now I heere he is dead. M rs Whittingham died 
soone after you went. Freinds are all well els, at Pullin 
Point, Salem, Wenham, Ipswich, and elswhere. 

Since I wrote this other John has altered his desine 
and has bin at Salem, since which Greeno is come in 
alsoe, but brings little newes or passengers. I heare 
nothing of M rs Pell. I think there is letters for M r Pell 
at York which M r Wharton has taken up. All the newes 
is that Zecharyah Gillum is returned from the norwest 
passage with aboundance of bever. The sugar house in 
London is burnt, and the merchants that weare con- 
serned haue compounded with theire creditors for five- 
teene shillings in the pound. Grate likelyhood of warrs 
next yeare betweene Holland and France. M r Clemens 
and Smith are arrived in Engl M r Richards had a letter 
from Cousin Adam, whoe is out of iinploy againe, but 
expects one dayly in the custom house. Noe letters for 
yourselfe that I heere of John can informe you how all 
doe at Salem. M r Oxenbridg has a letter from one in 
England whoe writes that there was a voyce heard in 
Rome, Woe to Rome, woe to Rome ! which he was speak- 
ing of the other da^ at Deacon Truesdalls bury all. 

Your duty full son, W. W. 

Boston, Decemb. 11 th , 1671. 


Boston, Feb. 28**, 1671[-2]. 

Honored S. r , — The wether has bin soe variable and 
durty under foote that I could not get M r Hinksman to 
procure his partners to take a view of the farme yet. 
He tells me that they will not goe till the waves be drye 

1671-2.] WAIT WINTHEOP. 389 

and the snow cleere gone, w ch is but very little or none 
now. I haue rec d . that of Goodman Hutchison, and 
paid M r Richards 12 * and M r Gibs 14 ft , which was the 
balance of his accompt. I have not got that of Notomys 
men yet. M r Paine dose promise faire likewise, but there 
is little dependance on him. Here is likly to be a con- 
siderable sum gathered for the colledge. Charlstowne 
has contrybuted about 260 lb and Cambridg 200 a . It 
might be a better way for them to buye lands then to 
build another house, which in a little while will goe to 
decay for want of revenues to repaire it. M r Chancy 
dj^ed awhile since. By a vessell from Jamaica we heere 
that a Duch privateer under a Spanish comission has 
taken six of the logwoodmen at the Bay of Campeacha, 
whereof a small ship of M r Cuttses is one. Here is a 
pink come from Traserase, laden with wheat, but brings 
noe newes. Tis reported that the night before the last, 
being Monday night, there was a blaseing starr sene 
about fower of the clock in the morning towards the 
north east ; the last night it was [so] cloudy that it could 
not be seene. A bryganteene, which I suppose you heard 
of, wherein the Capt. and merchant and some of the men 
which belonged to the Cocoe ship came to demand the 
ship and cargoe, who, hauing theire answer from the 
counsell, weare bound away againe, and being off of 
Cape Ann when the last grate snow fell, were by accident 
blowen up ; but they made a shift before the vessell sank 
to run on the rocks nere the cape, where the doctor, with 
ten more of the men, weare drowned. The rest, which 
weare about eight or nine, hardly escaped, the cap* being 
much frozen in his feete ; they are now here at Boston, 
and are prouided for by the countrye till they are well. 
We are all well, both here and at Salem and Wenham 
(the Lord be praised). Not els but my duty to yourself 
and my mother, and to my bro. and sist., and remaine 

Your obedient son, Wait Winthrop. 


My sister is not brought to bed yet that I here of. 
My bro. was here last week. 

Indorsed by J. W., Jr., " Wait Winthrop. Reed. Mar. 11. Wherein 
about the blazing star." 


Deare Brother, — Before Sunquotneese came hither 
with your letter to Cap* Greene, the two men you wrote 
of weare gone from Capt. Huclsons, where I understand 
thay lay severall dayes. I know not whether tis worth 
the while to looke much after them, for whoe can keepe 
y t which will away ; but if I can light on them con- 
veniently, thay shall be secured to help fraught M r Demon 
back againe. I haue not heard from you a long time, 
neither from Comissionsuke [?] Palmes ; neither have I 
had opertunity all this winter to write. Here is noe 
newes, only all freinds are well. Not els but respects and 
loue to all freinds, and remaine 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Boston, March 23d, 1671[-2]. 

For John Winthrop, Esq., in Hartford, these. 

Boston, Aprill 10^, 1672. 

Honored S r , — I haue had noe opertunyty since I 
wrote last besides Goodman More of Farmington ; and he 
calling sooner than I expected, mist my letter, I being 
out of the way. Here is like to be nothing done with M r 
Hinksman. I could never get them to veiw the forme; 
he sayes that thay understand what was bid for it by 
Charlestowne men, and thay will give the same, deducting 
what has bin made of it by the sale of Notomyes and 

1672.] WAIT WINTHROP. 391 

other wise, which will be inconsiderable ; therefore I shall 
not trouble them farther, unles thay come and propose 
new termes. I suppose M r Danforth of Cambridg is one 
of them ; if soe, tis he that spoiles the rest. I haue reed 
that of Notomy men, and haue paid M r Wharton that 20 fe 
for Bro. Palmes. Thay haue bid me fowerscore pounds 
for the pasture, which I think is not above 18 or 20 acres 
at the out side. I pace't it over both waves. I set them 
the price at 100* ; but I doubt that will not be able to 
compasse it. I haue agreed w th Nathaniell Howard againe 
for this yeare for 40 fe in mony, and he to pay all rates, 
which is as much as I could bring him to, tho I stood 
very hard with him. Heere is noe forraine newes worth 
noteing. My sister Curwin was brought to bed of a 
daughter about a weeke since, and they are all well, both 
there and at Wenham. My duty to your self and my 
mother and love to my sister is all at present from your 
dutyfull son, 

Wait Winthrop. 


Honored S r , — Since I wrote last I have bin treateing 
with M r Vsher, who seemes to be very slacke in the 
businesse, and will doe little, I perceive, till you come. 
He harpes much on the price that Charlestowne men bid. 
I could not get him to goe himself to see it ; but he sent 
M r Harwood with me to veiwe it. I think to say little 
more to him about it till yourself come, which I hope will 
be before long. Here is little newes. The last from Eng- 
land was by M r Dutton, whoe reports of some engagement 
betweene the fleetes; but noe certainty of the issue, onely 
that the Royal James was blowne up by a fire-ship, in 
which was the Earle of Sandwich, whoe was found severall 
dayes after by one of the kings catches floateing on the 



sea and knowen by the George he wore about his neck. 
The Royall Catharine and another considerable ship 
weare taken by the Duch and retaken again e by the 
French. Ther are other circumstances, but reported vari- 
ously. Our freinds here are all well, as allsoe at Salem 
and Wenham. I haue delivered the former and this last 
paquet to M r Leget for M r Beach. He said nothing to 
me about them, only enquired when you would be here. 
Not els but my dutye to yourself and my mother. I 

Your obedient son, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Boston, August 19th, 1672. 


Boston, Feb. 10th, 1672[-3]. 

Honored S r , — I heard nothing of Messinger since I 
came from Hartford till now that he tells me he is 
goeing againe, soe that I shall not haue time to give 
you any perticular accompt of matters heere, or hardly 
to send them things which you desired me to speake to 
Ben. Switcher to procure. I delivered your letter to M r 
Vsher, and we are to meete about that businesse speedyly. 
Freinds at Pullin P., Salem, and Wenham are all well. I 
must not enlarg, only the remembrance of my dutye to 
yourself and loue to my sisters. I remaine 

Your obedient son, 

Wait Wintiirop. 

Since the aboue written I haue bin at Goodman Swit- 
zers, but he was from home ; but I understanding that 
Messinger did not iiroe till to-morrow, I wrote a note of 
them perticulars for him to get at Doctor Chickerings, 
which I suppose he will get this night. I left a little 
vitriolum album at his house to be sent with the rest ; tis 
all that is in towne that I can heare of. I am sending to 

1673.] WAIT WINTHROP. 393 

Charlestowne to Mesinger a little bundle in which is 
seven yrds of black searge for petticotes for my sisters 
and a paire of black stocking for yourself. I could not 
get a paire finer. I hope I shall make a good issue of 
your bussines. M r Harwoods man has said y* if his 
master could get his principle he thought he would never 
trouble you for the interest ; but since he has discoursed 
with M r Vsher he denyes it againe, as John Waite in- 
formed me. 


To John Winthrop, Esq., in Hartford, these. 

Boston, Aprill 21st } 1673. 

Honored S r , — I received yours by M r Richards, as 
alsoe one by Ed. Messinger, who being in hast told me I 
might send by M r Blake, who was to goe on the Wedens- 
day next, but went away on Tuesday, which was the 
reason I mist sending them. M r Ysher will at last come 
to noe agrement unless I would accept of his profer of 
2200 1 ?, which will in noe wise answere all your occations ; 
besides, I am advised by all freinds not to accept it. I at 
length offered him to chuse one man and I another, and 
leaue it to them (as to the value of the farme), and in 
case thay should not agree, thay to chuse a thurd man ; 
because he said we set a greater value on it then all 
men els, and that I might take of that aspertian which 
he layes that we make noe consience of lying in debt 
and take noe care to pay it. But he refuseses to accept 
of that or any other way of complyance unless it might 
be left wholy to his owne will. I am apt to think that it 
does not stand with his conveniency to lay out mony for 
M r Harwood, which makes him decline all wayes of com- 
plyance unless it be what he thinks we will not accept. 
S r Thomas Temple is bound for England in Paxton, who 
will be gone within a fortnight, as thay say ; by him I 



intend to write to M r Harwood and my aunt Reacle. M r 
Shrimpton seemes to be desireous of his mony ; M r Lake 
alsoe. I paide M r Palmes 30 ft for mony had of M r Whar- 
ton on his accompt for the black clothes ; there is eight* 
more due to him, which I haue promised him to pay as 
soon as I can get it of Nathaniell Howard. He could 
pay but 30* then when M r Palmes was heare, but prom- 
ises to pay the other 10 th quickly. I haue not yet come 
to an agrement about that at Notomye. I shall enquire 
about that of M r Nicolett as soone as may be. I send by 
M r Richards some pomegranate flowers. All freinds are 
in health, only one of my uncle Deanes daughters is very 
ill. Here is little certayne newes, only noe likelyhood of 
peace. Capt. Rainborow has letters from England which 
say that the Lord Ashly Cooper is made Lord Chancellour 
of England. Here are some Gazetts in towne. I suppose 
M r Richards will get some of them. Not els but my 
dutye to yourself. My loue to my deare sisters. 
Your most dutifull son, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Major Rainborow has a thousand pounds in mony 
lying by him which I perceive he knowes not well what 
to doe with as the times goe. If he would let it out at 
any very reasonable rates I know not but that it might 
be better to hire it and satisfie M r Shrimpton then to be 
indebted to M r Shrimpton still. If you shall think it may 
be convenient, and it be to be attained, I desire you 
would send your aduise as soone as may be. W. W. 


Boston, May 12th, 1673. 

Honored S r , — Yours by Arthur, as alsoe that by En- 
signe Omsted, came to hand, tho I saw neither of them 
except Arthur, who I accidentally met as he was goeing 

1673.] WAIT WINTHROP. 395 

out of towne, by whome I sent some aloes, but had not 
time to write more then I did. Major Rainborow had 
disposed of most of his mony before your letters came; 
but if he had not, I saw little likelyhood of doeing any- 
thing after I had discoursed with him. I haue written to 
M r Harwood as fully as I could. I beleiue he would haue 
bin glad M r Vsher had taken the proposition which was 
tendred. I shall hardly gett passage for the hog in this 
ship, the master being a stranger here. The scoole at 
Salem is broke up alsoe, soe that I know not what to 
advise about John Newman. I think to goe to Wenham 
spedyly. Thay weare all well both at Salem and there 
latly. There is little newes that has any certainety in it; 
therfore I shall not ad more then my dutye to yourself 
and loue to my sisters, and remaine 

Your obedient son, 

Wait Winthrop. 

I haue sent a stick of wax by M r Wilson. 


Honored S r , — I received yours by M r Roswell, and 
haue heard nothing from Conecticot since, till M r Steele 
and M r Barnad came last weeke and brought newes of 
y r health, which, a day or two before thay came, was 
otherwise reported heere, that you weare sick againe ; 
but when I had inquired into it, I found noe ground for it 
(God be thanked). M r Vsher did fully understand my 
proposition about the reserue for thre yeares, which you 
doubt of in your letter. Here is little newes. Thay are all 
well at Salem and Wenham. I was there about a weeke 
since. There was a sad accident fell out at Wenha about a 
fortnight since. M r Higenson went from Salem to preach 
there on the Sabath day ; and after the evening exercise, 
he being with severall of the towne at my sisters house, 

396 . THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1673. 

in the parler, there being a thunder shower, the lighten- 
ing brake (as I suppose, haveing veiwed the place, the 
house being somthing damnified) on the top of the 
chimny, and bals of fire came downe into both the lower 
roomes, and the chamber over the parler, which killed 
one Goodman Goldsmith, as he sate by the chimny in 
the parler, talking with M r Higginson and others, and 
through Gods mercy hurt noebody els ; only the mans 
dog, which lay under the chayer which he sate in, was 
killed alsoe. My sister, with all the children, weare in 
the outward kitchen, as Prouidence ordered it. Here 
came one Jones, of Charlestowne, in from Irland the last 
night, but brings noe newes that I yet here of, but that 
severall of the New England ships bound for England are 
taken, and noe news that any are arived. I enquired 
of M r Nicoles about his being cured, who tells a Strang 
story about the maner of it; but all that was done w r as that 
his mother tooke the juice of the elder leaues and dressed 
his wounds, or sores, which he had many in many parts 
of his body, and gaue him the distilled water to drink, 
about a gill at a time every morning, or halfe a gill, I 
am not certaine which, and he was well in a fortnight or 
3 weekes, who before dispaired, not only of being cured, 
but of life alsoe. I am apt to beleive that a litle quali- 
ty tye of the juice being drunk would be more efFectuall 
then the distilled water. I haue not els to ad but my 
dutye to yourselfe and loue to my sisters, and remaine 

Your obedient son, 

Wait Wintiirop. 

Boston, June 9 th , 1673. 

To John Winthrop, Esq., in Hartford, these. 

Honored S r , — I received yours by M r Bull, and haue 
delivered that which was inclosed to the Govern 1 : ; alsoe 

1673.] WAIT WINTHROP. 397 

one the weake before, wherein was inclosed the list of 
severall mens names who weare dead at Barbados, with 
the report of the grate sicknesse there, which is all con- 
tradicted here by M r Prout, who came out from Barbados 
the same time when the vessell of N. London did. Thay 
say that those men mentioned haue som of them bin 
dead aboue a yeare, and that thay knew of noe sicknesse 
more then ordinary, only that many weare troubled with 
colds. The transaction at Long Island is well resented 
here by all. We had a perticular account of it by 
Cap* Davenport, who is newly arived here from N. York, 
and came by N. L., and sayes oar freinds are all well 
there. Here are noe ships from England, or news of 
concernment from any other part. M r Gibons can in- 
forme of the ship that went from York and lost her mast, 
and was forced into Nantuckett and taken there, and 
now retaken or bought by M r Wharton, M r Page, M r 
Dutton, and divers others, and caried into Plimoth, as 
alsoe of the fower men that are condemned for seiseing a 
ship at sea, and turning the master, merchant, and two 
more into the boat to the mercy of the seas, whereof 
the merchant and boy weare drowned, which is all of 
note here. Freinds are all well at Salem, Wenham, Pulin 
Point, &c. Since the aboue [was] written, I received an 
other letter from you, but know not how it came. We 
had the newes of M r Nicols his children before yours 
came, but not the maner of it. Here is alsoe (since I 
began to write) a ship arived from Rochell, one Peter- 
son, who was here last yeare, who reports of a thurd 
engagement with the Hollander ; but he knows not who 
had the better of it. He sayes the war is like to continue ; 
he farther saies that Greeno was in the Downes when he 
went from thence to Rochell, and was redy to saile then. 
Ralph Parker is here from N. Foundland, who was thought 
to be taken by the Duch there. I haue sent herewith all 
the ivory I could get at M r Dauises, with 3 ounces of 


aloes, and all the vitriolu albu M r Chickering would spare, 
except a little bitt, which I keepe. I desire you would 
please to send me a little of the black powder, if ther be 
opertunyty, and you haue any quantitye made. I am 
almost out, and haue not convenyencye to make any 
presently. I haue not els to trouble you at present but 
my duty to yourselfe and loue to my sisters, and rest 
Your obedient son, 

Wait Winthrop. 

My cousin Jo. Winthrop went away about a weeke 
since for Nevis. Old M rs Coburn is dead, and Goodman 
Drinker like to dy. 
Boston, November 17 th , 1673. 

For Major John Winthrop, in Southhold, these. 

New London, March 26, 1674. 

Deare Brother, — After we left you, we had a con- 
venient passage heither, tho the sea ran indifferent high 
somtimes, and we are yet deteyned from goeing to 
Conecticutt by reason of my sisters illnesse, w'ho has 
bin very neare death, with a violet flux and gripeing, few 
expecting her life ; but I thank God she is in a likely way 
to recover, the distemper being stopt, and she begins to 
gather strength; and I hope within two or 3 dayes I 
maye venture to Hartford. Stephen Richardson came 
downe the last weake, and sayes that my father and sis- 
ters were well. Young Avery came from Boston last 
weake, but brought noe new T es, only that the Generall 
Court were newly broke up, and had ordered two 
catches, with fifty men apeice, to come and cleare the 
coast, which weare to set out the begining of this 
weake. Capt" Sprage, of Charlestowne, thay say, com- 
mands one of them. We heare noe farther intelligence 
of the frigates in Virginia, wich I wonder at. I prom- 

1674.] WAIT WINTHROP. 399 

ised to send some phisick for M r Coopers sister and 
others, but knew not of this opertunyty till now, therefore 
could not get it redy; but intend, when M r Giles re- 
turnes, to send some. M r Giles and Cap tn Gallup and 
myself went over to Fishers Island a day or two after 
we came from you, where we found all well. Thay had 
sene neither Duch nor English a long time. The Indian 
sayes his time is almost out, but he has promised to stay 
till you return. We weare there but two or thre howers, 
and came back the same night. M r Giles, my sister, 
and M r Simonds desire to be remembered to you. Pray 
present my servis to Cap tn Silvester and his lady and M rs 
Griswell, with many thanks for their kindnesse ; allsoe to 
Capt° Young, Capt n [to™'], t M r Cooper. Not els but that 
I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

I hope to se you when I com back. 

For Major John Winthrop, in Southhold, these. 

Deare Brother, — This is onely to let you know that 
I am yet at Hartford, but intend the next weeke to be at 
N. London; and if I meete you not there, I shall en- 
devour to come to you, tho I haue little to impart more 
then when I was with you, but only to se you before I goe 
to Boston, if M r Simonds will giue me leaue. M r Giles is 
well. Not els but my servis to all freinds. 
Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Hartford, Aprill 10*, 1674. 

My father desires to be remembred to you, but has 
not time to write, and desires you would not let any copye 
be taken of that newes M r Allin writes you. 



Honored S r , — By reason of my sisters illnesse, and 
some other hinderancese, I did not proceede on my 
jorney soe soone as I thought I should, but think to 
be goeing tomorrow, here being some Boston company 
who are ready to goe. I had thoughts of goeing to 
Hartford againe with my brother, but on some con- 
siderations haue resolved otherwise. He can informe of 
all matters here ; therfore I shall not neede to enlarg, 
but, with my duty to yourselfe and loue to my sisters, 

Your obedient son, 

Wait Winthrop. 

New London, May 12&, 1674. 

My sister is better then she has bin all winter. Sine 
her takeing of rubila and useing the cupinglasse, her dis- 
temper has wholy left her, ever since Fryday last, with out 
the inconvenienc of being much sweild, which she for- 
merly found after it. My brothers mind semes to be 
altered, to me at least, which caused a greate demurr 
in my thoughts with respect to myselfe. I desire I 
may here by the first what the Court does in that busi- 
nesse of M r Harwood, and whether you resolue for Bos- 
ton, and when. 


Boston, Sept"*- 13, 1674. 

Honored S r , — I received yours by Goodman Reues, 
M r Walker, and M r Richards, and delivered those things to 
M rs Wharton which you sent, as alsoe that which Tho. 
Bradford brought ; but she had not taken half those cor- 
dialls you sent her before. I rejoyce that your health 
continues, and should haue bin glad to haue seene you 

1675.] WAIT WINTHROP. 401 

here, but am now almost out of hopes of it, the yeare being 
soe far spent, unlesse you should resolue to stay all winter, 
w ch might be convenient upon all accompts, if you should 
think it fitt. I cannot tell how to resolue about that mat- 
ter till I speake with yourselfe againe ; and therefore, if I 
here certainely that you will not com downe, I intend to 
se you at Hartford. Our freinds are generally in health. 
Here is noe newes. Mary Wait died that day M r Gibon 
went from here, which I suppose you haue heard. I send 
by Goodman Reues some sene. That lignum vitse which 
I sent is certaynely the right guaicum. I saw the turner 
at work on it, and minded both the wood and bark, tho 
the wood being new and turned of soe thin, it being hard, 
makes it look somthing yellower then the same peices doe 
in chips, and the newness of it makes it haue somthing a 
fresher smell then that which is sold in old chips. I saw 
severall logs of it which Capt Lightfoot brought from Nevis 
or Antegua purposely for bowles and mortars, which that 
which I sent is part of; and if I can gett a sample of it 
before Goodman Reues goes, I will send it. M r Palmes 
went from hence last Thursday for N. L. Not els but 
my dutye to yourself and loue to my deare sisters. I 

Your obedient son, 

Wait Winthrop. 


Honored S r , — The conveniency of conveyance by 
M r Drake calls upon me to giue an accompt of our jor- 
ney, with what intellygence we have mett with here, 
tho it is not much more than what you haue already 
heard. After our parting with John Bigeloe at the 
Majors Rocke, we found the path somthing difficult to fol- 
low, and at last lost it quite, but upon a little search we 



found a way which at last led us to a small Indian towne 
on Showtucket River ; but it being on the other side the 
river, we could not come at them, only two, w ch came 
to the river side, who informed us that thay belonged to 
Vncas, and that most of theire men weare at Norwich. 
From thence our Indians pilated us to Norwich, where we 
got late in y e afternoone, where, by reason som of our 
men and horses were almost tired, it haueing bin an ex- 
ceeding hot day, we stayed y fc night. This morning, 
most part of our company are gone the nerest way over 
to Stoneington ; the rest, about half a score, stay here 
with me till after the afternoone exercise, and then I 
think to goe with them to New London, and soe to 
Stoneington tomorrow. I was the more willing to stay 
some of the company till after theire meetings weare 
over here, because som of the people aprehend more dan- 
ger in time of y r meeting, there haueing bin som Strang 
Indians sene about the woods (as Vncas reports) by some 
of his men. The last night Leif* Mason came from 
Stonington, and brings word one Stephens and another 
man came from Rode Island to Stoneington, haueing com 
in y e night from Petaquamscot, and informe that ther is 
but twelve persons killed at Swansey and Rehoboth, and 
as many houses burnt; that M r Carpenters house is 
burnt ; that M r Smith is at his house, with a gard from 
Rode Island to secure it ; that Nenegraft sent one of his 
counsill to M r Stanton to tell him y t he has no hand in 
this business of Philip, tho six of his men weare there 
contrary to his mind, and thre of them weare killed ; that 
Cap* Prentis his troope weare after Philip ; and that 
Cap* Mosely, with a hundred and fifty pryvateeres, were 
likewise after him, and they weare to haue what Indians 
thay could get for theire reward ; that the Indians weare 
diuided into small companyes, and had don more mis- 
cheife to the eastward of Swansey then they had don any 
where els, tho thay tell not the perticulars. This from 

1675.] WAIT WINTHROP. 403 

Stonington. M r Olmsted here says that an Indian from 
Nipmug sayes that the last Munday there weare six men 
at the old way at Nipnas sent from the Bay to Conecti- 
cut ; but I suppose you haue noe newes of them, and 
that Quabage was burnt. The people here are in grate 
securytye about Vncas ; and, upon speech with him, I 
find him to be very forward to aford vs asistance, if he 
intends as he speakes. M r Fitch thinks that there is a 
great opertuny[ty] put into your hands, both to try Yncas 
and to asist Plim., if you would send a good party of the 
Moheeges and Pequots to Phips cuntry ; but I dout 
that thay will hardly be willing to goe without an Eng- 
lish company with them. Here came thre men from New 
London but now, thinking to meete with us by the way, 
who say that my brother is geting up againe. I haue not 
farther to trouble you with at present but my dutye to 
yourself and servise to all the gentlemen with you, and 

Your most obedient son, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Norwich, July 4th, 1675. 


To Major John Winthrop, in N. London, these. 

Deare Brother, — I receued yours when I was speake- 
ing w th Nenegraft w n those men overtooke us, and thank 
you for your aduise and counsill. I shall endevour to be 
carefull as I can. The fello that brought your carbine 
lost the bage of bulletts, w th all in it, soe y t it is useless for 
the present ; but I desired Capt. Mosely to send it over to 
one of y r armorers at Swansey, and it will be here againe 
tomorrow. You may se in my fathers letter w* news we 
haue. I haue not time to ad more but y* I am 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Mr Smithes, July 9, 1675. 



To Major John Winthrop, in N. London, these. 

Deare Brother, — This is to acompany the inclosed, 
which I received with one to my selfe from M r Pelham ; 
also another which accompanyes this from Cap* Silves- 
ter, who is just now com hither, and desires you would 
convey it as directed with the first opertunyty. Here 
came one or two from Boston y e last weeke, but bring no 
news but what we heard formerly ; only that the Bay 
forces are gon home, all but Capt. Hinksman company, 
and that Capt Wheeller, of Concord, is gon after those 
Nipmuge Indians that did y e mischeife at Mendham. Not 
els but y fc I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Hartford, August 2 d , 1675. 


Deare Brother, — I haue had no opertunitye (since 
my father left us) to write till now, unlesse by vessels to 
Hartford, which I knew not whether you would have re- 
ceived, because I expected you would haue taken the 
first opertunytye (after you had intelligence by M r Whar- 
tons letters to M r Palmes, which I desired him to write 
that morning my father dyed) to haue bin here, and I 
hope still you will be here quickly.* Our calamytye 
is greate, which I need not tell you, being, I question 
not, alike sensible with myselfe for so unparaleld a losse. 
We are left as you know. What my father was pleased 
to doe with respect to his will was don, I think, but the 
day before he departed, by the desire of M r Richards and 

* John Winthrop, Jr., died in Boston, April 5, 1676, while attending a meeting of the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies. — Eds. 

1676.] WAIT WINTHROP. 405 

some others. I never knew any thing of it till M r Allin, 
M r Daue, and M r Richards came and read it to me ; which 
thre, with Cap* Allin, of Hartford, Major Treate, and 
M r Jones, of N. Haven, are apointed overseers. I never 
had it, or a copie of it ; refuseing to medle with it till you 
came, or that I heard from you, tho M r Richards vrged 
that it might be proved the last court, which I would not 
medle with, and nothing was don. M r Richards promised 
me to send you a copye of it by this vessell, which I 
suppose he will. Least he should faile, I will write all I 
remember, which is, that yourselfe and I, with all my sis- 
ters, maryed and unmaryed, are left executors, and that 
after all debts are paide the rest to be diuided equally 
amongst us all ; only yourselfe and I to haue as much 
more as any of the rest, which we neede not boast of. 
I much desire to speake with you. I haue not sent you 
mourning, because I knew not but that you would com. 
If you com not, send me your mind in all things, and I 
will endeavour to comply with it. I forbare to write 
what I could till I se you. Wee shall haue you know 
who to deale with; therefore lay aside all former mis- 
aprehentions. If you com not hither, I purpose to com 
to you. Here is many changess, and like to be more. I 
never knew so sickly a time here. Tomorrow old M r 
Russell, of Charlestowne, and old M r Vsher are to be 
buryed. M rs Wharton dyed last weeke ; my aunt Rich- 
ards very sick. I understand, by a letter from Major Tal- 
bot, that y r is som stop on the corn which was to com 
doune for M r Harwood. I haue written to Capt Allin 
about it. If you would do the like, it might not be 
amiss. I haue much to say to you if I se you, but shall 
not enlarg, but am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Boston, May 15^, 1676. 



For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, March 13th 1676[-7]. 

Deare Brother, — I received yours by Cousin Gallop, 
as alsoe that by M r Darvall and did my indeavour to 
show him the ciuilytye of the towne ; but of that, more 
when I se you. As to my owne concernes, I wayted soe 
long till I see nothing will be done that might be advan- 
tagious towards the saueing of Tenhills, what ever may be 
done hereafter; therfore I haue this night agreed with 
M r Legitt, who is to giue SSOO* in mony, 2000 of 
which to be paid at the sealeing of the writeings, the rest 
within six months from this time ; 150 fc of it to be paid 
in England by bills of exchang, which I intend for my 
cousin Read, becaus my father left particular care about 
it. I haue promised that you will be here to signe the 
writeings, therfore desire that you would think of com- 
ing as soone as might be. I haue raised the price som- 
thing to what it was thought in most peoples judgments 
to be, tho in really tye it is worth as much more. How- 
ever, it will answere all occations, and so m thing to spare. 
I haue indeavoured somthing about M r Paines businesse 
also, which M r Wharton can inform you fully about, being 
priuie to it all. If you would inquire of som of Stoning- 
ton about his farme at the head of Pacatuck River, and 
his part of Narrogansett, Boston Neck, which I think he 
bought of Amos Richardson, and if it be any thing con- 
siderable, it might do well to desire administration of the 
court at N. London or Hartford on his estate in that col- 
ony, which it may be you may doe by writeing to M r 
Allin. M r Wharton will best aduise you in it. There will 
not be much estate found here, but many credit 1 " 8 Here 
is nothing yet from the countrye but a smalle matter from 
Milford, and most Indian corne, which will not sell, and 

1677.] WAIT WINTHROP. 407 

the fraught yet to be paide in mony. I beleiue it may be 
best not to let any body know of the selling the farme ; 
for if thay know it there, we shall get no more of them, 
thinking we haue mony enough to pay it ; and if Griper 
knowes it, he will be sure to follow you as before, think- 
ing tis good fishing in troubled waters, and may make a 
stir, tho he doe himselfe no good. I keepe it priuet here 
till you com. Only my sisters know it. M r Wharton 
knowes thay profered so much. I send herewith the best 
wig that is to be had in the countrye. M r Sergeant 
brought it from England for his owne use, and sayes it cost 
him two guineyes and six shillings, and that he never 
wore it six howers. He tells me he will haue thre pounds 
for it. Here is som others; but thay are sorry things, and 
old also. I send som rubila and 3 rings for the overseers. I 
shall neede write noe newes. M r Wharton can tell all that 
is heere. Freinds are all well. I hope you will not faile 
to be here as soone as you can conveniently, and bring that 
writeing with you, and the plat of the farme. You may 
send Nenegrafts two guns. Here is one can doe them 
well. Not els but 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 


The rings are sealed up in y e paper of rubila. 


For Major John Winthrop, at New London, these. By Mr. Witherly. 

Boston, August, 1677, 
tomorrow being y e Comencement. 

Deare Brother, — I haue little to write, but to tell 
you that if you doe not mount Boalle and make hast, 
Matt sayes you will come too late for her occations, and 
for the other, which has bin allwayes betweene hauke 


and buzzurd. When you com, you will goe neere to see 
an end of it. I was last weeke at Salem, where I found 
my sister Curwin very ill ; but she was pretty well when 
I left her. Here is little M r Harwood eom with greate 
demands; but I hope I shall make a good issue with 
his merchantship. Heere is nothing from the coloney 
this yeare but about 4 or 500 bushells of Indian corne, 
which will not sell for 12 d the bush., and a few black 
pease, worth nothing. If it would be paid next yeare, 
tis better that it dose not com now, for it yealds noe 
prise. Pork and beife are prety good, and like to hold 
so, espetially pork, which is at 3* 10 s ., the lowest. I doubt 
I shall gett you no belt. Here is not a Spanish leather 
skin in the towne, that I heere of, to make it withall. 
Yesterday came Eltons ship from England ; had 7 weekes 
passage from Apsum ; brings noe newes. The inclosed 
M r Wharton gaue me for you from Govern r Andross. 
Not els but respects to all freinds. 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

Tis best for you to come as soone as you can con- 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Mr. Belcher. 

Boston, Decemb r 26th, 1677. 

Deare Brother, — I received yours by M r Belcher, 
and am glad to heere you are safe returned from York. I 
haue not seene him since he came, but heare he is going 
within an hower ; therfore haue time but just to scrible 
this. I wish you weare more carefull about that old 
accompt. A litle care might prevent inconvenience. I 
wrote to you the last weeke by one that came from 
M rs Bradford, of Norwich. If you haue any, I desire you 
would send me som tallow. Send me word about the 

1677-8.] WAIT WINTHROP. 409 

Indian girle as soone as you can. I wrote about it in 
my letter the last weeke. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

M r Shepard, of Charlestowne, died the last week. 


To Major John Winthrop, in New London. Present. By Mr. Eliott. 

Boston, Feb. 18* 1677[-8]. 

Deare Brother, — After this hard, cold time I begin 
to think long to here from you, haueing heard nothing 
since my last to you till this bearer came, who informed 
you weare well not long since. As to our business with 
the coloneye, I doubt it will goe but hardly if you doe 
not put them in mind of it. Wheate is like to be a com- 
oditye. Here came nothing last yeare but fower or 5 
hundred bush, of Indian corne and a few black pease ; 
hardly any wheate, and that that was, not worth any 
thing almost. Pray let me here from you by the first of 
all matters, and whether you think it may be any advan- 
tage w th respect to what is aboue written if I should goe 
to Hartford this spring. Here is no newes. Candles are 
not to be had for mony ; and if you send no tallow, we 
are like to sit in the dark. We are all well, and thay 
weare so at Salem, as I heard this day. Ann is still 
there. The small pox is still in this towne, tho not 
much. Pray send me word about the Indian girle. My 
wife presents her servis to you, and hopes to se you here 
this sumer. I hope you remember Rogers his writeing. 
Not els but affectionate loue to your selfe and servis to 
all freinds. Your affectionate bro., W. Winthrop. 

If M r Whartons hors be in good case, tis best to send 




To Major John Winthrop, in New London, dd. 

Boston, Aprill 2*, 1678. 

Deare Brother, — This morning the Indian brought 
me yours. I can say little to Monseurs threats, and feare 
them lesse. I intend, betweene this and the last of this 
month, to be with you at N-London, if God please. In 
the meane time I shall be carefull to doe what may be 
convenient for defence heere. I haue little to write, de- 
fering all things till I se you. For shoose, here was none 
recly, and I was loth to stay the Indian, but shall bring 
them or send them by the first. The barer brings only a 
paire of stockings and two yrds of doulass for socks. The 
duffalls and blew linning shall be sent as soone as there 
is opertunytie. "We are all well (God be thanked). My 
wife presents her seruis to you, and would faine com and 
se you. Sister Wharton begins to grow. Sister Ann is 
eastward still, because of the small pox. Heere is at least 
twenty familyes in this towne haue it, by what I heere. 
Not els but affectionate loue to you, and remaine 

Your owne Wait Winthrop. 

M r Simonds comes up with me. M r Bradstrete and 
all his famylye are well. Please to giue my seruis to 
M r Bradstreete and his wife, with all freinds. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, June 8*h, 1678. 

Deare Brother, — After I left you we had an in- 
diferent jorney, and gat hither on Fry day night. My 
wife and sisters were all at Salem, whether I went the 

1678.] WAIT WINTHROP. 411 

next day. My sister Wharton has bin very ill of a mis- 
caryage, but is, through Gods goodnesse, pretty well 
againe. The small pox being much spread, thay intend 
to continue there. M r Wharton has hired part of M r Bar- 
tholomues house, where his children are alsoe. I haue 
herewith sent you a copie of that record, but haue not 
time now to send copies of the other writeings. Here is 
noe newes. I haue not yet spoke with the brick maker. 
Not els but that Bro. Wharton and myselfe are just goe- 
ing to Sale in the raine ; therfore cannot enlarg more then 
to assur you that I am 

Your affectionate bro., 

W. Winthrop. 

Your hors held out well. I told Cowell you would 
bring him a hors, and he sayes, " I wish I could se him, 
quoth blind Hue." 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, July 2?, 1678. 

Deare Brother, — I came the last night from Salem, 
where I left all our freinds well. I heard but now of this 
opertunytye by M r Willis, of Stoneington, who is pres- 
ently goeing out of toune. I wrote to you about 3 
weekes since by M r Star ; but I heare my letter is in 
towne still, and I suppose will com by this opertunytye. 
I received yours by M r Belcher, w th those things you 
sent. I am sorry you did not keep the barrill of sider. 
The market is groun so dull that nothing yeilds mony at 
present. Pork is the best, wich is at 52 s ., when it will 
sell. The porke you sent is repact, but the packer will 
not mark it. Tis so yellow and oyly, he thinks tis whale 
pork. Thay say tis sweete, so I think to let it ly for a 
better market. Those things you wrote for shall be sent 


by M r Williams or the first vessel, except the cheese. 
Here is not one English or Holland cheese in the country, 
that I here of. The peice of diuTalls was sent formerly 
by old M r Raymond. As to the other matters you write 
of, I shall endeavour to doe as well as I can here, and 
by the next giue you a farther account. We had yester- 
day newes from a fishing vessell of a ship thay met off 
in the Bay from England, and sayes that thay parted with 
S r Edmond off the coste in another ship. Not els but 
my affectionat loue to yourself. 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Pray send word about the hors for Cowell, and whether 
you would haue your hors sent, or kept till you com. I 
have not met with a brickmaker yet. I doubt the other 
expects grate matters, but have not had much discors 
with him yet, haueing bin out of towne. The small pox 
spreads much, soe that we all keep at Salem, and many 
are gon out of towne. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, August 1 st , 1678. 

Deare Brother, — I had the bad tideings by M r 
Starr, M r Richessons son in law, that you weare very ill, 
and, as he thought, intended to send for me ; wherupon 
I ordered my occations so that I might be redy when 
your messinger should come. Brother Wharton intend- 
ing to com w th me, M r Starr being somthing uncertaine 
in his relation, we judgd it most convenient to stay till 
we heard from you, assureing ourselues, if you had bin 
very bad, we should certainely heare from you sudainly ; 
and because we heard nothing from you, we concluded 

1678.] WAIT WINTHROP. 413 

you were better. Yesterday I speake with Peter Trebee, 
who sayes he came from the island the last weeke, and 
that he saw you walking about againe, which has giuen 
me much sattisfaction. I met Demincas in the street, 
just goeing away, and make him stay till I came into a 
house and wrote this ; therfore I can write nothing about 
other business. Here is noe newes, but aboundance ill of 
the small pox. Our freinds are all well at Salem. I am 
leaueing M rs Gibs house, she being to be maryed the 
next weeke to M r Anthony Chicklye, and intends to Hue 
in it herselfe. We are at Salem for the present, while 
the distemper remain es. Demincas stayes, therfore I must 
only tell you that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

I assure myself, if you are in any danger at any time, 
that you will send. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these, to be left with M r Sam 11 
Rogers at N. London. 

Salem, August 20*, 1678. 

Deare Brother, — I wrote to you the last weeke by 
M r Simonds, but he not goeing, it was sent by M r Rich- 
ardson ; sine which I received yours of the 12 th instant, 
w ch M r Wharton brought me from Boston, and am glad 
from your owne hand to haue the newes of your recov- 
ery, for which let us giue God the glory. I haue little 
now to write, haueing not bin at Boston since I wrote 
last, but only that I am desirous to se you here, accord- 
ing to your letter, though I could haue bin glad I had 
bin settled at Boston when you com ; but I know not 
when that will be. The distemper rageing now more 
then ever, if you bring any body with you that has not 


had it, twill not be safe to let them goe to Boston. As 
to what you desired answere to, I can say nothing till I 
speake with you, as not knowing the resons should put 
you in such a motion. We are all here well, God be 
thanked ; and all desire to be remembred to you. I 
doubt I shall not be able to satisfie M rs Bradfords desire 
till I can goe to Boston. Not els but that I am allwayes 
Your affetionate brother, 


If you giue M rs Bradford 3 grains at a time of the 
black powder, colored with a little corall, it may do her 
good ; also som papers with 6 gr. of niter mixt with 
sugar, and directions when to take them. 


For Major John Winthrop^ in New London. 

Salem, Septemb* 28, 1678. 

Deare Brother, — Though I haue had no very late 
opertunitye to write to you, yet I haue wrote twise since 
I had any from you. I haue not bin at Boston almost 
this month, haueing bin so sick that I haue not bin out 
of the dore this fortnight till within two or thre dayes, 
and am yet labouring under some sore biles under my 
left arme, that are the breakings away of my distemper, 
which I feare would haue kild me, if it had not pleased 
God to send it out that way. I saw your letter to M r 
Wharton, and tis the judgment of all here that there can 
be noe good sale made of the ship till the French capt 
La Maigne com ; and although the ship weare con- 
demned, which thay say she is not, yet she would not be 
free to trade in any English port, but would be sease- 
able by act of Parliament, unless she were made fre. 
One of her prises, wherof one White is commander, 

1678-9.] WAIT WINTHROP. 415 

is in this harbour ; another, which was bigger, is cast 
away on Nantucket. But I suppose M r Wharton and 
M r Tayler will giue you a fuller accompt, to whom I 
shall refer you. Governour Winslow went from hence 
last night in a sloop. The designe thither is wholy laid 
aside. I could be glad to se you here before winter. 
If you kill any beife this yeare, a barrill or two of the 
choyce, well pickled, would be a savory bit the next 
summer, if we line so long. Freinds are all well. Not 
els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

My wife presents her respects to you. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Feb. 19«s 1678[-9]. 

Deare Brother, — My last to you was by one Hodg 
of Salem, since w ch I haue met with noe opertunitye to 
write to you ; neither haue I heard from you but once 
since you went away. We haue had a long, dull winter 
at Salem, and begin to hope we may returne to Boston 
som time in the sumer, the distemper (by Gods good- 
nesse) being much abated already. It has spread little 
at Salem. About twelve persons haue had it, of which 3 
dead ; but one taken this fall moone. Captn. Hattok was 
this day buried. The French doctor sayes he died of an 
impostume broke within him. Lack Simonds haueing 
bin ill two or 3 days, he thought he was well againe, and 
was this day trudging in hast to Charlstowne, intending 
for Salem, if I had not accidentally mett with him by 
the head of the dock, and discovered the small pox com- 
ing out, which made him lay aside his jurney and take 
his bed, since which I heare thay are com out thick. 
Here is little newes (at least) that is certaine. No vessell 


com in lately but one from Barbados, that set M r Smith 
ashore at Rode Island. Our freincls weare all well at 
Salem yesterday. Not els but that I am 

Your affect nte brother, W. Wintiirop. 

Your candles weare soe intimately mixt with straw and 
joined together, that thay weare good for little. 


For Major John Winthrop, at New London, these. 

Boston, Aprill 9 th , 1679. 

Deare Brother, — It is now a long time since I have 
heard from you, tho I haue written to you as often as oper- 
tunitye presented. I haue had a long, dull winter at Salem ; 
but we are now returning hither againe within a fortnight 
or 3 weekes. I think I shall haue M rs Davenports house. 
She is goeing to New Haven. Here is much newes, which 
comes mostly by way of Jamaica, for which I refer you 
to M r Whartons inclosed papers to M r Bradstreate. Major 
Pinch dund me again for the 30 years accompt, and I 
haue giuen him a bill to the treasurer for 23 fc , which I be- 
lieue was wet in the last storme at Quabaug. I cannot 
enlarge now ; but hopeing I shall se you here this spring, 
which is all at present from 

Your affectionate bro., W. Winthrop. 

If you saved any beife or tallow for me, I desire you 
would send it by the first opertunytye. 


For Major John Winthrop, at New London, these. P r M r Mosse. 

Boston, Aprill 15 th , 1679. 

Deare Brother, — I wrote you a few lines the last 
weeke by merchant Prentis, since which I received yours 
at Salem, by John Whiteing, with the barrill of beife, 



which my wife returnes you thanks for. Here is little 
newes more than was the last weeke. What it is, you 
will finde in M r Whartons letter to M r Bradstreete, which 
he incloses to him rather then yourself, that Hucle may 
haue a sight of it. I hane paid your bill, according to its 
contents. M r Cowell enquires still when the hors will com. 
Boalle stands at Salem upon thre legs, without hay. I 
left all at Salem well yesterday, and am fitting up M rs 
Davenports house, and hope to remoue in a fortnight. 
M r Belcher sayes he has somthing for you on bord his ves- 
sell. He is bound to Jamaica againe within a fortnight. 
Not els but all loue to yourselfe, and that I am 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London. 

Boston, May 8«», 1679. 

Deare Brother, — I haue received yours by the In- 
dian, and am glad to heare of your welfare ; and just as 
I am proceeding to a considerable complyment in an- 
swere to it, in comes his Worship of Hartford, and has 
put it out of my noddle. It seemes Strang that your 
beleife should be so backward that it requires perticular 
notice, under hand and seale, to be confirmed that the 
double locks are opened to you. I haue satisfied M r Whit- 
comb what your note mentioned for M r Cristophers. 
M r Wharton has let the Indian haue a coate. He staid 
him a day or two about Le Maigne business. I suppose 
the glasse is on bord Williams his vessel. He has promised 
to put it in his chest, and take perticular care of it. The 
other things, if the vessell be not gon before I can get 
them, I shall send. We came the last Tuesday from 
Salem, and haue taken leaue of them, and now you may 



com as soone as you please. I hope we shall be prouided 
for you, only I am afraid we shall sit in the darke. 
Here is a ship from England, of six weekes passage, sayes 
that a new Parliament is chose and sits ; all is peace ; 
the Duke and Dutchesse of York gon to Sweedland, and 
other perticulars, which I cannot relate now. The ship 
M r Deane went in was com to the Downes, and is ex- 
pected every day. When she comes, I shall giue you a 
farther accompt of your periwigs. Not els but loue from 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 


For Major John Winthrop, at New London. 

Boston, June 2<*, 1679. 

Deare Brother, — Lack cals in a hurry, and giues 
me but just time enough to tell you that the last weeke I 
receiued from England two wiggs and a wast belt of the 
better sort, but I know not whether you will like it. I 
wrote only for a hansom larg belt, and thought nobody 
would haue mistaken it for the wast, tho he writes tis the 
mode of the toune there. I confess I forgot I wrote to a 
merchant that understands cent W cent better then wear- 
ing of belts, otherwise I should haue shouldered him; 
tho if it be, as it seemes, the generall mode, it may be, 
when you se it, you will not so much dislike it. I thought 
to haue sent them by the bearer ; but the value which is 
set on them and his carlessness prevents me, least thay 
should be damnified. Pray let me know by the next 
whether you would haue them sent thither, or be left 
heere till you com. I know not what acluise to giue for 
the advice. Here is noe canvis to be had on reasonable 
termes at present ; neither can I tell what dimentions the 
sailes should be off. M r Bartholomew tells me he was with 
Caryes freinds in London, and delivered his present, and 

1679-80.] WAIT WINTHROP. 419 

has brought him a letter, which comes with M r Whartons, 
by Lack, whose hast will not suffer me to write more, only 
that we are all well (which I suppose M r Wharton informes 
you, as alsoe of your young neese, by his wife). 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Mr. Chapman. 

Boston, Jan. [blank], 1679[-80]. 

Deare Brother, — I received yours by M r Belcher, 
and one now by Good. Chapman, and am joyfull to here 
of your welfare, but sorry we haue lost my cousin Jo. 
Winthrop in the prime of his time. I haue not wrote to 
you since you went, somtimes wanting opertunitye, and 
somtimes being melancoly. Soone after you went from 
us I lost my hope, and the greatest part of my com- 
fort; but Gods will is don, and he is just in all his deal- 
ings with us. # When we turne to him with all our harts, 
he will returne to us, and be merciful to us. I am sorry 
to heere of the loss of M r Dimons barke. If I had 
knowne what you lost that was of necessitye for your 
winters supply, I would haue endevoyred to haue pro- 
cured it and sent it by M r Parker ; but I knew not what 
you had abord. I desired M r Meeres to put your hat on 
bord M r Parker, which I hope you haue. I herew th send 
you a little rubila (not enough ground) ; alsoe two roles 
of salve and a p r of those stockings you wrot for. Our 
freinds are all in health. Sister Ann came the last night 
from Salem. My wife presents her servise to you ; so 
dose Your affectionate bro., W. Winthrop. 

My servise to M r Bradstreete and his wife, with all 

* This refers to the death of his first-born son, who died in infancy. — Eds. 



Dear Brother, — Just now I received yours by John 
Rogers and M r Alford calling, who I thought had bin gon. 
I staid him only to write this. My father aquainted the 
gentlemen at Hartford, and I think the Generall Court, 
with the claime Collonell Nicolls made to the island, and 
that he had a patent from him, or was profered one, and 
desired y r advise what he had best doe ; who, as I under- 
stood, left it to him to do as he se cause. About a month 
since I found, among some old letters of Coll. Nicolls, the 
originall pattent, which I overlooked before, thinking it 
had bin only a letter folded up. M r Allford is impatient, 
els I would haue sent you a copie ; being loth to send the 
originall, not knowing whose hands it might fall into, if 
you should not be there. I know not what to advise with 
respect to detayning those things for all together. How 
ever, it may not be convenient to part with them sud- 
daynly. I wrote yesterday by this company. Not els but 

that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Boston, March 23<*, 16Jf. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, June 22<J , 1680. 

Deare Brother, — I received yours by M r Wilkins 
with the inclosed, and haue perused them. 1 forbeare to 
write any thing about it by this opertunitye. I haue by 
M r Jones sent you a smale cask of brandy, q* about 
twelve gallons, a litle botle of oyle of vitr and all the 
oyle of cloues I could get, 1 zjj of safro, l fc of pepper, a 
paper of rubila, grossly beaten. Here is neither wash- 

1681.] WAIT WINTHROP. 421 

bales nor sweet powder to be had. I use starch, sprinkled 
with a litle rosewater, and so dried and beaten. As soone 
as I can lite of som sutable ribon and linnen, shall send 
som. When I go to Salem shall mind that of Culvers 
bill. I know not where to get a miller, but shall inquire. 
I am just finishing som black powder, and hope to haue 
som redy to inclose before M r Gallup calls againe, have- 
ing bin here but now in hast. My sister Curwin I heard 
yesterday was prety well, haueing bin brought to bed 
of a girle about a weeke since. Mat and Ann are both 
with her. My wife presents her seruise to you. Here is 
newes by a ketch from Jarsey, about 6 weekes passage 
now, that the Parliament is dissolued and the prohibition 
of French goods into England taken off. I haue sent 
you a map of the towne, with Charlestowne, taken by 
M r Foster the printer, from Nodles Island. Twas sent 
for Amsterdam, and y r printed. M r Gallup is at the gate 
with his master Gui ; therfore must brake of. The black 
powder wants only to be thoroughly dried, and beaten 
small, and kept in a close glass. 

Your affectionate brother, 



For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By John Perry. 

Deare Brother, — I am sorry to hear by John Perry 
y t you weare not well of your teeth, but hope you are now 
better. I thank you for your intend testimony of affec- 
tion. I can easily beleiue your good will to me, but I 
desire you would take notice y* I haue no thoughts of 
jornying after you, but of resting before you. Our times 
are in Gods hand ; let us indeavour to liue to his glory 
and take no thought for the rest. Your doctrinall notes I 
find very aplicable to myselfe, for he has certainly made 


no good observation that cannot by this time of day say, 
with Solomon, all is vanity and vexation of spirit. I 
doubt not but you remeber my fathers often expression, 
quantum est in rebus inanis ! I here Williams is in 
towne. If I can mete with him shall send pepper and 
stuff, or els by y e first opertunyty. Sister Wharton holds 
up still. We are all well, God be thanked. Our court has 
bin sitting long about sending of agents, and I think 
like to do nothing at last. I had before wrote you the 
sad story about M r . Thorn. Woodbridg (which "I suppose 
you haue alredy, or will now hear), but was loath M" 
Bradstreete should haue such bad newes from my hand. 
Here is no newes farther out of Europe. Here has bin 
much discours about Indians riseing, but I suppose little 
in it. But I feare to loose the conveyance of this, ther- 
fore shall only ad my seruis to all freinds, and that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. W. 

Boston, March 30«\ 1681. 


For Major Winthrop, att New London, these. 

Deare Brother, — Yesterday I wrote by Johnese 
(alias) Cap tn Stanton, and but now came yours by M r 
Stevens. I hope these raines will make the grass com on 
to recrute the cattle. If there be no convenient boats 
to transport cattle, a bigger vessell would hoyst them in 
by the homes, as I haue heard thay ordinaryly doe in 
som places. I will se if I can compass a convenient ship ; 
but it can not be don (I doubt) for this fall. It would not 
be worth while to medle with an old one, thay being al- 
wayes out of repaire as soone as mended. Thirty pound 
in mony is to much for any you could light on there. I 
neede not send you any power ; for every executor has 

1681.] WAIT WINTHROP. 423 

power to sue in the absence of the rest, for himselfe and 
other executers conserned. I did soe at the court at 
Ipswich in M r Paines case without scruple from the court, 
useing the forme aboues* Yesterday Capt? Ting told 
me that he met M r Ashby the other day at Rowlye, 
who told him he intended within a fortnight to goe to 
the southward. I doubt it will be to late to stop him 
if he has procured a passage. I beliue he will not do 
much wors then we always thought; for if it be not 
convenient to let him haue that farme, I beleve he may 
be contented with some other little place for a small 
matter. You know he spoke of about forty acres for 
himselfe. One of my neighbours sayes the woman is an 
extraordinary droug, tho of no grate capacity. I send you 
a stick of the best wax I could get. Not els but that 
I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Boston, August 30^, 1681. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Decembr 19th, 1681. 

Deare Brother, — I haue received yours of the 28 th of 
Novemb r , and am glad to heare that we are like to se you 
here so soone. This opertunity is sudaine, so I can but just 
tell you that Foy and Geners are arived from England. 
Had about six weekes passages. Foy brought M r Radolph 
his new wife and fower daughters, with a comission under 
the broad seale for custom master (I suppose), and a letter 
to the country to enforce the execution of his office. He 
sayes the Duke is in Scotland. The Duke of Monmouth 
Hues, but as a private gent. The Lrd Culpepper intends 
for Virginia. S r Edmond Andross troubled with vexa- 


tious suites which com to nothing. M r Russell Hues 
with his lady at the parke at Woburne. M r Dier set at 
liberty. Capt n Nicols gon to Scotland to the Duke. All 
at peace. No Parliament nor like to be. Shaftsbury and 
Lrd Howard of Escrit in the Tower still. A joyner executd 
for being of the plot with them ; the wittnesses those that 
hanged the Jesuites and the rest for the others plott. I 
spoke but now with M r Candy, who came Foyes mate. 
Orders are coming about the Narroganset by the next 
ships. Not els but that we are all in competent helth 
(God be thanked). I am 

Your owne 

W. Winthrop. 

M r Clark desires Ned Hall would write a letter to his 
friends in Irland, he being bound thither againe within 
a month. 

For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By M r Richardson. 

Deare Brother, — Presently after you went henc my 
father Broune grew so ill that thay sent for us, where 
we haue bin almost ever since. I came yesterday from 
thence, and he is geting up againe. I left my wife and 
little boy there, but hope to haue them home next weeke. 
I haue not heard from you since you went away. Heare 
are severall ships out of England, and more coming. No 
newes, but all peice, besides what M r Wharton has writt. 
Great inundations in the Low Countryes ; fower score 
townes and villages, with most of the inhabitants, drowned. 
M r Richardson is in hast ; so must only tell you that I am 
Your affectionate brother, 

Boston, May 10«*, 1682. W. WlNTHROP. 

All freinds well. 

1682.] WAIT WINTHKOP. 425 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, June 15th, 1682. 

Deare Brother, — I knew not of this opertunitye till 
just M r Haker left word he was to goe to N. London and 
to set out this night, it being now nine o'clock ; so have 
sent this short script to let you know our health, and y* I 
intend to send those things you wrote for by M r More of 
Long Island, who is heare in a smale sloop, and intends to 
put in at N. London, by whome shall write more large; 
and so bid you now good night. 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

S r Edmond is coming againe to N. York. M r Richards 
and M r Dudlye went about a fortnight since for England. 
Pray send me some jade or other. If he proue good for 
nothing, I can send him off. 

Just as I was sending this away I had yours by Major 
Palmes, and shall indeavour to comply in all perticulars. 
M r Walker is gon to the eastward, but shall speak with 
his wife about what you write. 


For Major Winthrop, at New London, these. By M r Wheller. 

Deare Brother, — M r Wheler is a little too quick for 
me, and M r Eliot too, who has not quite finished your 
suite, so that I feare twill be left behind. I could not se 
James Avery, nor heard any thing of the convenience of 
the port mantle till accidentally I saw him in takeing 
hors at M r Breadens, and since I began to write the boy 
tells me from M r Eliot that he shall not finish till to-mor- 



row, so must send them by M r Ashbyes sonn if he can 
carry them, unless Mores sloop should stay till morning. 
I haue sent by M r More of Long Island the inclossed per- 
ticulars. M r Whelers bro. stayes till I write this, therfore 
must haue done. M r Palmes went to Concord last weeke 
and is not yet returned. Yours, 

W. Winthrop. 

Boston, June 26th, 1682. 

Shiped on bord M r More — 

One quarter caske white wine X 

One runlet vinegar X 

One hh d tobacko X 

One bagg nailes, q* 4000 lath, 2000 clabord, 1000 bord X 

One peice red cotton, q* 67 vrds X 

One bed tick long enough for boulster to it, £& thred in it X 

One little bagg with peper and 1 grose corkes in it X 

Your bootes and shoose and hat, and map of London X 

Carter has sold your punch bowle, and Meres has not 
made your hat. More by the next. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, July 7**, 1682. 

Deare Brother, — I wrote in hast by little Wheler, 
and am now in almost as much hast. I haue sent your 
suite by Major Palmes, but know not whether M r Eliote 
has followed your direction about it. The stufe was the 
most fashionable y t could be got. T* which is most in 
weare is a drugett, but here is not a peice in towne. I 
forgot to tell you in my last y l M r Walker is not at home; 
but his wife thinkes tis the best way to make what you 
can of it there, and sed M r Walker word when he comes 
from the eastward. M r Ravenscroft said he would write 
to you to make use of the soape if it would do you any 

1682.] WAIT WINTHROP. 427 

seruis, but it may be [he] may expect somthing for it. I 
feare black Tom will do but little seruis. He used to 
make a show of hanging himselfe before folkes, but I 
beleive he is not very nimble about it when he is alone. 
Tis good to haue an eye to him, and if you think it not 
worth while to keep him, eyther sell him or send him to 
Virginia or the West Indies before winter. He can do 
somthing as a smith. If you could procure two or 4 
prety larg horses well matched for a coach, either black 
or bay, I cold haue ten or twelve pounds apeice without 
faile. Tom Smith has order from Barbados to buy som, 
and desired me to write. If thay com within six weekes 
it may do. Thay ought to be under eight years. I am 
going tomorrow (unles this night should alter my mind) 
towards Elsabethes Island, it being profered to me as an 
extraordinary thing at the prise w ch I haue agreed for 
if I like it when I shall see it. I haue your old uncles 
aduise and assistance in it, he haueing a fancy to Mun- 
hans in his old age ; however, I shall not trouble myselfe, 
but rest contented with the losse of my jorney if I shall 
not find it to be very considerable, which som do report 
it to be at fiue hundred pounds. Tis said to be about 7 
or 8 miles long, and nere two miles wide generally, and 
most of it good land, tho somthing unsubdued* M r Blake 
goes with me. I haue put some rubila, halfe ground, and 
niter in the pockets of the briches, and all the black 
salve I had. Black powder or cordialls I haue none 
redy, but shall make som at my returne and send. Not 
els but that I am 

Your affectionate bro. ? 

W. Winthrop. 

There is also som gazetts in the pocket. 

* Since known as Nashaun, one of the Elizabeth Islands, near Martha's Vineyard, and 
long the property of the Bowdoin family. — Eds. 



Boston, Sept**. 16th, 1682. 

Deare Brother, — I rec d yours by M r Cristophers, and 
severall others formerly ; but my being out of towne has 
prevented me from any opertunity of sending an answare, 
and we are but now com home. I haue lookt back into 
your letters and find little unanswered except that about 
oure deare mother. I know not what to write about 
it more then the day of the month, except I wear with 
you to advise. She died the first day of December, being 
the Saboth day in the evening. I would faine giue you 
a visit before winter if I could ; but know not whether I 
shall be able, unless I should goe to Marthas Vineyard, 
and so mete with a passage from there. I haue pur- 
chased Elsabeths Island, but know not whether it will be 
for the best, it being a very rugged place ; but old Marcus 
Antonius, being stayed from his jorny, payes for it, and 
so twill be all one. It may be worth som thing in time ; 
when I se you shall giue you my thoughts about it. I 
feare M r Cristop rs is mounted by this time, and I may 
loose the passage of this, therfore must brake off. There 
are severall little perticulars in your last letters, as knife 
and fork, penknife, powder, shot, hounds, gun, purle and 
pins for my neice, which, if my credit will strayne to, I 
shall send. Cape cloath is not to be had ; if it weare, tis 
as deare as good kersy. I hope Sorrell may be able to 
carry me. I haue not yet bin on his back. Capt. Jones 
has him now to Salem, and I expect him this day. We 
met him on the road with sister Ann. Not els but 

Your owne 


1682.] WAIT WINTHROP. 429 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By M r . Starr. 

Boston, Octobr 2d, 1682. 

Deare Brother, — I am sorry to heare of your indis- 
position, but hope by this time it is over with you. I 
expect M r Mahue in towne every day, and am obliged to 
stay for him, els I would haue endeavored to haue seene 
you with M r Starr. I thought I had sent you a paper of 
rubila and black powder in the breches pocket by M r 
Palmes. I know no better antidote in feavers then the 
black powder, niter, snakeweed, lignum vitse, white cor- 
diall powder, vnicorns horn, all which you know the vse 
of. M r Starr told me he should not goe out of towne till 
tomorrow, and just now he tells me he is going, so that 
I am a little straitned, haveing no ivory beeten, neither 
haue I any pearle ; but if you use shels and oculi can- 
crorum instead of it, it may do as well. Mix snakeweed 
and lig. vitse with niter to take in the morning; mix fower 
graines apeice of corall, oculi cancrorum, and ivory, to be 
taken at any time ; thre or 4 graines of unicornes horn 
mixt with the black powder at night; but remember that 
rubila be taken at the begining of any illness. When I 
had written thus far I received a note from M r Curwin 
that my sister was last night taken with vomit and flux, 
and desires my sister Ann and my selfe to com to her. 
Pray God fitt us for all that may befall us. 

I am your owne Wait Winthrop* 

I think to go to Salem presently. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Deare Brother, — By my last I wrote you of my 
sister Curwins illness. When I went, I found her very 


bad, but she is now prety well againe (I thank God). This 
corns to you by John Morgan, who is just going out of 
towne. M r Badcok came yesterday and brought the 
two last years steeres. He sayes the man demands 20 s in 
mony for wintering them, and he ten for bringing y m . 
The wintering is deare for that place, but it may be he 
might haue more then ordinary trouble with them. Ray- 
ment went away before I could get your amunition abord, 
about thre minits. I thought you might fancy the Ginne 
goates, tho not about the house. Thay breed severall 
times a yeare. I shall send by Mat. Jones vessell next 
weeke. I haue not seene M r Cranfeild, the eastern gov r , 
yet. He put into Salem by bad wether in the lack [torn] 
and went from thence by land. I sent the Kings letter to 
Conecticott by Arthur last week. If I can I intend to se 
you before w T inter, if it be not too late in the yeare. 
Doctor Bradstreet at Jamaica is dead, which I suppose 
the gov 1 " writes to his son there. Cap tn Jones wen[t] away 
about a fortnight since. Not els but that I am 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

I shall want another young beast that is very good. 
If any opertunytye, pray send the hollow peice of iron 
that belongs to the stoue as soone as may be. 

Indorsed, "Oct., 1682." 


For Major John Winthrop, at New London, these. By 31'.' Jones. 

Boston, October 24th 1682. 

Deare Brother, — I send this by Mat. Jones, not 
knowing whether I shall be able to se you this winter, it 
being so late, unless I should meete with him at Marthase 
Vineyard, and with a very faire wind, whether I think 
I shall go tomorrow. My sister Wharton was the last 

1682.] WAIT WlNTHROP. 431 

night brought to bed of a girle, and is in a likely way to 
get up again e. I haue sent by Mat. Jones a little bundle 
wherin is a winter coat for Mary, a peice of purle, and one 
of M r Deerings rasor-mettle pen knifes of 2" 6 d . He saies 
tis good to y e back. There is also two rundlets of powder, 
which I haue tried with a powder tryer ; the bigest is 
very good, but the little one superfine, and by the tryer 
is as strong againe as the other. It cost 3 s W pound here 
and two in England. You must not giue aboue half the 
quantity for a charg. Ther is allso forty pounds of shot, 
duck and goose, in two bags. I could not get a tarpolin ; 
and sheete lead would make the porch biger then the 
house. Capt n Jones had a mind to the sorrel hors, and 
had him ; and the gray hors proues a very jade, and poore 
that I know not what to do with him. I am 

Your owne 


Here was a letter from S r Edmond Andros to M r Tayler. 
He sayes the affairs of N. York not yet settled, but by 
Joles ther is report that the Duke is selling it to Maj r 
Thompson and [tom~\ who haue offered 13,000 fcs for it. 

The great gun I doubt must be new bored before she 
will be good, and then shall send her. Ther is a dousen 
flints in one of the shot bags. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Deare Brother, — When I came home from Marthase 
Vineyard I met with Drugo, and your letter by Thomas 
Avery, and since that another; but Brother Wharton had 
disposed of most part of the steeres to some Jewes bond 
to the West Indies, for theire owne use, at 12 s #> ., which 
I think will proue to better advantage then if I had invited 


the towne to haue made merry with them. For the truth 
is, I find myself as little inclined to mirth of late as you 
seeme to be. I intended, if a fit opertunity had presented, 
to haue seene you, but doubt I shall not be able to come 
this winter, haueing mist of Mathew Jones at the Vine- 
yard. It had bin impossible to have sent one of the 
steeres to Salem, but we haue put up two barrils for them. 
One of the steeres run away at Puncapauge, which I cannot 
heare of; another brake away at Boston, but we haue 
found him againe. I haue endevoured to sute you with 
what you wrote for ; the coate is of the best drab de bury 
in towne. I know not what the serge is for, but tis as 
fine as I could get. Here was only that one snafle of 
note to be had in towne ; the rest are all as you see. 
That one is said to be oiled lether, and is worth two of 
the ordinary ones. The shoose Simson thinks will fit; 
the skin is the best I could get. The gray hors I sent 
to halfes, to Barbados, and hope will fetch a good prise, 
tho he was scars worth twenty shillings here. I know 
not what advise to giue about Tom. I owe more for him 
then he is worth. If he could be sold for thre or fower hun- 
dred bushells of Indian corn, or less, it w r ould help pay for 
him and the rest ; or if you think tis best to send him to 
the West Indyes or Virginia, do as you think good. I be- 
leive he would yeild most at Virginia, for tis said the hur- 
ricano has so routed them at the Leward Islands that they 
haue nothing to pay for what thay purchase, and so trust 
we are to giue it away ; but it might be best for him to 
be in a warm country. I doubt he will not do much ser- 
vise any where. Here is a report from N. York to Road 
Island, and so hither, that S r Edmund Andross is ex- 
pected there very quicklye. Our freinds here are all 
well and salute you. I intend to se you betimes in the 
spring, if it please God. Not els but that I am 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

1682.] WAIT WINTHROP. 433 

I haue been very solisitous to procure som of the wild 
breed of turkeyes for you, but cannot attayne it yet. I 
here there is some at Saybrook and Haddamj at Simon 
Smithes, if you enquire. In the middle of the serge is 
the whisk for Mary. Pray look in a former letter and 
send word how many nayles of each sort weare sent. I 
had them at M r Savages, and his man has forgot how 
many he delivered. 

Indorsed, " Cap* Wait Winthrop, Nov. 24, 1682." 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Mr. Latham. 

Deare Brother, — Yours by M r Latham, with the en- 
closed, came lately to hand. I am glad to se M r A. 
reteynes his respects still for his antient freinds. What 
is left publicke on such occations ought to be to the un- 
derstanding of future times as well as of ourselues. I 
cannot se how the meaning of that notion about the 
Queene will be pickt out by any but those that knew 
she had the honour to be taken notise of by her in 
Holland. Therfore you must consider whether it were not 
better to be left out and written either as you se, or some 
better way, as you shall se cause. The rest may doe in- 
defferently only the word (late) ought to be left out be- 
cause it supposes my father to be first deceased, and this 
will be supposed hereafter to be written at the time of 
my mothers decease, and not so many years after. I 
got M r Savage to put a peice of duffall on bord Pasco 
Foote for you, which hope will come safe. I know not 
the contents of it, but tis a whole peice. Pray mesure 
it and send word how much it holds out. I hope Drugo 
is at home long since. I heaue no newes of the steere 
yet. It is past twelue a clock, therfore must bid you good 
night. I am Your owne Wait Winthrop. 



Tomorrow M rs Randolph is to be buried. Pray forget 
not the number of the nailes. The brick maker is gon 
to the West Indies after his wench, but sayes he will com 
againe next yeare. The enclosed receit M l Savage sent 
me to night. 

Indorsed, " Capt. Wait Winthrop, Dec, 1682." 


Boston, Feb. 5th, l682[-3]. 

Deare Brother, — I wrote you a few hasty lines by 
M r Shrimptons old Ball, but haue not heard from you 
since Drugo went hence, which has bin a long hard time. 
I long to heare from you, but more to see yon, which I 
hope I shall in the spring. Here has bin a generall epi- 
demicall cold, the like hardly knowen, but prety well over 
(God be thanked). Here is little domestick newes more 
then you haue heard. The people at Piscataque begin not 
to like their new gov r so much as thay did formerly. 
M r Randolph is preparing to goe for England, haueing 
rec? an order from the Lords of the Comitte for Forraine 
Plantations so to doe till the affayers of this coloney shall 
be settled there. A few dayes since came in Capt n 
Genner from London, but has bin as long out as Cap ta 
Foy, who came a month or 6 weekes since. Thay bring lit- 
tle newes. What the agents write is not publick till the 
Gen e11 Court sits next weeke. M r Randolphs brother came 
in Genner. Ther is many odd passages in the gazets about 
the French King with all his neighbours ; also about a 
considerable army of 10,000 Protestant malecontents in 
Hungary who haue risen against the Emperor, and haue 
taken grate part of the country into their possession, be- 
ing aided by the Turkes, which puts the Emperor out of 
his ordinary pace at this juncture ; the French King stand- 

1683.] WAIT WLNTHROP. 435 

ing redy to attaque him on the other side. I could not 
procure the gazats to send you. This next sumer will 
certaynely make a considerable chang in the face of 
affaires in Europe. Your nephew John will be in my lapp 
whilst I write this, and presents his duty to you. Tis cer- 
taine S r Edmond dose not come to York. Tis said one 
Coll. Dungon, an Irishman, is expected there every day as 
gover nr (if I mistake not his name). We are all in compe- 
tent health (laus Deo). Sister Ann is at Salem. Pray 
send me word about the navies by the next. By Foy I 
had a letter from Esqr Batten, who desires my core- 
spondence, and to here of M r Ely and his wife, which 
thay haue not don for severall years. Pray enquire of 
their health, and send word, that I may write by the next 
ships. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

M rs Hamon, formerly Willoby, is to be buried tomorrow 
at Charlstowne. 


For Major John Wintkrop, in New London, these. By Mr. Jones. 

Boston, May 18 th, 1683. 

Deare Brother, — I haue much to write, and Mathew 
Jones is come, and tells me he is just going, so that I must 
write little. He stayes till I haue don. My wife was 
brought to bed of a girle on Friday morning last, the 
11 th instant. She and the child are prety well, and little 
John is almost able to giue you a visit. Sister Ann is at 
Salem. M r Curwin has bin ill a long while, and I ques- 
tion whether will ever be well againe. I sent her your 
letter, but haue not bin able to se them at Salem lately, 
haueing hardly bin abroad since I was there nere a month 


since. I was very ill for a while, but am prety well againe 
(I thank God), and hope I may se you when my wife 
gets up againe. M r S. goes every two or thre dayes and 
tires out himselfe and every body els. I belieue she dose 
consider your letter, but he is halfe erased to stay from 
home thus long. I haue put on bord M r Jones a sadle for 
a cart-hors, also 17 yrds of noyles canvis to make ten 
foote square. I could get no lead but what was very 
thick, that would haue wayed severallO^ weight so little 
of it; and tis at this time 30 s theG^, which is almost 
as deare again as it used to be ; therfore send 4 yrds 
more of noyles. I haue alsoe sent you a modicum of 
white wine. I suppose tis as much as you will use while 
tis good, els should haue sent a frW" Our election is as 
formere, only M r Wodbridg and little Fisher aded. No 
newes from England. I know not w T hen Cranfeild will go 
to Narraganset. Not els but that I am 

Your owne 

W. Winthrop. 

Tis a very sickly time here. Mingo has a bad fever, 
and is very ill. I much feare him. I spake to J. Wayte 
to put some potatose on bord for you. Therfore, quere. 

For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Mr. Ashby. 

Deare Brother, — I am makeing som medisinall 
matters, otherwise had set foward yesterday w th James 
Avery; but hope to set out on Munday. My sister has bin 
lookeing out for som thing suitable for the sute you wrote 
for, but cafiot tell what sort of sute you meane. I haue 
not seene her to day, but suppose she has got somthing or 
other that I shall bring with me that I hope will please. I 
haue sent by M r Lewin (who sailed yesterday) a peice of 

1683.] WAIT WINTHROP. 437 

duffalls, q fc : 36 yrds; also six yards of red duffalls, with 30 
yrds of fine dowlas wrapt in it. Item, one duz. Indian 
hatchetts, six sythes, a pitcher with pickled limes, which 
my wife sends ; ditto, one Guiny ram, 3 young does, and 
one bigger one, big with young, and two buck rabitts, 
which must be chayned from the does, els thayle spoile 
the young. Tis best to keep them in a rome till they 
be more increased. Thay eat any garden stuff or bran. 
Thay must not haue two much at a time when thay com 

first ashore. 

Your owne W. W. 

I shall look for the papers about Green. 

Indorsed, " Cap* Wait Winthrop, June, 1683." 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Sept. 27, 1683. 

Deare Brother, — I haue rec? yours by M r Simond 
and M r Pukle, and am glad to hear you are able to 
walk abroad againe since you haue bin ill. I pray God 
continue your health, and divert this generall calami- 
tye from his people, which seemes to passe through the 
country. Gods hand has bin out against us, and I haue 
had two or thre ill fitts since I saw you, but I thank 
God am just geting up againe, and it has pleased the all- 
wise God to take from us our little Bette Winthrop, who 
departed the last Munday, to our grate greife ; but his 
will must be done, and I desire to submit, and that the 
Lord would fitt vs all for his good pleasure. I know not 
what better advise to give with respect to the distemper 
then to take rubila at the very begining of it, which must 
needs abate much of the malignity e of it, and so render 
it lesse dangerous, and to procure convenient [fom] by the 
white and black powders in their seasons. If the small 


dos. answares not expectation, it may be doubled without 
danger. Snake root, either Virginia or Conecticutt (I 
mean the comon small Virginia), taken with the white 
powder or alone, the quantitye of six or 8 graines, is 
good against malignity, and provokes sweat [torn]. The 
quantitye of ten or twelve graines with the white pow- 
der is very good. Red or comon sage and hors radish, 
scraped and eaten with bread and butter for those that 
haue strength, is good, or the infution drunk. It may be 
infused in [torn] till tis of good strength. Conserue of 
rue, somtimes taken, is good. If the distemper causes 
thurst, tis good to drink what will sattisfie it, both for 
quantitye and qualitye. About disposeing of the cattle, I 
know not which to aduise, more than you know. There is 
no other market but this, that I know of. If they could 
be sent, thre or 4 or 5 at a time, takeing the opertunity 
of severall drovers, if it could be, it would be best. The 
sooner thay com the better, if fat. When thay com 
late most people are suplyd, and cold and bad pasture 
make them look poorly. My wife has sent you ten 
pounds of currants in a pot, also a modicum of spice. She 
is almost dead with this affliction. Sister Ann is in sorrow 
with us. I herewith send you som snake roote, black pow- 
der, and powder of pearle shells. I gaue an Indian two 
y rds of duffiills for a tame [torn] cock turkey, which, if I can 
get convenience, shall send by M r Cristophers. Tis best 
to keep it in a house till you can send it to the island, 
least it stray away, tho twas very tame among the Indians 
at Puncapaug ; but, not used to the English, it use to 
roost on the tops of the high trese. I w r as loth to let it 
go [torn], because an other time we can get a hen, then 
there is not a cock ; and the cocks, thay say, do not stone 
till two year old, which this will be next spring. If the 
Indians would not kill it, twere best to put it to [torn] 
at the island, and a tame hen with it, if you cannot 
get a wild one. Here is much such news from Europe 

1683.] WAIT WINTHROP. 439 

as the booke told us of which I left with you. Not els 

but that I am 

Your owne 

W. Winthrop. 


In answer to what Edward Randolph, Esq r , presented 
to his Ma ties commissioners for inquires into claimes, &c, 
in behalfe of his Grace, Duke of Hamilton, concerning the 
Narraganset country, it is humbly offered to considera- 
tion, November, 1683 : 

That y e ends aimed at and propounded in the Kings 
charter to the Great Councill of Plymouth, as wee are 
enformed, was propogation of the gospell amongst the 
heathen, & enlargement of his Ma ties empire by planta- 
tion ; and whatsoeuer grants were made by said Councill 
were founded vppon those considerations w ch , being not 
persued, rendereth all grants of land void. Qui sentit 
commodum, in commodum sentire debet et onus. And 
it doth not appeare that his Grace (as other pattentees) 
did transport any person or plant any collony ; nor vsed 
any other meanes, either to instruct the natiues or par- 
chase their right in the lands, or appointed any agent to 
take possession in order to the improouement of the same. 
But tis probable that the Duke, vnderstanding a former 
grant was made to the Lords Say and Brookes, &c, in or 
about the year 1631, and purchased and improoued by 
his Ma ties colony of Conecticot, might divert him from any 
procedure therein. The coppy of said pattent (as wee 
haue been enformed), when exhibited by John Winthrop, 
Esq r , before the King and Councill, the then Lord Chan- 
cellor Hide declared the Lords Say and Brookes title to 
be good and vnquestionable ; and uppon that interest (tis 
presumed it was that Conecticot made their application 
to his Ma fc . y , and that their charter was granted), the Lords 


Say and Brooks and partners (as tis affirmed), haveing 
advanced and expended nyne thousand pounds in settle- 
ment of the lands claimed by his Grace, and had made 
considerable improoument and fortifications vppon the 
said lands in seuerall places, divers yeares before the 
date of the Duke of Hamiltons grant. 

And farther, our present Gracious Soveraigne, since 
his happy restoration, hath by his royall letters mani- 
fested his approbation of the purchase, possession, & im- 
proouement of his loyall subjects the proprietors here, 
and incouraged their laudable endeauours (as his Ma* y is 
gratiously pleased to terme them) for the enlargement of 
his empire, as hath beene formerly declared ; soe that, for 
the defence and establishment of their owne loyall right, 
thay, the said proprietors, haue, after their charge and 
paines to purchase the aforesaid lands of the Indian 
princes (the natiues and vndoubted owners thereof), and 
great disbursements for improouement of the same, beene 
necessarily engaged in a bloody and chargeable warr with 
the Indians in their late rebellion. 

The receiued opinion of those learned in the lawe, 
that non-vse, disvse, and abuse of a charter make it void 
in lawe ; w ch is humbly submitted to consideration, as also 
the Statutes of Limitation. 

We further humbly offred to consideration whether the 
Dukes deed were ever authenticated and confirmed ac- 
cording to the tennor of his Ma ties charter to the said Coun- 
cill of Plymouth. 

In the name and behalfe of our selues and the rest of 
the proprietors. 

Wait Wintiirop. John Saffin. 
Simon Lynde. Samuel Sewall. 

R D Wharton. 

Indorsed, " Answer to what was offerd by Mr. Randolph for Duke Hamil- 
ton." The signatures are autographs. 

1684.] WAIT WINTHROP. 441 


Boston, March lltfr, 168f. 

Deare Brother, — I thought to haue written more at 
larg, not knowing that Major Palmes would moue hom- 
ward this weeke ; but he surprises me this morning by 
instigation of M r Wilson that I haue scarce time to put up 
a few seedes my wife sends you. Sister Endecot has bin 
extreame bad since I wrote last ; but hope is a little bet- 
ter, tho bad enough.* Major Palmes will informe of all 
matters heere. Thay haue mett with litle successe in 
theire negotiation. I beleive M r Herryman may be more 
su table then any will be got heere. I thought he had 
not bin at liberty till now. Here is many hands at this 
instant pursuing a whale between Charlestowne and Cam- 
bridge. What you send will be very welcom ; a little tal- 
low will giue light to the rest. If you desire more rabits, 
I think I can haue the mans whole stock. Not els but 

that I am 

Your owne 

W. Winthrop. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, July 9«», 1684. 

Deare Brother, — I was not returned from Salem 
when M r Avery was here, so had not your letter till long 
after he was gon. I haue bin with M r Eliot to se about 
what you wrot for, but feare we shall not get what you 
will like, and know not of any opertunitye to send it, but 
shall take the first for that and the other things. I haue 
not yet sold the white hors, but hope I shall in a little 

* Elizabeth Winthrop, widow of Rev. Antipas Newman, and, when this letter was 
written, wife of Zerubbabel Endicott, second son of Gov. John Endicott. — Eds. 



while. He has bin at Nodles Island ever since. John 
Ilollon has made a broken voyage, so M r Savage is disa- 
pointed of his butt of brandy this yeare. If you haue any 
thing to send, let it com by the first. Brother Wharton 
is gon to the eastward, and will not be at home this thre 
weekes. Stodder is com from England, but has bin thir- 
teene or 14 weekes out and brings nothing new. Sister 
Endecot is better and has bin about house, but her legs 
much sweld still. I haue thought of going to Tarpolin 
Cove shortly. M r Eliot speakes of giueing what M P 
Pane gaue Mr. Richardson for our interest in that part of 
Boston Neck which the executio was laid on and he 
stand to the hazard of geting it. No more at present but 
that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

I took up the inclosed at the Post Hous. 

Mr. Simons promised to call, but came not at after. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, July 23? , 1684. 

Deare Brother, — I wrote you lately by Stephen 
Richardson, since which I had yours by M r Jones, with the 
things mentioned in his receite, and haue paid him what 
you wrote, also. M r Carter had 12 bush, of Indian and 
6 bush, of rye. The pork and every thing is low at this 
time of the yeare. I haue not yet sold the hors, and the 
flyes keep him from thriveing for want of his tayle. I 
think Hunt will haue him, who, I suppose, would giue 
twenty pounds for Squakhege if he were in good case. M r 
Eliot will fit your sute to send with Foster, who will put 
into N. L. M r Plum can not carry any thing by land. 

1684.] WAIT WINTHROP. 443 

My wife will haue occation to use another sett of matts 
towards the begining of winter if you could procure 
them. Sister Endecot is better. Sister Curwin is in 
towne, and has bin very ill of vomit and flux, but is well 
againe. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate bro., 



For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, September 29«S 1684. 

Deare Brother, — I was in hopes to haue got passage 
from [Elsa]beths Island to N. London by M r [torn] but 
missed of him, tho I stayed [over] a weeke after the time 
he apointed to [torn] call for me at Succonesset, and then 
[retujrned home againe, where I found my [little] boy 
newly taken with a bloody flux, [whic]h is of late a very 
prevalent distemper [in thi]s towne. He was for about a 
weeke [very] bad, but has since bin recovering, and [is 
n]ow (I hope) prety well got over it; for [whi]ch I desire 
to returne thankes to God, and giue him the prayes of his 
mercy and goodnesse to us in that he apeared to answer 
our requests and spared our only son when hope had 
almost failed. Naiie Wharton and Sam. Newman haue 
bin very ill of the same distemper, but are prety well 
ngaine, God be thanked. I rec? your thre letters when 
I came home, but came too late to show my respects to 
your neibours. I perceiue there was no occation for what 
M r Midleton told me ; therfore shall not trouble him with 
an [an]swere at this time. Instead of this lett[er] I 
would haue seene you my selfe, but my [w]ife and sis- 
ter Wharton both are so nere th[eir] time that I am loth 
to be absent but a weeke. If you haue any cattle to send 
downe, I beleiue it may be better to send them before it 
be late if thay are fatt. I wish I [ha]d one for my owne 


use as soone as might [be.] If you se cause to send the 
horses I beleiue it [ma]y be a good season, by that time 
thay can [torn]. Marcus Antonius has bin the grates[t 
st] ranger that ever he was since he used to [torn] me. 
If I could haue com at him [I] would haue perswaded 
him to haue com to [torn] at this time. M r Shrimton 
tells me th[ay] at Y. seemed to wonder we did not mind 
[torn] concerne at Long Island. I wish it could b[e a] 11 
settled. I here there was a grate mortalyty[e a]mongst 
the cattle in Irland the last white [r, a]nd that it may 
be an occation makeing be[afe] a better comoclitye in 
the West Indies then it u[sed] to be. If so, whether it 
would not be best to kill all that are any wayes fit on the 
island and send to the market there, if it would not sell 
well here, and turn the produce into sheepe ; the very woole 
of 300 fc worth of sheep being better then the produce of 
all the cattle, and not a quarter part of the trouble to 
winter them as there is with cattle. I shall in a little 
while haue certayne intelligence from Irland, and shall 
giue you notice. However, you may consider of it and 
giue me your thoughts about it. My wife wants [tw]o or 
thre matts very much. Not els but I am 

Y[ou]r owne 

W. Wint[hr]op. 

My loue to my neice Mary. I think she must haue 
the rest of them here to reimburs her charg and paines. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Mr. Christophers. 

Boston, Octobr 17th, 1684. 
Deare Brotiter, — I rec d yours by the Roxbury man 
just now, and M r Cristophers resolueing to goe out of 
towne presently, can but just let you know we are all 

1684.] WAIT WINTHROP. 445 

well (God be thanked). Sister Wharton has got a boy 
and is almost up againe. My wife holds out yet, els I 
should haue seene you before this. I can get no rent of 
Blany, who I feare will proue a shufleing fellow, which is 
a grate disapointmet to me. I sold the barrill of tallow 
you sent me in the spring to one Shakerley, or such like 
name, who is lately run away towards Rhode Island. If 
you meete with him make him pay for it. His wife sayes 
he carryed about 30 ft in mony with him. Here is M r 
Johnson that lay at M r Crisps from Antegoa againe. I 
haue told him of two or 3 good horses coming downe, 
and he defers buying till thay com; therfore, if you send, 
let them com as soon as may be. Send the cattle to be 
here about a week before the next full moone, els what I 
keep for my selfe will not be halfe so good. If you haue 
any thing els, it will do well. This, I hope, will be the 
hardest year. If M r Cristophers continue delirious, let 
him be let blood in the forehead and let his body be kept 
soluble by loosening things. 

I am your owne 

W. Winthrop. 

Salt beife applyed to the soles of his feete is good; also 
a good dos of rubila, as the case may be circumstanced. 
Send me word what turkes are aliue. Here is two more 
hens to be had; also how the rabitts prosper. I haue 
yet no certayne intelligence from Irland. If nothing be 
wanting but salt I think could send som. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Novembr nth, 1684. 

Deare Brother, — I am hartyly sorry to hear of your 
illness, but am willing to hope by your letter that the 


violence of the painfull fitt might be almost over. I wish 
it wear possible for me to haue seen you at this time. I 
haue sent you what things I could get redy, som fit and 
som unfit, as you will see by their superscriptions. That 
paine might proceed either from gravell in the kidneyes 
or som other obstruction of the ureters. A good dos. of 
0, with about ten graines of oculi cancrorum, might be 
likely to giue ease in such case, being mixed and taken 
together. Daffyes and Bullivants elixers I take to be 
little better then sene and prunes, unless thay be thought 
pleasanter to take. Bullivant told me his was sene, 
rubarb, and som other ordinary purgers, with liquerish, 
aniss seeds, raysons, and som other opening things infused 
in brandy and so distild, and the other I judg to be neer 
the same thing. Here are some of other sorts also that 
are much at one as to their operation. I beleive thay 
may be good in distempers that proceed from to much 
fullness, which all things that doe modarately purge are; 
and in some casses may be better then the diapruna 
aboues d . I haue sold the cattle for about 3 ft 10 s p head ; 
only kept two of the best for my owne use. The West 
India merchant was provided and redy to saile before the 
horses came, and I fear our merchants will not giue so 
much for them. M r Byfeild offers me 30* for them. I 
haue set him at forty, which I doubt he will not com 
up to. If the two paced well, thay would fetch neerer 
fifty ; such is the difference of ordinary jades if thay do 
but pace well. I wonder Sam Avery or John Waterhouse 
haue giuen you no accoumpt of the hors. I haue put 
into Jeffery Cristophers chest a little bundle of fiue yards 
of fine tickin rapt about fiue pair of shoose, those for 
your selfe. Simson charges 12 d extraordinary for a well 
made seer cloth between the soles and apears a little out- 
wardly, which keepes out all moisture, he saves. M r 
Mayhew is here and sayes when he was at York in the 
sumer the Gov' was saying he wondred that neither of us 

1684.] WAIT WHSTHROP. 447 

had bin with him yet. It would do well, I beleiue, if you 
would write to him. I forget whether I wrote you before 
that we haue certayne intelligence that Major Thomson 
and others were purchasing the Dukes interest at York, 
and that it was in a maner concluded; but the next ships, 
which are expected every day, will bring us more cer- 
tayne intelligence about it, and we may know the better 
how to take our measures. M r Randolph writes M r Dud- 
ley that S r Edmund Andross will com Gov r hither. My 
wife is still expecting the good hower. She desires you 
would remember a barrill of samp. Not els but that I 
doe unfainedly desire God to restore and continue your 
health, and that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

I paid Thomas Avery thre pounds wanting one shilling. 
4 s he sayes was for charges. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Novembr 28*>, 1684. 

Deare Brother, — I rec d yours by Sam. Avery, and 
am glad to here you are abrode againe after your last 
illnesse. Before you came John Perry was here from 
Hartford, and M r Davis had got Macarta to make a border 
for Capt. Allin. Notwithstanding, I would haue got a 
wigg, but could not light of any sutable; but it may do as 
well afterward, seing he has a suply for the present. I am 
afraid whether I shall sute you with a good belt by this 
opertunity. I haue hunted all the towne over and can 
find non but sorry narrow ones ; but I here just now of 
one that has two or thre, and haue sent the boy for them. 
If thay suite not I shall get one made as soone as I can 


find good lether and get the goldsmith to make bukles, 
which I could not do now. I haue sold Squakheag to 
M r Foxcoft for twenty pounds ; which, being disapointed 
by Blany, did me som kindness because I could get no 
mony of him. I depended on him for my winters wood 
and som other necessaryes, but was disapointed in every- 
thing and forst to buy, since the hard wether came in, at 
intollerable rates. I haue not sold the other two yet. 
Thay came a weeke to late, but shall haue a market 
quickly, I hope. I was once offered 6 ft 10 s for the least, 
and doubt shall hardly make eight of him. I beleive the 
other may make a good nagg and yeild a better price, if 
I meete with som Barbadose youngster; therfore shall 
not be hasty to sell him without a good sume, tho I keepe 
him all winter. I hear no farther about the purchas of 
N. Y. as yet. M r Smith and M r Brinley are here in 
towne. M r Smith spekes of going to York before spring. 
Frinds are all well. My wife is not yet layd. Not els 
but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

The boy has brought the belt, which is but a narrow, 
tiney thing, not buff. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By M r . Sam 11 . Avery. 

Boston, Novemb* 30, 1684. 

Deare Brother, — Since I wrote the other with the 
gazetts inclosed I haue purchased the belt which accom- 
panyes this for 30 8, It cost 28 in Barbados. The man 
had an other about halfe so good which he kept for his 
owne use, being as narrow again. I got it but the last 
night, being Saturday night, and could not get the rivets 

1684.] WAIT WINTHROP. 449 

repaired from the rust, which was contracted by its long 
voyage, where it has a Htle damnified the leather ; but if 
Sam Avery goe not early to-morrow morning shall get it 
new riveted. The bukles are not plate, but it may serue 
for the present till a better may be got. It is not buff, 
but is, I beleiue, as fashionable. I forgot in my former 
letters (tho I haue severall times thought of it) to desire 
you to let the Indians find som way to thrash the best of 
the hay that is clover at the island to saue the seede. If 
you could find noe use for it there it would make grate 
improuement at Tarpolin Cove, where y r is noe grasse to 
hinder it geting into the old Indian feilds, espetiaily if it 
were sowne with their wheate, which I could cause the 
Indians to doe. It would be easy for the squase, boyes, 
and girls to procure a good quantity of it and cleans it 
well which would be best ; for the clean seed is worth 
halfe a crown or thre shilling the pound, and would sell 
for redy mony, which would be very considerable if there 
be no other use of it, and we could get but two or thre 
hundred wayght of it in a year, which might easily be 
don if every one were injoyned to get a certayne quan- 
tity of it in a yeare. M r Smith tels me he has lately sent 
300 ft of it to York, and gaue thre shillings the pound for 
it for som that sent for it. I wonder we haue not thought 
of a way to saue it all this while, knowing the benefit as 
well as valew of it. If noe better way be found, if a kind 
of smooth place or flower be made by the stack and the 
hay only shaked over it and then gatherd up, a grate 
quantitye might be saved. All that M r Smith got was 
saved after that way. Not els but that I am 

Your owne 


The hors, it seems, was tired, and left at M r Smiths, 
which he would not haue bin by fair play. John Water- 
hous, I doubt, spared his owne to much. 




For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Decemb^ 29«», 1684. 

Deare Brother, — I haue litle news to write. We 
haue had a long and cold winter already. We are all in 
tolerable health (I blesse God). My w T ife is prety well 
got up againe. Your nephew Will m has bin much out of 
order with a cold, but I hope is better. I can get nothing 
of Blany, which dose extreamely disapoint me. I haue at 
last sold the little hors for seven pounds ; the other, I 
hope, will proue well if I can bring him to pace well. 
Edwards and Genner, expected from England, are not yet 
arived. Captn Eps came to day from Salem; sayes all are 
well there, only Capt n Curwin and his wife very ill. Not 
els but that 

I am your owne 

W. Winthrop. 

Pray remember the clover seed. 

Postscript. Here is one from Ireland who seemes to 
be a man of som interest there, and is looking out for 
a plantation for about an hundred familyes. He has bin 
with me about a place at Quinnebaug. Pray send me 
your thoughts about it. I think to incourage him as 
much as may be. He sayes if the goverment would giue 
any incouragement abundance of people would com from 
Wand, but are afrade thay shall not haue liberty e of con- 
sience if thay differ any thing from the people here, tho 
thay are much of the same stamp. Not els but 

Your owne 

W. W. 

Decembb 31th, 1684. 

1684-5.] WAIT WINTHROP. 451 


Boston, Jan. 21st, 168f. 

Deare Brother, — My last to you was by John Perry, 
since which, nor a good while before, I haue not heard 
from you. Quickly after John Perry went away we had 
the newes of Cap tn Curwins death.* He has left no will, 
being taken with a kind of stupidity from the first; so 
that my sisters children will com in for a share, who would 
otherwise haue bin turnd off with nothing, by what can 
be conjectured from his discourses in his lifetime, except 
som smale matter to Georg. But I doubt his estate will 
fall far short of what has bin cried up. On Thurdsday last 
was sevennight arived Capt n Gener from England to Nan- 
taskit; had fiue weekes passage from Plimoth ; brings 
word that this charter was condemned the last terme ; 
that one Collonell Kirke that was Govern!" of Tangere is 
coming Gov r here, som report with six or 7 frigotts and 
5000 men, M r Randolph to be secretary and register, and 
severall gentlemen here to be of the Councill. Foraine 
news I here litle, only the citye of Bud a in Hungaria, 
which the gazetts told us could not hold out aboue 24 
howers the last suiher, has bin releiued by the Turk and 
grate part of the Emperors army destroyed. We haue 
had severe wether ever since November came in. Hun- 
dreds of people go to the castle on the ice, and the snow 
which fell the first of Novemb? still lyes next the ground. 
We are all in health (God be thanked). Not els but 
that I am 

Your owne 

W. Winthrop. 

* Captain George Corwin, or Curwen, one of the founders of the mercantile indus- 
try of Salem, whose eldest son had married Margaret, daughter of Gov. John Winthrop, 
Jr. — Eds. 


Send word whether the hen turkey be aliue, or whether 
there be any at the island. I think here is one more to 
be had if needbe. Pray remember the clover. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, March 30th, 1685. 

Deare Brother, — I thought to haue bin at Narra- 
ganset this weeke with the company, but my sister being 
weake still has prevented me. I am going this weeke 
with the coach to try to get her hither if it be possible. 
If you mete this at Narraganset I hope you will com 
hither. I forget whether I wrote you not long since of 
my agrement with M r Eliot to relinquish our interest to 
M r Paines part of Boston Neck for fifty pounds, which he 
has in part paid to me heere. I promised him you would 
stand to what I agreed with him ; therefore if he desires 
it I hope you will signe to a release of our right and title 
to it. I know it is a smale sum to the value of it, but 
when I se you shall satisfye you about it. I haue paid to 
M r Brenly (who is now here), to whom your obligation 
was assined by the Road Island man for the boat, twenty 
pounds. Not els but that I am 

Your owne W. Winthrop. 

Mat Jones sayes he has kides. I wrote lately by John 
Gager, which hope you haue received. 


For Major John Winthrop, in Neio London, these. 

Boston, June 22*, 1685. 

Deare Brother, — I haue scarce heard from you 
since you went from hence, only M r Shapley tels me 

1685.] WAIT WINTHROP. 453 

you intended to write by him. He sayes you spake of som 
sythes, so I haue by him sent you halfe a dousen. I had 
according to our proposalls to M r S. apointed to be at N. 
London by the 13 th instant; and the night before I intend 
to set out the inclosed came to my hand, which I looke 
on but as an excuse, and that she never desires any such 
conference. She had bin under som usuall indispotition, 
but was better againe and went home in Grover a fort- 
night since, but left Giles behind, I beleiue, under som dis- 
gust that he could not prevaile with her to go to N. Lon- 
don. I thought he would haue bin here againe, but I heare 
nothing of him yet. I know not justly when I shall se 
you, but intend it when I can. All freinds are well. 
Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Gov r Cranfeild is gon in his sloop to Barbados. 

For Major John Winthrop, in New London. 

Deare Brother, — This is in hast by M r Lewin, who 
cals this morning before I am redy. M r Eliot promised 
me to haue the coate don and suite a p r of stokings to it, 
and put them on bord if he be not to quick for him ; if not, 
it will com by M r Prentis. M r Lewin sayes you desire 
more gotes ; so haue sent one. Yesterday came the ship 
in which brought the enclosed. I hope the business is 
over with S., but nothing will serue his turne but knight 
erantry. I am sorry to hear of your ill fit by yours by 
M r Plum. I think I told you of the medice, to put as 
much lime as will ly on the point of a broad knife into a 
quarter of a pint of white wine, and let it stand all night, 
and in the morning take off the skim well and throw it 


away, then power it off clear from the setling and 
drink a good glass of it. I shall write more by Prentis, 
and not now, least this stay behind. 

Your owne W. W. 

Boston, July 28th, 1685. 

I cannot com yet. Poor Sam Eps is dead in London. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Deare Brother, — I can now send you better newes 
then I feared I should haue don the last weeke. My sister 
Curwin was taken about a fortnight since with an extream 
bloody-flux, that we did almost dispaire of her recovery, 
but through Gods goodness is now prety well got over it. 
We are thinking now on our jorney to Salem, and then 
I intend (if God will) to se you. I haue sent fower Flor- 
ence bottles fild with claret by M r Jones ; also a pair of 
Simpsons, and a grayhound puppy. Poore M r Cundy 
dyed the last weeke. M r Molines has not quite finish t 
the skins. The rest when I se you. 

Y r aff. b r , 


Boston, Sept. 1st, 1685. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Novembr 2d, 1685. 

Deare Brother, — The day we left you we got to Jo. 
Stantons by sunset and found him so fast asleep we could 
not speak with him, so left him and got to Bulls before 
thay ware gon to bed. From thence were wet to M r 
Smiths the next day, where we stayed till Fry day and 



had the company of the York men from Cap' Joneses on 
Fryday, and got wet hither on Saturday night and found 
all freinds well, but no more news then when I went from 
hence, no ship haueing com from England since Dole- 
bury. When Joles comes shall send you what news I 
can heare. John Avery is in hast, so cannot enlarg more 
then sutable comendations to M r & M rs Barnard and my 
neece and all other freinds, and that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

If you send a hors or two with the cattle, I beleiue I 
could sell them. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Novembr 9<i h , 1685. 

Deare Brother, — This afternoone I met with Jo. 
Stanton, and had discours about the land by him. He 
sayes two of the old Indians will testifie that the old man 
did alott that neck between y e fort and his land to my father 
for the damage his army did at the island, and he has prom- 
ised to procure their testimonyes ; but I doubt of his per- 
forance unless you can put him forward. I tell him I 
suppose I shall doe his business with the morgage men 
about his farm, which semes to be takeing to him, and I 
beleiue harping on that string may moue him to do what 
he can as soon as any thing. I haue sent you by Adam 
Pickett 300 of bricks and a dousen and halfe of paueing 
tiles for your oven ; also a new spade, and a round one 
which I had by me. I send also by the barer a quarter 
of a pound of nutmegs, an § of mace, an § of cloues, 
and would haue sent the other things, but could not get 
them redy; but shall send them by James Avery when 


he comes, if not sooner. I could haue put off two or 
thre horses well since I came if I had had them. Not 
els but my loue to my neece, and seruis to all freinds, and 
that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

No ship from England. Harris from Antegoa sayes 
M r Willis and Lord coming home. I shall not forget a 
scarfe and thred with the other things. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By John Perrye. 

Novembr 16*>, 1685. 

Deare Brother, — Since my last, here is a ship from 
London, belongs to Major Thomson ; had seven weekes 
passage ; came out in company with Smiths, a ship 
Joles was in, but Joles himselfe died in England. The 
ship not yet arived. Thay bring little newse. What 
there is you will haue from M r Lodowick and M r King. 
We expect more perticular intelligence by the other 
ship, whare most of the letters are. When I can get any 
gazetts, shall send them. We haue got the things you 
wrote for, and if I can get so much roome in John Perry s 
portmantle, shall send them by him. The under coate is 
not made up. They may serue to sit by the fire in when 
tis cold wether. M r Duiiier is willing to giue twelue 
pounds for the old bay stone-hors, if he comes ; but not 
more, unlesse he thinks him worth more when he sees 
him. If I had som ordinary shiping horses within a fort- 
night or thre weeks, could sell them well. M r Carter has 
put the cider mill on bord Foster, who puts into N. Lon- 
don. If it be used for flax, care must be had it catch not 
their fingers that use it. I saw a man of Warwick at 

1685.] WAIT WINTHROP. 457 

Capt? Jones house, as I came along, whoes fingers ware 
jamd and ground to peices with such a mill, by care- 
lessly puting two or thre aples into the teeth of the mill 
with his fingers, which were so big the teeth would not 
take them. I shall send som turning-tooles, I think, by 
this vessell. John Prentis arived yesterday. The ratts 
devoured the lesser watermellon, but the long one came 
safe. The venison is not yet ashore, so we know not in 
what condition it is. Not els but that I am 
Your affectionate brother, 



Boston, Dec. 10*, 1685. 

Deare Brother, — Since my last by Abell More, here 
is nothing new. The enclosed is an invoyce of what I 
send you in a box by M r Prentis. M r Carter sends you 
also som taps and a yard wand, and has put the cider mill 
on bord, and has fitted up the tooles with handles and 
wheting. The hors nayels, I thought, might be useful! 
somtimes when you haue but bungleing smiths. Thay 
cost but six pence the pound, and are made of good iron, 
tho rather of the smalest for winter, but excellent when 
the ice is gon. Thay com in barrills, as other nayles. My 
wife returnes thanks for the cheses and tallow. M r Carter 
had his. The ratts made bold to tast the best. I send 
you an other Gifie goate, that is said to be of the breed 
that brings 4 or 5 at a time. I lost thre or 4 pounds 
because I had not hay to keepe the white hors a week 
longer, and could haue sold fiue or 6 at better rates then 
I had for him, tho thay had bin no better then he. Blany 
is privately broke. I can get nothing of him. I haue 
bin treateing with Brinsdell, that liues by, about the sale 
of the house; but he bids but 400 th for it. I haue set 



him at GOO ; but if could get him to hue, am aduised to 
take it. Pray send your thoughts about it. Houses and 
lands are much fallen here, and I know not what improue- 
ment can be made of it. Your man Ned has bin about 
here for som time, and can get no imployment. He was 
here but now, and sayes he is going with Prentis, and, 
I here, intends to profer his seruis to you againe. Not els 
but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

I heare the Gov r of York intends to visit Martha's 
Vineyard this winter. I wish I could learn the certainty 
of it. It might be of concernment to me to be there. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London. 

Boston, Jan. 12th, 168f . 

Deare Brother, — I reed yours by Cap! n Walker, since 
which haue had no opertunitye of conveyance till now, 
by our cous. Stevens, of Stoneingtown, who has bin heer 
at a good markett with his swine. I knew him not till 
now. He informes me that some of Squamacutt intend 
to set up a saw mill on Pacatuck River, and make use of 
Nenecrafts swamp, which I hope you will endeaver to hin- 
der. I desired your ad nice about the sale of the ware- 
house here, as I remember, but haue not had your thoughts 
about it. Blany is quite blowne, and I can get nothing 
of him, which puts me to greate disapointments. I was 
in hopes to haue had what malt and corn I should haue 
needed for my owne use this winter; but he has left of 
bakeing and malting;, and has nothing left. He owes about 
a hundred pounds for rent, besides wheat and rye I let him 
haue formerly. I hope M r Prentis has delivered you what 

1685-6.] WAIT WINTHROP. 459 

was sent by him. We haue had no news from England a 
long time, but expect severall ships in dayly. By a letter 
from Mount Surratt we haue news that the French king 
is dead. M r Dier intends to see you as he goes to N. York 
in his brigantine. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

My seruis to M r Barnad and his wife, with loue to my 
nece, and seruis to all frinds. I became bound with John 
Prentis for the sum of 14 ft , to free Thomas Dimon out of 
prison, who is to pay so much to M r Stoder and Bromfeild 
the next month. I did it because M r Cristophers should 
not com to damag by his vessell lying here all winter. If 
J. Prentis haue not taken care to get Dimon or M r Cristo- 
phers to pay it, I desire you would moue them in it, that 
I may not come to damage. The best way to take the 
stone gall is to put som of it in wine and let it dissolue, 
and drink a glass of it every day, and still put more wine 
till all be dissolued. 


Boston, March 8% 168|. 

Deare Brother, — This is by John Perry, who sayes 
he spake with you as he came along, but I had no letter. 
Here is little new since my last to you, only Jo. Eldrige, 
who came out in company with Gener from England and 
was blowne off to the Leward Islands, is arived. By him 
came a coppye of the comisio for the Goverment oi 
this Collony, the Prouince of Maine, New Hampsheir, 
and Kings Prouince or Narrogansett country, which was 
taken out of the Chancery and sent to M r Dudly by a 
freind. The originall was on bord the Rose frigatt with 
M r Randolph, and not yet ariued, but expected every 


day. The coiiiission is to M r Dudly, as President till the 
cheife Govern 1 " come, and to the rest named as of Counsell, 
wherof you are one. who are all in the comission strictly 
coiiianded, within twenty days at farthest after notise (all 
excuses and pretences whatsoever layd aside), to assemble 
at the place apointed, and to do all things with respect to 
the Goverment of the forenamed placese as the comis- 
sion largly directs. I haue not bin very well allmost a 
fortnight, but I thank God am something better. All 
freinds are well. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. W. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Capt? Fitch. 

Boston, May 8^, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — After many debates betwene the 
gentlemen here and Capt n Fitch, thay have at last agreed, 
tho unknown to my selfe (not being then with them), that 
Capt n Fitch should pass a deed to M r Stoughton, M r Shrim- 
ton, and my selfe, in behalfe or in trust for the rest (tho 
nothing be mentioned in the deed of the other concerned, 
for reasons you will be made acquainted with), an that 
another deed should be prepared for Owaneco and his 
sonn, together with Cap tn Fitch, to signe, all which are 
don ; and the gentlemen desire yourselfe and Major 
Palms to se the last performed, M r Fitch haueing promised 
to bring the Indians, together with the deed drawn here 
in parchment, to you for that purpose, which being don, 
the thre abouesaid are to pass deeds to the rest of the gen- 
tlemen. I haue caused a generall exception of former 
grants in the deed ; alsoe that Owaneco do relinquish any 
right he may pretend too in any grants from the country 
or others to my father, which Capt n Fitch has promised to 
be instrumental! in ; and being don, haue promised to pay 

1686.] WAIT WINTHROP. 461 

him the sum you wrote of. The things you wrote for to 
my sisters are ready, and want only opertunity of con- 
veyance ; also the yarn will be don. I here just now Math. 
Jones is arived. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

I am glad to hear that stone is com away, and hope 

there is [rest torn off.~\ 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By M r . Tho. Avery. 

Boston, May 13«i, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — The enclosed were to meete the 
justase at the Chang, where he promised to appear ; but 
for fear I should write you what he promised about 
Owanecose signeing a release or disclaimer for any grants 
we had from the countrye or others, he slipt away, haue- 
ing got som of his mony from the rest concerned. He 
seemed to be very complying till the business was don, 
for feare I should put a stop to it ; but afterward told me 
he must stand as a Norridg man against Pocatanuck and 
part of Quinabauge. The gentlemen are all dissatisfied 
with his sneakin away as he did, espetially considering 
thay desired me to write the inclosed in his hearing. Tis 
best when you se him to decline doing anything about 
what is mentiod in the enclosed, unless Owaneco do 
resigne all rights and title as afore sd ; neither to let him 
know, till you speake with the gentlemen, whether you 
will hold a part or not, which I beleiue he will urg you to. 
It is not now in his power, the gentlemen haueing con- 
cluded of their partners; and deeds are to be signed from 
the thre mentioned to him as a partner, as well as to 
them. If Major Palmes do leaue him in the dark likewise 
about his part, it can do damage to him till he speak 


with the gentlemen, but may make him know himselfe a 
little better ; for ther is no doing with him since M r Stod- 
der has furnished him with his plush cape and M r Dumer 
with his signett. Our election is over; M r Dudly left 
out, and M r Stougton allmost ; one Smith of Hingham and 
M r Addington put in. No newes from England. Not els 
but that I am Yours, 


Here is one or two more taken with the small pox. 
The things will com with Mathew Jones next weeke. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, July 13*>, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — I was glad to heare by M r Wheler 
of your safe arivall at N. London, and that my sisters 
were able to hold out so long a jurney in the heat of the 
wether. The childre went long since with M r Soutmead, 
and I hope are all safe arived with you before now, by 
whom also I sent you a frfr 4 of white wine and a quarter 
cask of the best Madera I could get in towne. I hope 
the hii* is good. I never tasted it. M r Shrimton and 
Wesendunk promised me it should be of the best. The 
salt was all sold and landed before I knew of it, and M r 
Glover and Mumford, that bought it, will not part with 
any of it under half as much more as thay gaue for it, 
besides the trouble of fetching it where it lyes ; therfore 
must omit it at present. Black James has played the kn — 
in that business. He promised his brother Awan. should 
signe a release for all grants from the country or others 
that he might pretend right too, but what is written on 
the back of the deed is not altogether so much as was 
contayned in it before. However, because you think it 

1686.] WAIT WINTHROP. 463 

convenient, I do reserue ten pounds for him. The Meri- 
mack comp., that haue purchased lands on that river 
(most of them being the same that deale with James), 
sent for England to procure a patent, but haue advice 
that it will be as good and a farr cheaper way to get a 
confirmation from the Councill here, which they haue 
yesterday obtayned. If I had the deeds about the lead 
mines, or rather attested coppies fayerly written, I would 
indeavor to procure a confirmation of them. If thay could 
be recorded (if it weare but in the towne records), it 
might be som advantage to say thay are recorded. If 
you send copies, let it be as soone as may be, and drawne 
in hansom forme crose the paper. There is one or two 
little script of deeds taken by M r Day and others. If thay 
weare first drawn, and, som little distance under, the other 
in theire order, one sheete of paper would contayne them 
all. Tom Kellon died yesterday. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

Sutable remembrancess to all freinds. Do not send my 
hors yet : here is neither grass nor hay to be had. 

Postsc. My wife desires you would furnish her with an 
other set of matts against the coole weather comes, when 
she thinks she shall haue occation for them. If a sett are 
not to be had, two or thre may help to eke out the old 
ones ; also one short flagg mat to lay before the hearth 
would preserue the other from wearing. Georg Curwin 
came the last night, and is well. 

July 19<fc 


For Major John Winthrop, in Neiv London, these. 

Boston, August 25, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — This is only to let you know that 
after a hott jorney we got home on Fryday night, and 


on Satterday night ariued Balston, and another ship 
from London, and by severall letters we haue the advice 
that S r Edmond Andross had a coihission for Gov er of this 
and adjacent placese. Secretary Pepiss writes M r Ran- 
dolph y fc the Lords did hasten him because he should 
touch at Barmudas to settle the Goverment there, many 
complaints haueing bin made against that Governer. He 
comes in the Kings Fisher, a frigat of fifty guns, and was 
to sayle in a month or six weekes after. Will Wharton 
writes his father that he read the coihission, and it differs 
not much from that which is here already, the same 
councill, Pemaquid and Plimoth added, and Gov r Hinkley 
aded to the councill. The procedure against Conecticutt 
and Rode Island to be this next terme. Quo warantose 
out against Pensillvania, East and West Jarsey, Caro- 
lina, &c. We are all in helth (God be thanked), only my 
father Brown lately bin ill. I was yesterday there to se 
him. He is not yet well, but very crasy. I think to 
carry my wife and children next weeke. Not els but 
affectionate loue to your selfe and my sisters and cousins, 

and that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

It will be best to be prepared to be here at the first 
notice after S r Edmond comes. George Curwin was well 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Mr. 


Boston. Septb* 1»*, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — I wrote not long since by Mathew 
Jones and gaue you all the intelligence I had; since 
which here is nothing stiring worth your notice. Here 

1686.] WAIT WINTHROP. 465 

has bin one Allin with me severall times, haueing heard 
of the Island and Paquahett, and is very desireous to hire 
a good place. He came over by perswation of Maj? 
Thomson to settle in the Nipmoug country, but likes it 
not. Has likewise bin at the eastward with the same 
suckcese, and now is willing to see the southern parts. 
He seems to be curious about land, and thinks he has 
seen none good in the country yet, because it differs from 
the English soile. He intends to goe up the latter end 
of the weeke with M r Raymond by water, in hopes he 
shall agree with you. He would haue agreed with me 
for a certainty about the farme, but haue wholy refered 
him to yourselfe. He profered to take what stock should 
be put on it for a third part of the increase to himselfe ; 
and allowing us halfe the corn, butter, and chese he 
should raise, or otherwise at a certayne rent, which I told 
him could not be under lOO 1133 W anum if well stockt and 
fitted. He has som mony by him and possibly may doe 
well, being used to husbandry, tho originally he was a 
brickmaker. I haue had a good caracter of him by 
Major Thomsons factor. We intended tomorrow for 
Salem, but Johne was taken last night with a feaverish 
distemper and continues ill, so that I doubt we shall not 
goe yet. Not els but affectionate loue to all yourselves. 

Wait Winthrop. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Saturday, Sept. U*\ 1686. 

Dear Brother, — I came yesterday from Salem, 
where left my wife and children, and am going this after- 
noon againe, and hope we shall all be at home the end of 
next week. If you send any horses I beleiue here will 
be a market for them spedyly. I shall want a fat beast 



for my own use also when we com to town againe. I 
had a letter from S r James Russell of Nevis by the leif tn 
of the Dartmouth frigat, who sayes he has orders for a 
good paceing hors for S r James his lady. If 3011 know 
of such an one send word. I doubt whether my hors 
may not be too old. Not els but affectionate loue to you 
all. I am 

Your affectionate brother, 


Sister Endicot was well when I left her last Wedens- 
day. Here has bin a blaseing starr sene about day brake 
between the east and northeast, but I beleiue may 
quickly be seen to the westward in the evening. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By M r Sam 11 

Boston, Sep* 28th, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — I had yours by my sisters on Sat- 
turday night last, and was glad to see them and hear of 
your welfare. I haue little more to write then what I 
lately sent. I desire you would seriously consider what 
may be the likeliest way to preserue the cretures at the 
island. The season for the after spring is far spent, which 
was all the hopes of releife could be thought on there ; 
so that there semes no rationall way to preserue any of 
them of any sort unless most of them may be kild if 
but tollerable meat, or transported, or both. Those on 
the farme tis probable may be better beife then the 
other. If all that are any ways fitt of them were kild, it 
would make room for more to be brought from the island ; 
also a number might be sent from the island to Tarpolin 
Cove, wher som hundreds of them would be kept aliue all 

1686.] WAIT WINTHROP. 467 

winter very well, and would be neerer a market the next 
year. I haue discoursed with som who say we might hire 
a vessell for six or seven pounds a month would carry 
halfe a hundred at a time or more, or thay would 
carry them for hue or six shill. w head, which would 
doubtless be better then to let them starue ; but what 
may be resolued on of that nature must be don before 
winter com on. The grate gotes also would Hue well 
there, which must needs perish where thay are, there being 
no sort of house. I do but offer my judgment about it, 
being more aprehensiue, it may be, of the danger then 
need ; but you will better judge, being on the place. But 
without doubt so many cretures cannot liue with almost 
nothing six or seven months. Here are many West In- 
dians. I could sell horses enough if I had them. M r 
Morgan gaue sixteen pound for a jade far inferiour to 
mine. I think to dispose of mine. M r Bulkly was sent to 
to keep the court at Narraganset, as being unconserned ; 
but we here nothing from him yet. M r Wharton went 
this morning with severall others, accompanied with som 
French Protestants, to M r Smith, to se if they liked any 
place there for a number of familyes. Not els but that 
I am 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

My seruis to all freinds. Georg Currin says the pipe of 
wine was for M r Plum. Hannah Curwins trunck was put 
on bord Mathe Jones. All freinds are well. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Cous. Gallup. 

Boston, November 19 th , 1686. 

Dear Brother, — I haue yours by Cousin Gallup, and 
wonder you haue not had mine by John Morgan some 


time since, wherin, if I forget not, I mentioned somthing 
about sending down the cattle. The market, I doubt, 
\;ill not be altogether so good as formerly, yet I hope 
to make between 50 s and 3 lb apeice if thay are such as 
formerly use to come. I hoped by your letter thay 
would haue bin here yesterday or today, but suppose 
may se them tomorrow ; if so, I hope to meete with a 
prety good market for the horses, som here haueing 
deferecl buying till thay come. The newes from England 
of eight weekes sayes that S r Edmond intended to be 
here as soone if not before them. I had one Gazett to 
send you, and lost it last night. The principall newes in 
it was that Bud ay was taken, with the mailer of it, and 
that the King had rec d an adresse from Rode Island sig- 
nifying their Gen. Court's submission of them selues and 
charter to his Maj ts pleasure, which his Maj te saw cause to 
accept, and tis s d to be annexed to this place. I fear my 
sisters will haue a cold time to return. I shall not be 
able to accompany them, my wife being not yet layd, 
which I would doe were she up againe ; but shall lend all 
the assistance I can when thay goe. If S r Edmond come 
you must come down hither. I still think it best to kill 
and put off all cattle that are any way fitt. Not else but 

that I am 

Your owne Wait Wintiirop. 

M r Raynsford has lost his sloop at Seconet, but men all 


For Major John Winthrop, in Neio London, these. 

Boston, Novembr 24th, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — I haue rec d yours, with the cattle 
and horses, but shall loose twenty pounds at least in the 
whole, because thay came not a fortnight since, besides 

1686.] wait whnthkop. 469 

truckin them away as I can, which will not answare the 
end to pay M r S. 4 or 5 I haue truckt away ; the rest are 
killig, and know not what thay will yeild as yet. I doubt 
but little, being very thin meate. The island hors has 
doub[t]lesse bin surfited, and is very tender of his feete. 
Here was some gen* stayd from buying till thay came 
downe, but thay expected better. But I hope to get them 
off. My sisters are not ready for their jorney yet. M r 
Smith will be here quickly, which may be a good oper- 
tunitye of company for them as far as his house when he 
returnes, unless som convenient opertunity present before. 
Here is no more newes since my last by Cous. Gallup. 
Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

I send you a p r of English shoose, which I beleiue are 
bigg enough if thay can be streched a litle in the instep 
or els opened where thay close in the quarter. Thay 
seem to be very good. I could not get a p r made, and 
got them for myselfe, but are much to bigg. Here are 
no good bits in town; this I had by me. I am sending to 
Barsk to se for collers, hopeing to let him haue a quarter 
or two. The butcher would bid but 35 s pr head one with 
another. The buttons haue been forgot ever since I 
wrote about them. 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. By Mr Badcock. 

Boston, Decern*)*; 13th, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — I haue bin very ill nere a fortnight, 
but thank God am prety well again, and made a shift to 
get [out] yesterday in the afternoon to meeting, so that T 
[haue] not heard of any opertunity to write to you of 


[torn'] My wife was brought to bed the 26 th of Novemb r 
Your neece Anna salutes you. My being ill has [kept] 
me from tlisposeing of the horses as yet, bat think [torn! 
chapmen for them in a day or two if I can get [out] On 
Saturday night Clutterbuck arived from E[ngland] and 
had eight w r eekes passage. He sayes S r Eclm[ond] An- 
dros came out in the King Fisher a fort[night] before, 
accompanied w r ith my neibour Legg (who [had] sorn of 
his goods on bord) and Welsted in the ship that Tom 
Smith use to go in, so that we [expect] them in every 
hower ; therfore it must needs be best that you be here 
laying aside all difficultyes, the greatest of which you will 
find a way to help. If you come, you cauot be here too 
soone; for thay will be here before you, in all likelihood. 
My sisters intended their jorney with M r Smith, who is 
now here, but now intend to stay till you come. Not 
els but loue and seruis to all freinds, and that I am, 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Here is no snow yet that covers the ground. The 
intellegence aboue failes to be as was related, but M r 
Clutterbuck sayes M r Legg came out with him in com- 
pany 300 leagues, and the Fishers pinnace came on bord 
Legg to informe him thay intended to sayle that tide, but 
did not while thay wear in sight. The wind that brought 
them out lasted but a while, but within thre dayes thay 
mett with a wind that brought them 300 leagues, and 
conclude the frigatte came out with it. I beleiue thay 
will not be very long absent. I haue not spoke with 
Clutterbuck myselfe, but write what was reported at 
meeting ; but M r Wharton has since spoke with him, and 
has the account I now giue you, so I sent for my letter 
from Col wells to write this. 

W. Winthrop. 

1687.] WAIT WlNTHROP. 471 


For Major John Winthrop, in New London, these. 

Boston, Decembr 20*, 1686. 

Deare Brother, — Yesterday morning, being Saboth- 
day, S r Edmond Andros arived at Nantasket. We ware 
some of us downe in the afternoone to know his coihands, 
and are prepareing to receiue his Excellency in as sutable 
mailer as may be. He inquired for you as soon as I came 
on bord, and sayes you must come, being of the Councill. 
I told him I expected you this week ; therfore hope if this 
finds you not on the roade you will make all the hast 
you can after you receiue this. He intends to be here 
about noone this day. Thay haue had nine weeks pas- 
sage. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 


Here is ten pounds in mony for you as soon as you 
com, which I shall giue you a farther accompt of. One of 
Goodman Bomsteds children is taken with the small pox 
over against us. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, Aprill 26*, 1687. 

Deare Brother, — I am desired by M r Nelson to 
recoihend to your advice and assistance Mon s . r Villaboone, 
who accompanyes this in his passage to New York, who 
is a gentleman of repute with the Gov r at the eastward, 
and sent, as I understand, by the Earle at Kebeck on 


business of importance to the Gov r at New York, and I 
know cannot want all the assistance you can afford him. 
Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

I shall write by M r Weheler, w'o goes in company with 
this or the day after. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in Neio London, these. By Mr Wheler. 

Boston, Aprill 28th, 1687. 

Deare Brother, — I rec d yours by M r Wheler this 
morning, and wonder you had not mine by young Chese- 
brooke, who went hence a good while since, and promised 
a specly conveyance for my letter, wherein was enclosed 
some black powder. I shall send a little more by M r 
Wheler, if not with this. Here is a little more newes 
then when you left us. M r Dudley and Stoughton are 
made judges and are now sitting. The last Saturday 
being St. Georges and Coronation day, we had this regi- 
ment in the feild, whear our new officers had opertunity 
to shew their skill in those affaires. M r Nelson desires 
my recomendation of Mons r Villaboone to your assistance 
and advice in his jorney to New York, but how you will 
convers with him I know not, for he speakes little English. 
His designe is to get from N. London to Long Island and 
so to York ; but if a faire opertunity present not twill be 
best for him to goe along shore if you can help or advise 
him to a pilate. He is going, as is said, to demand satis- 
faction for the wines which M r Palmes and West seased 
the last suiTier beyond Pemaquid, which will not be very 
gratefull to Coll. Dungan, as I think; therfore twill not be 
best for you to write to him by him, least it be distaste 
full. He stayes no longer at York then to deliver his mes> 

1687.] WAIT WINTHROP. 473 

sage, which is from the Earle at Canada, as is said. He 
is in quality of Deputy Gov r at St. Johns or Port Royall. 
What is aboue I wrote to send by Mons r , who was to be 
gon yesterday morning, not knowing Wheler would go 
so soone ; but on second thoughts I wrote the other, which 
suppose he will deliver to you, and kept this for Wheler. 
You mention a mesure for the shoose, but sent none. I 
shall send a paire by the first conveyance. What you 
send by M r Cirwin will be welcome. We are all in helth 
yet, God be thanked, tho the small pox is still in some 
familyes. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

My loue and respects to all freinds. Pray tell M r Cris- 
tophers that I hope he will take order with M r Stodder 
and Broomfeild about M r Dimons business, which I engaged. 
in meerly to serue M r Cristophers. M r Broomfeild told me 
the other day that no order was taken about it. I under- 
stood M r Christophers when he was here last that he had 
taken order about it. I hope he will not se me suffer for 
my good will. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. By Cap tn Pembleton. 

Boston, June 13th, 1687. 

Deare Brother, — This is in hast by Cap tn Pembleton, 
to let you know that I found all freinds here in health, 
and hope my sister is got abroad by this time, and that 
you are all going on a strawberry bout to Nahantick, 
where there is very good creame to mix with them. The 
cap*" goes sudainely, being quite routed at present by 
Squamacutt men, so that I shall hardly perswade him to 
stay till I can get those things for M r Christopher ; but I 



heare John Strang is here and bound thither quickly, so 
shall send them by him if the cap tn will not carry them, 
which pray let them know. I shall be in a great strait 
if I cannot procure som cattle to be sent, som way or 
other, to the island. It will be more discredit then the 
cattle are worth (haueing promised), the noyse that w T ill 
be made about it if it should not be don. If any should 
be sent thay must be droue very slowly, and if ther were 
a pair of steeres that haue bin a litle broke it would be 
best, because thay will be fit to plow for winter wheat at 
the latter end of suiher; but if there should be too much 
difficulty in geting it don, send word quicly, and I must 
indeavour to procure som neerer at hand. Not els but 
that I am 

Your affectionate brother, W. W. 

My seruis to Maj r Palmes and his lady and all the rest. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, June 24«s 1687. 

Deare Brother, — I missed the opertunitye of write- 
ing by Sam. Avery because could not speake with him 
till he was just going. I sent by him two bottles, two 
pound of currants, one of figgs and one of primes for 
M r Cristophers, but had not time to write to him. I find 
you left papers about the lead mines and a coppy of 
Nenecunnaks grant at Pacatuck, but said nothing what 
may be done about them. The Squamacutt men are 
striueing to get patents to the disturbanc of the antient 
grants there. A word or two from you might put a block 
in their way. The man that lines at the ware promised 
to hold possession for us as I came by ; but there is no trust 
to any of them. If you could make him signe to indent- 

1687.] WAIT WINTHROP. 475 

ures it would fasten him. If you doe not make some 
pretentions, at least for the present, about that at Nineg. 
Fort, we shall loose our advantage and one or other will 
be puting in for it. Here is no news. M r Wharton will 
saile the begining of the weeke. If you write to the 
Gov r , you might do M r Noyse a kindnesse to recommend 
him to his Excellency with respect to his far me, which 
the Rode Islanders endeavour to disturb him in. Sam 
Avery had a black paceing hors which he would haue 
sold here for eight pounds, which, if I mistake not, will 
proue an excellent seruiceable gelding if his pace be 
easy. If you could truck for him for cattle either for 
your owne use or mine (haueing sold my old hors two 
days since), I could haue nere twise that mony for him, I 
beleive, if he be in case. He is strong made and young. 
I did not ride him, but only se him goe. He was but bare 
when here. M r Darby, who went to New York, is re- 
turned by water to Rode Island and so hither, and desires 
his hors at Paquonak might be sent by the first oper- 
tunity, and he will pay what charg may be upon him. 
Pray take the first opertunity to convey him. If you 
giue Tho. Avery order, he may take the first. Not els but 
loue to all freinds, and that I am, 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

Pray se the black hors. I know you will like him. 
Sam Av. need not know I write about him. He has 
white eyes, which is the gratest blemish in him, but a 
sine of a good hors. 


For John Winthrop* Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, July 27*, 1687. 

Deare Brother, — I haue met with no opertunity to 
send to you since yours came to hand which gaue me 


notise of your illness, which is almost a month since. I 
heard of one Cleasby after he was gon, and som body of 
Stoneington; but no body has the maners to com nere me 
unless I mete with them accidentally. I haue wayted 
a long time for this opertunity by M r Forsdick, w T ho has 
bin going aboue a weeke, which was the reason I wrote 
not by M r Southmead, by whom I sent you a little spice 
and a bottle of elixer. Paper I forgot till I looked over 
your letter againe, and the brandy could not get ready, 
but shall send both by M r Cirwin or M r Plumb. I am glad 
to hear by severall wayes since I had your letter that 
you are pretty well againe. M r Plumb tells me of a 
medicine for the stone. Pray inquire of him. It is of 
kin to that which I told you about lime and white wine, 
which I haue a greate conceite of, if it be well assaide. I 
am going to Wenham quickly, and shall fully inquire 
about that medicine you wrote of. We expect my Lady 
Andros every day. We heard by way of Barbados she 
was to set out in Balston about seven weekes since. I 
informed the Govern 1 " aboute the surveyer at the fort 
and of our interests there. He sayes he had no order to 
run any town bounds. M r Wharton and M rs Vsher went 
hence in Harris his ship tomorrow will be a fortnight. 
Your letter by the k nt arrant and the ladyes came under 
the inclosed seale. Tis well there was no secret in it. I 
suppose thay had bin peeping. We are going to carry 
the children to Salem this weeke or next. M r Thomas, 
Major Thomsons father, keepes house with Sister Whar- 
ton in his absence, and lookes after his concernes. I haue 
not els but loue to all your selues, and that I am 

Your affectionate brother, Wait Winthrop. 

I know not wether you minded Averyes hors I wrote 
about. The wash leather is don. I wish you could get 
more goat skins. If you would haue them sent, send 

1687.] WAIT WINTHROP. 477 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Salem, Munday, Sep<jp 12th, 1687. 

Deare Brother, — This morning before I was up was 
surprised with the ill newes you sent me, which is the 
more agravated to me because I cannot come to see you, 
haueing bin very ill myselfe since I came to Salem, and 
am not now well enough to undertake such a jorney, nor 
so much as to get to Boston, it being very rainy, cold 
wether ; so that I can only send you such things as I haue 
here by me, and write to Sister Wharton to get those 
things I haue not. We haue bin here upward of a month, 
and intend on Wedensday to get home with M r Graften, 
if God please, and hope to se you as soone as may be 
afterwards. In the meane time shall pray for all your 
healths and hope the best. As to the distemper, it must 
needs be best to take rubila as soone as taken, and if it 
be taken before hand for prevention it may do well ; and 
if afterward any be taken, thay may take rubila againe 
as soone as taken. The white cordialls, white and black 
powders with tartar you know the use of; only if the 
distemper be violent it wear best to giue them in a little 
biger proportion then ordinary. The paper of lignum 
collubrinum must be beaten fine and taken about ten or 
12 graines at a time a litle before the fitt, if there be 
any intermistion ; if none, then at discretion. Saffron is 
good mixt with any of the other powders. Blistering 
plaisters applyed may help to waste the morbifick matter, 
and to the neck may ease the head. Fiue or six graines 
of the crabs eyes mixt with any of the other cordialls is 
good. When I had my grate sickness at N. London, a 
spoonfull of the juice of a very ripe water-mellion did 
wonderfully refresh me when I did but hold it in my 
mouth when my toungue was parched up ; but much more 


when I tooke a little of it down. If the body be costiue, 
suppositers or glisters must be used. Sarsaparilla rootes 
new gathered and beaten into a poultis and laid to the 
rists is very good. The same chewed and the juice swal- 
lowed may be good also. Virginia snake roote boyled 
with wine and water and made palitable with a little 
white sugar has bin found very effectuall in all kind of 
feavers. If it be made strong, the less may be taken ; 
yet take anuffe to provoke sweate. Shumacke berryes 
scalded in water till the water be strong of them and 
then made into a syrop with white sugar is an excellent 
tart thing to mix with any drink in a feaver, and is excel- 
lent good for a flux. I know not what more to aduise to 
on the suddaine, being from home ; but shall leaue you 
to the protection of Him that is able to helpe in every 
difficulty, and rest 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

I shall endeavour to send those moulds as soone as 
opertunity presents. The rubila in the little paper is 
better prepared then any you haue, as I belieue. I men- 
tion not all the perticulars I send ; you will open all and 
se them. My affectionate loue to my sisters and all my 
cousins. I wish to be with them to do my part of help 
to you all. Georg Curwin is here, and will write to his 
mother. I cannot aduise him to com, least he should get 
the distemper. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, Sep* 22*, 1687. 

Deare Brother, — This afternoone I accidentally 
mett with M r Champney, who sayes he came from 
you the last Fryday was seiiite. I haue bin very soli- 

1687.] WAIT WIKTHROP. 479 

citous to here from you since I wrote by him you sent, 
and am glad to heare tis no worse. I would haue bin 
with you this weeke, but my youngest boy has bin ill 
since we came home (which was on Saturday last), and 
some other necessitous occations hindred. M r Champney 
could not tell me perticularly of you all, but that my 
poore sister Ann and severall others weare ill, but that 
he hoped the worst was past. However, I purpose to se 
you as soone as may be ; I hope next weeke, tho with 
som difficulty, being under indisposition myselfe severall 
wayes. You will receiue by M r More, of Long Island, one 
hundred of Spanish iron and thre share moulds at the 
ends of bars to make coulters of; he intends to sayle 
within a day or two, and must put into N. London. I 
could not conveniently get them made here unless the 
vessell had staid till next weeke. I know not what 
advice to send for the fever more than yourselfe and my 
sisters know; tis my great trouble that I am not with 
you all to lend my poore assistance. Not els but most 
affectionate loue to you all, and that I am 

Your owne 



For Yourselfe. 

Deare Brother, — I rec* yours by More and Richards, 
with a steer and thre heifers. The other, thay say, ran 
from them at Pacatuck River ; yet thay would haue 5 s 
T head for driueing. Thay are very thin, and will be 
but poore meate salted. Champlin paid a little Spanish 
mony when I came home, which I put off for wood and 
other necessaryes, and said he would pay the rest when 
he come againe, and this morning he brought a bill from 
a butcher, payable by the last of this month, which is 

480 THE WIXTHROP PAPERS. [1687-8. 

all lie can do ; but whether it will be paid at the time I 
know not, but he sayes it will. Nothing is yet don about 
the courts ; but as soon as Foy is gon, which will be with 
the first wind, the Gov r will be at leisure. I shall take 
aduise about the swamp and send you by the next. 
Will. Gallup sayes his brother John saw my sister Ann 
last Wedensclay, and that she was cheerly and geting 
well apace, which has much rejoyced us. More will 
bring a little bundle for Sister Ann which she gaue 
Cous. Lisse order about ; she has made up one of the 
coates, also Major Palmes cap, which pray return him 
with my thanks and seruis to him and Madam. I could 
not haue got home without it this winter, hardly. We 
weare forced to stay with M rs Smith the cold Thurdsday, 
but the Major was not com home. M r Lines was buried 
Saturday was sevennight. Cap tn Hutchison is gon for 
England. Not els but affectionate loue to my sisters and 
cousins, and that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

Tell Sister Ann she must be merry and be quickly well. 

Boston, Nov*?, 1687. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. By M r Smellows. 

Boston, Jan. 30th, 16S|. 

Deare Brother, — The barer hereof, M r Jonathan 
Smellows, who has the reputation of an excellent hus- 
banman, being minded to se the country and find a con- 
venient place to settle himselfe, I haue recommended him 
to you with respect to the iland or Paquanuck, or both, 
or som other place. His circumstances he can inform you 

1687-8.] WAIT WINTHROP. 481 

of. I beleiue we shall not meet with a better tenant, if 
we haue time to bring him to any good agrement. He 
has bin this year at M r Legitts farm, and is now purpose- 
ing to leaue it. I accidentally met with him at M r Ser- 
geants, being his countryman, who comends him for a 
plain, honest man. If he could be upon tryall for a year 
we might haue opertunitye to propose what might be for 
our advantage and his too. But I must leaue all to your 
better judgment, and now tell you the story of our gen- 
erall afflictions, it being a very sickly time here ; scarse a 
house in town fre from the measells, and many dye with 
that and other distempers seting in with it. We came 
the last Fryday from Salem, from my Father Brownes 
funerall, who dyed that day seiiite. Yesterday was 
senite my lady Andross, after about a fortnights illness, 
died about two o'clock in the afternoon, just as we wear 
going to church, to our very great losse, and will, I sup- 
pose, sometime this weeke be interd in a tomb that is 
prepareing not far distant from my grandfathers. Lisse 
Curwin has got the measells at Sister Whartons, but is 
prety well over it. Mingo has had it, and is prety well 
againe ; tho we keep him in the garrit, but expect our 
children will haue it also. On Saturday night our little 
Ann was taken extream ill on a suddaine, and so contin- 
ues very sick and feaverish. Whether it be teeth, or the 
measels, or both, I know not, but I am fearfull of her ; but 
hope God will spare her. My neibour Legg came lately 
from England, and on Wedensday last came in Harris, 
the ship M r Wharton went in ; we had letters from him ; 
he has bin very ill of a cold and coff ; he intends to be 
here early in the spring. The hurry we haue lately bin 
in has hindred me from takeing aduice about the ceader 
business ; but, however, if you are not ready the court may 
defer it to the next Court of Please, and from thence to 
an other if thay please, which is a comon thing here. The 
chang we haue had at Salem may possibly haue influence 



into all matters wherein I am concerned (tho I know not 
certaynly what the will is, thay intending to open it the 
next week, when it will be proved) ; therefore it may be 
best to consider well what to agre with the barer. I 
beleiue he would incline to try a year if the house at the 
farm could be fitted up. Tis a prety while since I first 
discourst with him, and he calls sucldainly for this now ; 
but do as you se cause. I know not but I may haue 
occation to make use of yours and M r Richards testimony ; 
therfore pray consider about it. But if there be any thing 
reasonable don in the will I shall be satisfied if you draw 
up what you remember, and send by the first carefull 
opertunity, that I may shew M r Richards if need be ; it 
may not be amiss. It need not be deposed till afterward. 
Not els but loue to my sisters and all my cousins, and 
that I am 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

I haue not a hors to ride on. 

Tin the margin, apparently referring to Mr. S mellows : J Just now he 

tells me he is advised to se M r Richardsons farme. It may 
be, the convenience of the housing there may invite him. 

Indorsed by Fitz-John Winthrop, " My Brother about Jonathan Smeth- 
owes, Jan'y 30, 1685." 


For Major Gen 11 John Winthrop, in New London, these. \_By~\ M r 
Thomas Avery. 

Boston, May 17 th , 1688. 

Deare Brother, — I came the last night from my 
Tarpolin C. expedition, and haue brought home a paine 
in my old tooth which proues troublesome to me. I 
haue but just lookt over your letter; the inclosed shall 
be delivered when the Gov r returnes from Pemaquid, 
where he has bin this thre weekes, but is expected 

1688.] WAIT WINTHROP. 483 

every day. About the settlement of the Indians I 
haue heard nothing as yet, but shall be mindfull of it 
if anything be moued. I feare the Saybrook men will 
not find ceder to cover all their howses in the swamp ; 
I hope to see you very spedily, and then we may veiue a 
convenient place to saw bolts for them. I hope the Lan- 
cashire hornpipe sounds briskly from the island and the 
sheep at Rode Island will shortly dance after it. This 
day here arived a ship from London, but I could not go 
out to pick up the news ; but what was brought to me as 
comonly discourst was fear of a warr with Holland, and 
that New York is added to this Goverm*, and Coll. Dun- 
gan to go Gov r to Barbados, but I wonder M r Wharton 
dose not mention it in his letters. He is moueing in a 
desine about mines, and has got about thirteen thousand 
pounds subscription already to carry it on; but what it 
may com to I know not. My jawes forbid me to write 
more, and Cowells folk will be in bed, and T. A. be gon 
in the morning. 

Your affectionate brother, 


Cap*? Levin is not arived yet. By the next, or my 
selfe, you shall haue snaffles for all the ratts in towne. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. By M r Levin. 

Boston, June 1st, 1688. 

Deare Brother, — I thought to haue bin coming to 
you by this time, but my wife has bin ill ever since my 
last by Thomas Avery, and is still not well ; also two of 
my children haue not bin well, but are much better. The 
Gov? came home this weeke ; he has no orders as yet 
about the Goverment of York, but tis said tis to be 


joyned to this Gov rmt , and orders are to com the next 
ships. 1 hear just now that S r Will m Phips is arived from 
the wreck. I haue re d thre barrills from M r Levin, with a 
basket of neates toungs. I hope to se you quickly, ther- 
fore shall not enlarg. I haue sent the funerall scutchion 
you left by this vessell. Sister Curwin says she has som 
things to send you, but cannot get them redy by this. 
Not els but 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Deare Brother, — I am sorry that I cannot accom- 
pany Maj r Palmes, but hope to be not long after him 
with you. My wife is somthing better then she has bin, 
but little Will, is troubled with vomit and flux. I am 
troubled to hear you haue been ill ; but M r Lewin tells 
me you wear much better when he came away, and hope 
this will find you well. J. F. is here, but I beleiue is 
scared with the charge of taking patents. He is not 
going home yet, and I am willing to se him gon before I 
goe. I am very desireous to se som ships from England 
also before I come. My last letters from thence giue me 
grate hope of a generall confirmation from his Maj ty of all 
lands according to former useage. We expect Foy and 
another ship every hower, by whome we shall hear. The 
dyer has spoiled one side of your adese, but he saves the 
graine is not taken off and he could not help it; but if 
thay be turned, the other side will wear well, which is the 
proper side outward for all dyed leather. Maj r Palmes 
brings you a litle oyle of clones, which is all M r Dauis had. 
Here is never a hatt in towne good for anything but such 
as you had ; but M r Levin shall bring your white hat, 

1688.] WAIT WINTHR0P. 485 

which the boy forgot the last time, which is worth any 
two to be had now. By the next ships we may haue good 
ones. I know not what coate will please you, els would 
haue had the tayler haue made one ; but Maj r Palmes 
thinks tis better to wer them you haue, and not let them 
grow out of fashion. Here is a litle rubila and black 
powder inclosed. Maj r Palmes can informe you of all 
matters here. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Witsthrop. 
One snaffle by Maj r Palmes. 

Indorsed, "July, 1688." 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, July 26*, 1688. 

Deare Brother, — Just now M r Saltanstall tells me he 
is going. I am not redy, els should haue gon with him ; 
but intend to wait on the Gov r next weeke, who intends 
to go to Rode Isla[n]d, where he will make a day or two 
stay, and I intend to leaue him and come to you by land 
if he takes sloop there, which he is not yet resolved. But 
if the wind be out of the way he will ride to New London. 
I suppose he expects your company to York, therfore best 
to prouide. He tells me he wrote you this weeke by way 
of Hartford. Thre or four sloopes will attend him at Rode 
Island. I hope to prevaile that one of them shall put 
into N. London to take us in, if the Gov r should take 
water at Rode Island and not put in himselfe. Not els 
but that I am 

Your owne 

W. Winthrop. 

Freinds are all indefferent well. 



For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. By M r Champlin. 

Boston, Decbr 13, 1688. 

Deare Brother, — I rec? yours by Champlin, with the 
cattle, and two other before, and haue endevoured to sute 
you with frise, which hope will please you. Here is little 
newes but what you must haue heard before this. The 
inclosed came lately from England in print, and an other 
declaration about the Duch invadeing England with a 
fleete of 300 saile, all which you will here by M r Wheler 
more perticularly, who came this week in Belcher, who 
has brought letters for the Gov r , which are posted away to 
Kenebeck River, where he is frozen up. My sister has a 
letter from M r Wharton, but I haue none ; but expect to 
heare fully by Harris, who is expected dayly, and brings 
his letters. The wether was so bad after the cattle came 
that twas almost a weeke before I could get them kild, 
and at least a fortnight after thay came from you, and 
were much fallen in fatt. I shall write againe by M r 
Smethurst, who goes next weeke ; therfore shall not enlarg 
more then seruis to all freinds, and that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

M r Champlin promises me to be carefull of the bundle, 
and will carry it to you as soon as he gets home. It con- 
taynes only a coate and white wast coate wrapt in a yard 
and I of ozenbriggs. Your candlestick, glasses, &c, is 
with them. M r Stoddard says he has put your things 
on bord one Smith, who is not yet gon out. Codman 
goes directly to York and stops not at N. L. 

1688.] WAIT WINTHROP. 487 


Boston, Decmbr 25th, 1688. 

Dear Brother, — I wrote lately by M r Chaplin, by 
whome also I sent your coate and wast coate, which hope 
you haue rec d . I haue spoke to M r Simmons about lay- 
ing the bricks at the island, but cannot preuaile with 
him, or rather he with his wife, to let him goe into the 
country, for feare of the Indians. I shall enquire after 
som other workman, and send you word as soone as may 
be, but shall hardly get one so quiet and honest. I know 
no late news from the eastward. Thay haue built som- 
thing up Kenebeck River which is called Fort Ann, 
where Cap*! 1 Savage is with his company ; the Gov? was 
at Pemaquid the last time we heard ; the Indians are 
nobody knows where, and our men at severall places in 
garison. If you had gon it would haue bin counted ill 
conduct if all the enemys had not bin destroyed before 
this between us and the north star. I beleiue it will be 
such an expedition as was the last winter at Albany. I 
know not when the Gov? will come home, tho som think 
the letters which came in Belcher will bring him spedily. 
Tis said that a vessell of Salem, that came from Hol- 
lon and cleared at Dartmouth about eight weekes since, 
brings word that thre hundred saile of Duch were in 
Torr Bay and 200 in Bristoll Channell, but I know not 
the truth of it ; but tis generally feared the Duch are 
landed in England before this. Freinds here are all well. 
We had a grate loss on Sabothday night last ; Sheba, the 
youngest of our Indian girles, died something suddainly. 
She had bin very ill about a fortnight since, but was about 
the house again e; but I beleiue got cold and complayned 
of paines in her legs and sore throte, but was about with 
the children, and yet dyed suddainly about one of the 
clock in the night. Tis but a sickly time here, and many 

488 THE WIXTHROP PAPERS. [1688-9. 

haue dyed prety suddainly. I pray God keep us from 
wors sicknesse. M r Smethurst says severall haue bin 
speaking to him about the farme, and that thay will 
speak with me about it. If it be let, I beleiue it will be 
best to make two or thre tenements of it, for a litle farme 
lets for as much as a grate one, many times. M r Smeth- 
urst insisted upon haueing a handy boate, which you may 
easily get don by Leades this winter. He also desires I 
would write somthing that may be an order to him to 
keepe every body from bringing guns on the island to gun 
or hunt, and desire you to put your hand to it, which I 
heer enclose ; it may be of good use if that custom can be 
broke. If my hors do not thriue, twill be best to get him 
blooded. I desire you would get one of the stone-horses 
at the island handled if not broke, and send him clown 
early in the spring in good case. I shall haue severall 
mares at the island, and shall loose their breed againe 
next year if you faile me ; if you send the old hors like- 
wise I could sell him well, if he be in case. Not els but 
affectionate loue to yourselfe with all freinds, and that 
I am Your affectionate brother, W. Wixthrop. 

If you like what is written it will be best to set your 
hand to it and let them haue it ; if not, write as you will 
and giue it them. It will sertainly be best to improw 
them to doe that which others may not do so easily, thay 
being spirited to the work. I haue charged them to be 
civill to all gent" who may accidentally com thither. 


Boston, Jan. 5th, 16S8[-9]. 

Dear Brother, — Since my last we haue little intel- 
ligence from the eastward. The Gov! is still there, and 
intends not to come yet that I hear of. M r Tresurer 

1688-9.] WAIT WlNTHROP. 489 

sayes he is building of ovens to bake soft bread for the 
soldiers, so I beleiue will not com yet. Harris is com 
from England ; has brought letters for the Gov r I had 
letters from bro. Wharton, who sayes M r Nowell is dead ; 
that M r Mather, Capt n Hutchison, and one M r Mason and 
himself ware severall times within a weeke before he 
wrote, w ch was 16 th Octob r , to wait on His Maj*. y , who 
assures them that our properties shall be continued and 
confirmed, the colleclg and revenue remaine in the hands 
of a president and fellows, and libertye enjoyed in mat- 
ters of religion ; and in order thereto the Attorney Gen 11 
is ordered to examine the Gov? comission and instruc- 
tions, with complaints that haue bin made, and his prosed- 
ings, and make report ; that tis surpriseing to most there 
to heare that those that had good titles from the late 
governments should sue for patents here ; that he hopes 
all extra-judiciall and arbitrary prosedeings and exac- 
tions in the plantations will be examined as soone as the 
court is a little at leasure. I haue not els but affectionate 
loue to yourselfe with all freinds, and that I am 
Your affectionate brother, 


All freinds well except M r Blake, who, I fear, is under 
his last illness. Pray rememb r the stone-hors against 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, Jan. 28$, 1688[-9]. 

Deare Brother, — Since my last here has not occur'd 
any thing considerable, only two hundred men more weare 
raised by the Gov? order and sent to him out of the coun- 
try townes, none I think out of this, with whom Major 

490 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1688-9. 

Brockhurst is gon. Thay had bad wether after thay went 
out, and one of the ketches, we hear, put into Cape Cod. 
A post came the last night from the Gov r , and sayes that 
those of them that went from the townes at Salem were 
arived there ; that a hundred and fifty men under Major 
Magrigory had bin out ten dayes and expected home 
dayly, and then others to go out ; but no newes of any 
Indians, only thre squawes weare sent from Squando and 
Medockiwando to know if thay might com in, who had 
answare that thay had withstood their time, but if thay 
came not in by such a day thay should be counted as 
enemyes. I haue not bin out this thre or fower dayes, 
haueing bin ill of a greate cold, but am better (God be 
thanked); but Major Redford came in but now and sayd 
he heard this about the post from M r Grayham, Att. 
Gen 1 , and that M r Grayham had order to print a procla- 
mation from the Gov r to lay an imbargo on all vessells 
bound for England, and that the Gov r had orders to that 
purpose from England, and it is to be proclaimed to- 
morrow, which I understand the meaneing of no more 
then of many other things. West writes to Major Red- 
ford that the Gov r will not com home till he seese an end 
of those troubles. He has comunicated nothing which 
came by the last ships to any of the councill here that I 
know of. We are all very sorry here for M r Blake, who 
is to be buried on Weddensday next It is but a sickly 
time here and about the country. I here not whether 
thay haue the rest of the sheepe yet from Rode Island or 
Fairfield. Pray remember the stone-hors ; if the barer 
comes not back till towards March it might be a good 
opertunity. I understand the vessell your things were 
in was put back againe, and know not whether she be 
with you yet. Not els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 
My seruis to all freinds. 

1688-9.] WAIT WINTHROP. 491 


Boston, Feb*. 26th, 168f . 

Deare Brother, — I haue received yours, and haue 
[as] seriously considered of what you mention about my 
cousin Mary and young M r Blackleech as I could in so 
short a time ; and (tho I haue alwayes had a perticular 
freidship to the old gentleman, and so consequently to 
his, for the perticular and constant respect he has al- 
wayes semed to haue had for our family, which semes 
more espescially to appear now), yet I hope thay will 
excuse me if I cannot giue my imediate consent in so 
waighty a consernment. You know she is yet young and 
has time before her ; yet, if all other things should be to 
satisfaction, y* might be dispenced with, tho it is against 
my principles for any body to marry too young. I am 
wholy unaquainted both what imploymcnt he proposes 
for a livelyhood and what estate his father proposes to 
settle on him ; and unlesse somthing considerable be pro- 
posed to be settled on her in case he should dye before 
her, or other accident hapen, I cannot advise you to dis- 
pose of her. She is well now; but if a woman be left with 
nobody knows how many smale children, she had need 
haue somthing to trust too. Besides, there are many 
other considerations to be aduised about in such a case 
as that, which when I see you I may speak too ; therfore 
shall not trouble you farther then affectionate loue to 
yourselfe with all other freinds, and that I am 

Your affectionate bro., 

W. Winthrop. 


Gentlemen, — Wee being greatly sensible of the 
necessity of joyning every good mans assistance to 
yo r present and future endeavours for the preservation 


of the peace of this place in this dangerous conjuncture, 
and relying on the integrity of yo r verball and printed 
promises, by inviolably preserveing this people & place 
in obedience unto the direction wee exspect from the 
Crowne of England, and good treatment to the persons 
of all and severall the gentlemen, as was by us signified 
in our advice unto S r Edmond Andros, upon delivary up 
of the fort. And to take of all dissatisfactions that may 
have risson from any disputes or arguments, wee shall 
endeavour to pacifie the dissatisfied in our regards, and 
promote the publick tranquillity as far as in us lies. 

Boston, the 25th May, 1689. 

Wait Winthrop, 
Samuel Shrimpton, 
J? Nelson, 
Peter Sergeant, 
John Foster, 
Adam Winthrop, 
Richard Sprague, 
Nath l . l Oliver, 
Jos? Dumer, 
Jn° Eyre, 
And r Belcher. 

wait winthrop to fitz-john winthrop. 

Boston, Oct b . r 16, 1689. 

Deare Brother, — M r Pigin calls unexpectedly, there- 
for I write but a word or two. I had yours by Peter and 
Will, with the hors, which hope I shall sell in a little 
time. The pirate tooke halfe their cheses away. There 
was but two for me, one of which thay tooke, and thay 
speake of a grate price for the best of theirs ; so I shall 
waite till som of our own can be sent from the island. I 
shall send eight barrill or more of French salt ; though 

1690.] WAIT WINTHROP. 493 

dearer then other, yet better for meat. I haue your 
bootes from Simpsons ; also M r Pigin brings your wig, 
being loath to venture it by water. Any thing els you 
wrote for will com with Bicket, or by my selfe, if I can 
possibly com next weeke. God has visited us with a sore 
affliction in our little boyes wanting his right hand, but 
he can make it up otherwise ; but he is rituous in all his 
wayes, and it is less then we haue deserved. He was 
born the 10 th of September, and is now like one of halfe 
a year old or more. His name is Joseph. The latest 
guesses of news from England is by M r Cristophers by 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Wlnthrop. 


For the Hon hl . e John Winthrop, Esq., Comander in Cheife of the Forcese 
bound for Canada, at Albany or els where, these. Via Hartford. 

Boston, Aug s . fc 11th, 1690. Monday afternoon. 

Deare Brother, — I was in hope to haue heard from 
you by the first return from Albany, which was on Satur- 
day night last ; but had not a line from you only a letter 
to the Gov r and Councill, which gaue us account that you 
weare on your march for Canada, the last Thurdsday was 
senite, and that one English captiv and two Duch were 
escaped from Mont Roy all, who I hope haue giuen you a 
certayne account of the state of that place. I pray God 
giue you his presence and assistance and direct you in all 
your arduous affayrs. Our people here haue grate ex- 
pectations of your prudence and conduct as to the man- 
agement and sucsess (under God) of that affayre. Our 
fleet sayled on Satturday night last, consisting of what 
ships I told you in my last ; the whole fleet consisting 
of thirty-two sayle, wherein are about two thousand thre 
hundred men. Thay haue order to endeavour a corre- 


spondence and assistance to you. The matter seems to 
be of God, and has bin caried on through many difficul- 
tyes, and we do hope and pray that God will suckseed it 
both by land and sea. We haue had a pirate on the 
coste, who has plundered the people at Block Island; from 
thence went to New London and concluded to haue plun- 
dered the town, but thay haueing notice were provided 
for him and he went away to Fishers Island, where he 
had sent a periauger ashore before, and had one man kild 
and an other wounded by som Stonington men and 
Indians who went over to look after our people and get 
them off; but thay got off an hower or two before thay 
came there. The pirates lay in the harbour at y e island 
two or 3 days and burnt the house ; and what mischeife 
els I know not certaynly yet, but tis said a grate deale. 
The men and wemen, when thay saw the house afire from 
Stonington, came down hither, all but Jonathan. But 
I haue got the men to goe back againe and promised 
thay shall haue a house before winter if it may be ; in the 
mean time haue sent to the Indians at the farme to help 
them about a wigwam while thay secure the corn and 
hay. Our men of warr could not cum up with the pirate; 
but two Rode Island sloops had a bout with them and kild 
them many men. Thay were about 100 men in all at 
first, and are now gon off the coast. All my children and 
family, as also Sister Curwin and all hers but Pegg and 
Sam., are got over the smale pox prety well (God be 
thanked). Pegge is newly taken with it. All els at 
Roxbury and here well, only M rs Bradstreet very ill of a 
fever. What you wrote for to Sister Curwin shall be sent 
by Mathew Jones, there haueing bin no opertunity since 
I had yours. This goes to Hartford, and hope thay will 
send it forward. I haue not els but to coiuend you to the 
protection of the Lord of Hosts, who I trust will preserue 
and return you with success in his cause, and am 

Your own Wait Winthrop. 

1691.] WAIT WINTHROP. 495 

We had a fire here the last week. Began at the mill 
bridg and burnt about twenty houses ; but by blowing up 
two or 3 houses it was stopt wonderfully (God be praysed). 
Saint Cristophers is take by our fleet. 


For John Winthrop, Esq r , in New London, these. 

Boston, March 31 s *, 1691. 

Dear Brother, — This corns by Cap tn Townsend and 
M r Lily, who will not stay till tomorrow for me, when I 
would faine set out for Woodcocks, and hope I shall be 
able, tho am much discouraged all this spring with the 
old paine in my syde which I continually labour under. 
Rideing used to doe me good, so if I find myselfe able 
when I get to Dedham shall proceed ; if not, must return. 
If I should not be able to com, you must agre with them 
about the horses and other things that you suply them 
with as well as you can. I haue alwayes told them of 
ten pounds a head, one with another; and they seemed to 
be worth it when I was there, if thay had bin furbished 
up, I mean about ten or twelue of them ; and if thay seem 
not to be worth so much now, tis not your fault. I cer- 
taynly agreed with you to haue them redy when the 
ship was to be redy, which was in December, and recken 
that since that thay ought to pay for their keeping by 
right ; but if thay be willing to alow a good price you 
need not mention that. Twill be best to haue them trimd 
up a litle, to be sure. I would not com under eight 
pounds for any of the best sort. You need not let them 
know that I write any of this, but that this was the sub- 
stance of my agrement with you, which thay are obliged 
to stand too, tho thay know that I am interested in them 
too. The old stone-hors at the island would do well for 


one. I haue bestowed about fiue pounds or well towards 
it upon Virginia, that he might be fit for service this 
spring, and haue brought him to pace a litle, and now am 
forced to part with him for eight pounds to the company 
for this jorney, if I can persuade them to it by and by at 
Pollards, and must hire an other for Mingo. In Mathew 
Jones goes a parcell of goods in company for the owners 
of the ship, which will be disposed of there. Unless you 
haue grate occation do not take any of them. You may 
haue y e same here cheaper, and it will be instead of 
mony, what you take there. I hope to be with you, ther- 
fore shall not enlarge. I had y rs by Champion yesterday. 
We had a letter from the Gov r at York the last weeke. 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, July 14th, 1691. 

Deare Brother, — I could not get redy to com w th M r 
Forsdick, and am loath to stay him a day or two longer, 
in which time I know nothing that would prevent me, 
tho tis a very difficult time for me to be absent in many 
respects ; but if it be possible I purpose to break away 
somtime this weeke and say nothing. However, I am 
sure it will not be adviceable for you to think of going to 
York till I speake with you. As to the ship, the gratest 
difficulty will be about sayles for her. The owners of 
Swallow haue concluded to giue fine hundred pounds for 
her if thay may haue her sayles and all other things 
belonging to her, or els to alow so much less as her sayles 
com to, which you may depend upon, the rest haueing 
desired me to signify so much to you ; but if I can com to 
you I would sugest somthing els about it. However, if I 

1691.] WAIT WINTHROP. 497 

corn not this week you may send me word whether that 
will be accepted or no. I haue endeavoured to get all y r 
things you formerly wrote for, and the tayler promised to 
haue his matters redy yesterday ; but now I send for it 
he sends word it will not be don till tomorrow, so that I 
must be forced to com on purpose to bring them. I haue 
endeavoured to match that bit of stufe. M r Bolt, that I 
bought the other of, said, if I mistake not, that it was a 
pattern for two suites ; but he's but a litle man himselfe, 
and it may be thinks all y e world so. I haue sent you all 
the muzleing neck cloathes that are to be had in town, 
which I met with by grate chance. I canot get another 
for myself. I haue sent you a wast belt. M r Forsdick 
will stay no longer ; therfore refer you to him for an 
account of all maters here till I com. Not els but that 
I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

If we haue the ship I must be concerned a q rt part or 
more. I had had one of the neckcloaths cut off and 
made, to shew how the rest must be ; there is but fowr. 


Octobr 31 s *, 1691. 

Dear Brother, — I haue rec d yours by Leif* Avery, 
with the cattle, very thin and poor ; and accordingly thay 
are com to a market. Saxton had a good market the 
last time, but his cattle were good. If I had not hapened 
on this opertunity, which Leif fc Avery can inform you, 
for somthing aboue a penny a pound, I must haue sent 
them back again ; and if thay had seen them (which their 
business would not admit of) before thay ware kild, 
would never haue had them. But such as thay are thay 



are gon, and I wish them a good market at Coraso, where 
thay are bound. The two steers and two of the cowes 
were prety good beife. Tis almost half lost to be forced 
to bring them down before thay are grown and fat. I 
sent by Gillum, you wrot of, 40 bush, of salt, which was all 
could get him to take in ; and M r Carter sent the cider 
mill and a pair of rowlers to grind salt with ; he says he 
wrote to you about the maner of them. I could not get 
Madera w r ine to put abord him, and he was not willing to 
take a botle abord, being so full. I hope I may get some 
to send by Grover. I haue sent a peice of fashionable 
stuff, and 7 yards to match it. Simson fails me, and sayes 
the shoose will not be done till Munday, so will loose 
this opertunity ; but he'le remedy the quarters. Hers a 
Dutch privatere has cocoa ; if I can get any, shall send 
you som, also a hat. I know not what to advise about 
Shingleton ; if he be honest as he seemes to be ingeniouse, 
he may do well. And it may be best to have an improue- 
ment at that end of the island ; there must be reservation 
for the deer and turkeyes coming frely there without 
disturbance ; also a reservation in case of improuement of 
a fishery or salt work or the like, and for non perform- 
ance a condition of reentry, as in the other formerly ; 
and to plant a litle orchard, which I beleiue would doe 
in som sheltered place toward the north side. Old M r 
Minors orchard over against it lyes more open. For 
fences, stone wall and quickset, where it can be con- 
veniently had, is best, tho thay make but a rod or two in 
a year, or what thay can. Also no strip or wast to be 
made but where shall be apointed, and a certayn number 
of trees or acres to be girdleed every year. I mention 
these things least you might not think of som of them, 
tho you must do as you can ; also to keep no stone-hors 
or mare without liberty. Whether an improument with 
rabits on the very east neck, beyond the pond and stony 
beach, might not be profitable ; and to haue part of a 

1691.] WAIT WINTHROP. 499 

grate number of geese, ducks, &c, which might be kept 
at the opening at the marshes, it being never frozen, and 
a braue place for their feeding. A litle house would 
stand best neer a spring, where it might not be seen by 
vessels, and yet (the island being narrow) thay might 
easily descry them ; but a well might suply for want of 
a spring. What I wrote formerly about Quinibag and 
Narroganset were without doubt best to be forwarded. 
He that maryed Hannah Gallup at Norwich was here 
with John Gallup. Thay say that Cap* Fitch has setled 
two Naraganset fellows as tennants on a braue neck that 
is fenced by the river at Quinabauge, all but a few rods, 
at the very place where Alumps lived, and contaynes 
thre or 4 hundred acres of the plow land or meadow, 
without a stone in it. I wonder at his confidence ; pos- 
sibly the same men might be willing to take a lease from 
a better title, or som other way must be used in time. 
He has not got the saw mill irons of Hunt of Concord, 
and I beleiue no other. Mingo may take up with Lilly, 
if the Philistines do not enquire after him ; tis best to 
take the first opertunity when he has his best jacket on, 
or els he may miss it. Kinch sayes he had good clothes ; 
it would haue saved me fiue pounds if he had put them 
on before the cunstable tooke him. Jeffrey, I beleiue, is 
almost sick of his voyage. I haue sent M rs More, alias 
Waller, an ounce of nutmegs and an ounce of mace, two 
of methridate, and shall send the curtaynes and blanket 
if opertunity and can get them ; also 4 y rds of fine kent- 
ing and ten of lace, but nobody knows what sort of lace 
she would haue. You may tell the Bay lyes that if thay 
make hast with the house I may get som of the bills of 
credit for their brothers wages at Canada. I haue got a 
certificate from the capt n of the time he served, but can 
hear nothing yet about his clothes or other things, but 
shall enquire farther. There will be about fiue monthes 
wages due, if he has not taken part of it up of som of 


the comissaryes ; thay shall know by the next. I forgot 
the Fishers Island lease, which you must send, that thay 
may se it cancelled. If you could by a very carefull 
hand send the litle picture of my grandfather, put car- 
fully up in som litle box, here is one would copy it for 
my cousin Adam ; the grate one here had som damage 
in the townhouse, espetially in one of the eyes, and he 
desires to se that.* If I do not forget, y r was a wastcoat 
with som litle silver butons on it, which are so smale 
that thay ar fit only for children. John has wore the 
rest of them, and Will m would be of the same fashion, if 
you will bestow them on him if thay are not lost. I sent 
your coat the last week by I know not who, and he's gon 
I know not whether ; but sombody advised him to call 
for a letter just at night, so I wrot a note. He said he 
lived at Fairfeild, as I remember, and lay w th you coming 
down. The sleues and buttons are just as all men here 
ware them ; there was just enough to make two coates 
and two for the boyes, it being of the Fishers Island 
wool. No white wine in town. My aunt Richards dyed 


Boston, April] 2 d , 1694. 

Dear Brother, — I am glad to hear of your arivall 
by a letter from S r Francis Wheeler, who met with Beale 
off of Cadiz ; as also by Frederick Phillips brigantine, 
arived at York, by which this is intended to you, if she 
be not gon before the post gets thither. The opertunity 
being uncertayn, I shall only let you know all freinds are 

* The " litle picture " of Governor John Winthrop was the miniature now in posses- 
sion of the heirs of the late Francis Bayard Winthrop, of New Haven ; the " great one in 
the townhouse" is now in the Senate Chamber of Massachusetts ; the copy here alluded 
to is probably the portrait now belonging to the American Antiquarian Society at Worces- 
ter. — Eds. 

1694.] WAIT WINTHROP. 501 

well, both here and at N. London, and that we haue had 
litle news this winter • no disturbance from the enemy at 
Albany, nor on the sea coste, nor the uper townes on 
Conecticot, where thay were most expected. Our east- 
ern Indians are quiet, and I hope will continue so. Here 
will be opertunity directly from hence shortly, when I 
hope to write more larg. This will com under covert of 
Coll. Shrimptons, as also a former by way of Bilboa. 
I can giue no acct. of our perticular affaires by this. I 
haue not bin well enough to visit them this winter, but 
intend it spedily. I am not freed from my old paine yet, 
tho (I thank God) am better. Pray giue my seruice to 
Coll. Dongan and Coll. Hutchinson, and tell him his 
daughter Freake is spedily to be married to M r Woolcott 
of Salem, and my brother Brown to M rs Baylye. I hope 
you will not forget the settlement of Narraganset. I 
wish I were with you; but I must not enlarg, but leaue 
you to the guidance and protection of the Almighty. 
I am your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

If you should hapen to com away before other letters 
com to your hand, I desire you would bring forty or 50 
pound of the most refined salt peter you can procure. 
John sends his duty, and hopes you will send him a 
flagellet and a fishing rod. 


New London, Nov*^ 1st, 1694. 

Dear Brother, — I send these two or thre lines in 
hast, least the ships should be gon before I get home. 
I wrot to you and Cousin Read by severall ships last 
sumer, but som of them were taken, if not all. I rec d 
seventy hue pounds for Cousin Read, but could get no 


effects to send him, otherwise in probability he had lost 
in som of those ships. I haue not time by this post to 
write to him, but shall send from Boston if the ships be 
not gon. I rec d yours by M r Georg and Jackson, and 
sent them to the Gen 1 . 1 Court, then siting. Your bill 
of exchang, payable to M r W"? Stougton, I accepted, and 
is paid (if M r Stougton has had leisure to receiue it) since 
I came from home. You may be ashured it is paid, or 
lyes redy for him when he will haue it. In former letters 
I gaue you account of Maj r Richards his death, and other 
things now out of mind. I now must tell you but what 
comes to mind. Cap tn Denison went to Hartford to the 
court, and was buried the last week there. The two 
Norwich men at the island haue bin selling to every 
vessell that cam, takeing the advantage of my being sick 
at Boston all sumer. Thay got not a load of hay, but let 
the cattle spoile the grass. I sent as soon as I heard of it 
from Boston, and got hands to go over, and saved a little 
hay, which, with som left last year, must serue all the 
cretures that cannot be kild. I stay now only to get 
them fellows off this winter, if I can. There never were 
such villains. I think to get M r Ashbyes younger son 
to be there this winter, with som of the Indians. Simon 
was drowned last summer at the ferry. Joseph lyes now 
neer death of a consumtion. Will Latham to be married 
to James Morgans daughter, but I think will stay at the 
farm this winter. He dose little but help Davis, who is 
building a house for him. Your freinds are all well here, 
and want for nothing thay desire ; are very kind to Johne, 
who I brought with me to visit his cousin Mary. The 
saw mill has stood still ever since you went, but now thay 
are fiting it, I think, to saw his frame. If Wait Newman 
drink the decoction of lignum vitae two or thre times a 
day, it might help him ; also the herb horehown, shred 
very small, and warmed a litle in a cup, and then milk 
from a red cow milked into it and drunk warm, the herb 

1695.] WAIT WINTHROP. 503 

with the milk, morning and evening ; which two medi- 
cines God was pleased to bless to me the last summer, 
that I recovered from a consumtiue cofF in a litle time, 
almost to a miracle (God be praised). Pray send or 
bring 50 m of very fine salt peter; and Glaubers Works 
translated, and reprinted since the first edition in English ; 
and see after Kinch, who was prest abord the Royall 
William. The post will be gon, therfore must not enlarg. 
Cousin Mary and her mother send their sutable respects. 
The meeting house was burnt this sumer here by Rogers 
his crew, and a new one is raised in its place, and will be 
enclosed this next week. M r Milner has mony of mine 
in his hand ; if not sent away, I wish you could get it, 
and pay M r Stephen Mason what I owe him, which is 
about twenty two or thre pounds, as I take it, besides the 
six pounds I told you of before. I haue wrote to him 
formerly, but doubt miscaried with the rest. I haue not 
time now to write to him. 

I am your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 

John sends his duty to you. I was forced to cut off 
my haire last sumer. If the mony from M r Milner should 
com to your hands, I would be glad of a wigg or two. 
Haue an eye to Robin, least he giue you the slip when 
you com away. Many things to be remembered ; whither 
a carpenter would not be sutable here. 


For M r John Winthrop, in Boston, these. 

New London, June 27 th , 1695. 

My dear Son, — I had your letter by the post. I 
thank God for your health, and pray him to continue it to 


you all. I am sorry for the losse of our auntient freind 
and neibour, M rs Hull and the other. You doe well to 
send me all the newes you can. I haue not bin well, but, 
I thank God, am prety well now. Giue my servise to 
your master. Pray to God earnestly. Loue your sister. 
Haue a care of eating green trash in the garden. Mind 
your studdye. I pray for Gods blessing upon you, and 
leaue you all under his divine protection. 
Your louing father, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Eemember me to your aunt, your sister, and cous. 
Hailah. I would haue you goe to M r Clarke the brasier, 
and giue him the inclosed note, and see his boy put a mill 
brass on board M r Greens sloop for the mill here. It 
must be a square brasse for the spindle to run upon. M r 
Greens sloop you will heare off at the dock. 


New London, August 6 th , 1695. 

Cousin John Gallup, — Wheras I did forwarn Ben- 
jamin Palmer and Samuell Cleavland and all others that 
are setled on our lands at Quinebauge from paying rent 
to any pretender to those lands other than upon our 
right, these are to desire you to make leases in our 
names to said Palmer and Cleavland. If they see cause 
to take it for what acknowledgment you and they shall 
agree upon, not exceeding one yeare, and att y e end of 
the terme yy to be engaged to deliver quiet and peacable 
posession to us or our order or one of us, and if there be 
any other place that may be for the advantage of the 
settlement of the plantation to be lett out to any body 
for that term, I desire you would likewise do it; w c is 

1695.] WAIT WINTHROP. 505 

intended only till the plantation may be further orderly 

I am your loving kinsman in behalfe of my brother & 
self, Wait Winthrop. 

A true copie of Maj r Wait Winthrop's letter to John Gallup. Extracted 
yfrom. 7* r y e 30 th , 1699. 

Attest, George Denison, C. Clerk. 


For M r John Gallup or M r . Adam Gallup, at Quinebauge or else- 
where, these. 

Boston, Octobr 19th, 1695. 

Cousin Gallups,- — I much wonder how you should be 
at a loss how to proceed against theues and robers that 
brake into howses as you write. If the Marshall of New 
London shall goe out of his Baylywick and rob any mans 
house under pretence of his office, thay are very tame 
people that will submit to him or his deputy. As to his 
ataching the hay, it is no more to be looked on then if a 
crow had defiled it by siting on it, and in a hard winter 
the cattell will eat it for all that ; and as to what he has 
taken away he is responsable for as a rober, and all his 
abettors, yea, tho any of them should pretend to be a 
justice of the peace that had study ed the law twise four- 
teen years. The law that states your countyes will shew 
you whether you are within the bounds of that marshall. 
But were you within that county, the law of England 
admits of a replevin, what ever M r Witherlyes judgment 
may be ; and if there be any thing in your law about the 
estate being attached to answare the execution, it was 
because the traders ware disapointed many times of the 
spetiall pay thay contracted for, as I think that law men- 
tions. But I beleiue never was a repleue denied in any 
such case before ; but let the marshall looke to it, who 



is responsable for what he or his deputy shall doe. It 
would be well for him if he had the fifty pounds in mony 
in his hand for his security, which is so much boasted of. 
I understand the marshall or his father has sold part of 
that land, so that thay are all partyes. I hope to be at 
New London before the Court ; but if I should not, be not 
discouraged. It signifyes no grate matter what is don 
there. I beleiue most that will be at that court will be 
found in the issue not to be competent judges as to the 
generall case whether all this tends. If thay set the 
Indians to disturb you, I will write to the Gov r and Coun- 
cill for a guard, Maj? Fitch haueing in my hearing 
threatened to set the Indians upon the people of that 
place; which I can with others testifye in the Kings 
behalfe. I would not haue the people afraid of any 
bodyes threates or grate words, for we will sertainly 
defend our title to that land. Therfore keep your pos- 
sessions, and be not fooled out of it by frounes or flat- 
teryes. I can say no more at this distance but wish your 
prosperity, and am 

Your affectionate kinsman, 

Wait Winthrop. 

What I write to you may communicate as you see 


Tins may sertefy that I, Bejemin Palmer, and Samuell 
Cleueland, liueing in the Quaneboge plantation in the 
collony of Conettecut in New Ingland, being yeumen : 
for as much as Mag r Jams Fitch, isqu re , haueing forceably 
entred into our house ; at a nother time John Plume of 
New Lundun, jun r , also brock into the house also ; and also 

* This authorization! is indorsed oil a blank leaf of the foregoing letter. — Eds. 

1695.] j WAIT WINTHROP. 507 

by them and seueral other persuns we haue reseued a 
grat deal of damige in our corn, both Indean corn and 
rye being threshed out and carryed away ; and also 
considerable stry mad under a pretence of law, we 
being greatly damnefyed by the same, in consideration 
therof or any other thing in this case, we do chus and 
apoint and also impower our loueing frin John Gallup of 
Stoningtoun, in the counte of New Lundun, in the col- 
lene of Conettecut in New Ingland, to complaine to and 
prosecut what he sese cause, both together or apart. 
We also do impower him to chuse or tack into or with 
him for the manigment or prosecuting of the thing or to 
chus any other persun or persuns that he may stand in 
ned of, as tho we, the above said Beniemin Pallmar an 
Cleuelan, weare ther preasent. Witnes our hands and 
selles the 2 day of Nouemb., 1695. 

The words enter lind betwene the 10 and the 11 lin. 
wich was or any other thing in this case, and also betwen 
the 16, 17 line, the word or to chuse, thes words were 
before sining and sealing. 

Benjemen Palmar, [seal.] 
Sining and sealing in Samvel Cleavela nd . [seal.] 

preasencese of us, 
Thomas Williams, 
Henry Stephens. 


For Your self e. 

Boston, Oct b . r 28* 1695. 

Dear Brother, — I rec d yours by M r Funnell in the 
mast ships ; but was much surprised as well as disapointed 
to find you were not com, and question not but you saw 
good reason for a farther delay, and hope it will proue 
for the best, tho our private affaires want you much. 
I was at N. London this sumer, and left all matters there 


much in the posture thay were in when you went away. 
We meet with much trouble from the Norwich men and 
Fitch about the settlement at Quinabauge. I gaue you a 
large ace* of all I could think of the last year, but under- 
stand my letters were taken, and haue not wrote to you 
lately because expected you here, and fear I shall not 
think of many things I might write now, being but newly 
com home from Tarpolin Coue, and find the ships just 
going, and can but hint as things com into mind. M r 
Bradstreet is removed to Salem with his family ; thay 
think much thay have not heard from M r Downing or 
yourselfe about the matter you know of; it will be best to 
get a few lines from him to them. I sent your letters to 
Conecticot, and wrote to the Gov r and Councill that thay 
would take order for more mony for you by these ships, 
but doubt whether I shall hear from them before the ships 
be gon. I hope you will get what is due to me from 
M r Milner ; I haue no ace* from him of my part of the 
vessell and cargoe, only he sent me the ace* of Kinch his 
wages, and he charges but forty shillings W month, tho I 
agreed with him and the rest of the owners for fifty to be 
paid in England. I was offered thre pounds ^ month for 
him at the same time by others. If you get enough of 
M r Milner and can spare it, I desire you would pay 
M r Mason what I owe him. He paid M r Hall about six 
pound for me, and about forty two shillings and sixpence 
to Cristopher Clarkes men ; he sent me also an ace* of 
about twenty pounds fourteen shill. and eleven pence, as 
I remember, for my part of what he disbursed for the 
owners of the Swallow (all), Fyfeild master. I am 
troubled I haue bin so long in his debt who has bin kind 
to me ; but my being out of town when all the ships haue 
gon for nere two years has prevented me. If you get 
the mony he will tell } T ou justly what is due, and pay to 
his content ; if not, I will take som other order which I 
hope will not faile. My cousin Reads mony has layen by 

1695.] WAIT WINTHKOP. 509 

me since last sumer, which my absence at the time of 
year when returnes are to be had has hitherto prevented 
being sent. I was in hopes opertunity would haue pre- 
sented that I might haue returned it to him with good 
advantage, but here are so many to catch at every thing 
that I must do as I can, and hope to send it him in gold 
in som of these ships. I never heard any thing from 
M r Treasurer Whiteing after you went away till long 
after I had paid your bills of exchang, tho he promised to 
haue mony here in reddiness to answare the obligations I 
entered into with him to Cap tn Belcher in case you had 
made use of his credit ; but he fairly left me in paun, and 
took no farther care. If the auntient, noble, and famouse 
citye of London would see cause to bestow her benevo- 
lence upon her N. England daughter (who had her name 
only in honour to her memory) towards the refiting of 
her church which was burnt last sumer, the bell that 
would be part of it would sound her charity in these parts 
of America to after times. I send coppyes of my letters 
by one M r Stevens of Kellingworth, whose cousin is mate 
of the Swift, Cap*? Montr ue, a Frenchman, comander. 
Thay haue mony due to them from the Chamber of 
London, and intend to get you to be helpfull to them. 
I shall send by them a cake of the bayberry wax, about 
23^, which is som I had by me since last year, and is all 
I can procure, it being but now the time to gather it, and 
none yet com in. I know not whether there may be any 
mixture in it, which is not so well deserned by the colour 
(which is preserved or heightened by melting in a brass 
vessell and lost in iron) as by the smell of the snuffe of 
the candles, which giues a delicate perfume of itselfe, but 
stinks if adulterated. 1 haue laid out for som very good 
from the island, and may send if any opertunity after 
this. I haue sent you by Cap tn Shute, comander of the 
S* Joseph, two halfe barrills of cramberryes, and intend 
to send a barrill by these men, Stevens's, if I can get 


them. In my letters that miscaried I minded you of 
many things we used to discours of, which I suppose you 
will not forget. You might perswade the Gov r to bring 
horses and mares too. Here wants a breed of the best 
sheep in England ; also hares, pecocks, phesants, partriges. 
Pray enquire also into the matter of diping lether or 
wooling clothes to make them keep out wett, which I 
think I saw mentioned in som print. What you sent by 
Sam Newman was carfully conveyed to N. London. 
Also I hope John will send his duty to you in his letter, 
and thank you for his fishing rod and flagellet. I haue 
enquired, and cannot get a quintaile of merchantable fish 
in town fit to send ; if the wind be out of the w T ay to- 
morrow, shall enquire farther. I am interested one 
quarter part and one sixteenth in the ship Mehitabell, 
Cap tn Gregory Shugars coinander, who I hope will be in 
England from Barbados before these com to your hands. 
We heard she had a grate fraite, and hope will earn som 
mony. She is consigned to M r David Waterhouse, mer- 
chant in London ; and least you should be streightened 
for mony, I haue desired him to let you haue what 
mony you haue occation for of the proceeds of my part 
of the ship, for I know not whether you will get any 
thing from Conecticot this winter. But if you could get 
mony of the corporation for bills of exchang hither at 
thirty #* cent, it would be much better then to use our 
own mony there, which, if it be brought hither in sutable 
goods well bought, will yeilcl a hundred and twenty or 30 
W cent, and the hazard is not great coming out with con- 
voyes. If you do so, tis best to charg your bills on the 
Gov r Treat or Treasurer Whiting, or gov!" or treasurer 
for the time being, for so much rec d there for the use of 
the collonye. I beleiue thay will not refuse to accept of 
them ; however, I can but pay them if thay doe not, and 
you will be here in the spring as soon as your bills can 
com. But do as you see cause and haue convenience; 

1695.] WAIT WHSTHROP. 511 

only pay M r Mason with interest if he desire it. I haue 
not time to write to him now unless the ships should be 
wind bound. The Coll. here thinks much you haue never 
wrote to him. I hear from N. London every week ; all 
are well there ; I sent your letters by the last post. 
Here is a Quinabauge man com post to me to complaine 
of Fitches outrages on them, and I doubt I must be 
forced to go up there before winter. I desire you would 
not faile to send or bring me forty or 50 pond of the 
most refined salt peter you can get, and twenty or 30 fe 
of good tartar, fre from dust, in the bigest peices you can 
get, and about ten pound of vitriolum album. I also 
desire you would procure Glaubers Works, translated into 
English and printed in folio ; if there be a later edition, 
I would haue the last. M r Wharton was one of the sub- 
scribers for the first, and I suppose had one. I haue som 
of his works in Latin, but not halfe, I think. Many other 
things I would write for if you haue mony, but the ships 
will be gon. John desires a chess bord, and a foot rule 
to double in fower parts. Freinds are all well. I must 
not enlarg, but am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 


Boston, Nov 1 ! 1, 11*, 1695. 

Dear Brother, — My letters of the 28 th of Octob r , by 
Cap 1 ? Micaell Shute, enclosed to my cousin Eead, will 
giue you account of our welfare, and of what redily 
occur'd at that time, which I wrote in grate hast least I 
should loose the opertunity; coppyes of which I sent also 
by M r Stevens in the Swift, Cap tn Montrue comander, 
which Stevens his cousin goes mate of the ship, to whose 
wife, which goes in the ship with him, I delivered my 


letters to giue to her cousin, and hope you will haue 
them safe, unless a passenger in that ship, w c I knew not 
of then, smell them out. In yours also were enclosed 
letters to M r David Waterhouse and M r Milner, with 
orders to deliver you what mony you haue occation for, 
which thay might haue of mine in their hands. If Cap tn 
Shugars ariues safe from Barbados, I hope M r Waterhouse 
will haue thre [or] four hundred pounds (the ship being 
sold and all charges paid) or upwards for my part, I being 
concerned one quarter and a sixteenth in sd ship, which 
you may make use of as you see cause, for I fear you will 
haue no supply from Conecticot by these ships, if you 
haue any letters. I mentioned in my former letters that 
if you haue opertunity to get mony of the corporation 
for bills of exchang as before, it might be better then to 
use our own mony, which, if laid out in sutable comocli- 
tyes there, will advance one hundred and 20 or 30 & cent 
or more here, and the danger is not much coming out 
with convoy es ; and if the bills be charged on the treas- 
urer I beleiue thay will be accepted, and tis worth while 
to try them ; if thay refuse, I can but pay them at last. 
I mention this, supposeing it the best way ; but do as 
you shall think convenient. If M r Waterhouse has more 
mony of mine then you haue occation for, I desire you 
would bring me a very good camlet cloake, lyned with 
what you like except blew ; it may be purple or red, or 
striped with those or other colours, if so worn ; also a 
good suite from head to foote, such as you like for your- 
selfe, fit for the suiTier ; with two wiggs, one a campane, 
the other short, a good hat, &c. ; also a suite from top 
to toe, & hat for John and an other for Ann. John was 
fourteen last August, and is about fower foote seven 
inches high ; and Ann is nine years old, four foote and 
two inches high. It must be remembred thay are grow- 
ing, and will be somthing older when any thing comes. 
You will advise with som of your acquaintance what is 

1695.] WAIT WINTHROP. 513 

sutable and fashionable for them. Ann sends her thanks 
to the gentlewoman for her handkercher. I like not a 
whiteish light colour either for cloak or clothes, but leaue 
all to yourselfe. I am unresolved about sending for 
furniture for a hors for myselfe and John, but if such 
things be cheape and mony hold out, do as you see cause. 
In my other letters I put you in mind of perswading the 
Gov r to bring horses, if not mares too ; also I minded you 
of bringing som of the best breed of sheep, if convenience 
serue ; also hares, pecocks, phesants, partriges, and what 
elce you think of which we haue not here. Pray enquire 
about the diping of lether or cloth to keep out raine ; I 
think I saw it in a print ; if it be worth while and cheap, 
bring a coate of it. Your nephew desires a chesse bord, 
a foot rule to double in fower ; kniues and forks, or other 
knacks not to be had here, you will not forget. I desire 
you would procure the translation of Glaubers Works, the 
last edition ; also pray do not faile to bring or send about 
fifty pounds of the most refined saltpeter, and twenty 
pounds of good tartar free from dust, and about ten 
pound of vitriolum album. I owe M r Mason six pounds, 
w ch he paid M r Hull for me, or therabouts, and twenty 
pounds 14 s and ll d he giues me ace* of about the ship 
Swallow ; also 2 lbs 2 s 6 d he paid M r Clarks men for my 
part. I am much ashamed he has bin so long without it, 
but could not help it. Pray se him paid before any thing 
else, if you can get any money of mine ; if not, pray se 
if you can take up so much and charge bills on me for 
it here. The whole sum as aboue is 28* 17 s 5 d ; if he 
please to take interest, I would pay it. All except this is 
in case mony comes to hand ; yet I would make a hard 
shift rather then not haue the cloake, and espetially the 
peter and tarter. When I was writing what is aboue, 
Cap tn Whiteing, not the treasurer, came to me from Hart- 
ford with letters from the Gov r and Councill, & with mony 
to procure two hundred pounds in bills of exchang to 



send to you ; but the ships being gon to Piscataque to 
joyn the mast fleet (all but Eldrige and Macharty), no 
bills can be had, and gold is risen since the other day, 
I shipt som for my cousin Read, from flue pounds twelue 88 
to six pound the ounce. So we haue changed one hun- 
dred pounds for waighty peices of eight, which you will 
haue by Cap* Eld ridge ; and just now we haue got bills 
for the other hundred, as you will see. If Cap tn Shugars 
dose well, you may bring severall little things that you 
know I want. If you send furniture, you must send sword 
and pistill too. The last w r eek came agents from N. York 
to go for England with these ships. If it be possible, get 
som thin 2; don to settle Narra^ansett. We are under ill 
circumstances here and poore management with respect 
to the Indian warr. All were well at N. London the last 
post ; so are all here, only I haue a grate [ivord left out] while 
I write this. I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

The cake of green wax was sent with Shute, and not 
with the other. 


Boston, Nou*> 25, 1695. 

Mucn noNOURED Gentm, — I am sory to w r rite to you 
on this occation, but the continuall complaint I haue from 
some of the good peple of the new plantation at Quina- 
bogue, and perticulerly of Benjamin Palmar and his part- 
ner, who are our tenants, thece constrains me to let you 
know my resentment of what has lately bin don there by 
Major Fitch and some rude fellows of desparate fortune, 
who, as I am informed, has brok into the said Palmars 
house, &c., and haue taken away all or most of their 

1695.] WAIT WIKTHEOP. 515 

corn w ch they should haue liued on this winter, droue 
away a yoke of oxen arid improued them for their own 
work, carried away most of their hogs, and haue kiled 
them, eated good part of them ; and all this done under 
pretence of a warrant to the marshall of New London or 
his deputy, w ch deputy, as I am now informed, stands 
here upon record for lying and stealing and being accord- 
ingly punished, but by relation has not left his trade. 
Yet I know not what authority the marshall of New Lon- 
don or his deputy has at Quinabogue, and though your 
law may admit persons that live in divers countys to 
bring their actions in eithere, yet I am sure the officer of 
one county may not intrench on the othere ; and if they, 
to serve a perticuler turn or intrest, should so doe, it 
would be here termed no better then robery, and so 
much the worst sort of robery as pretending authority 
to back it. Al writs to officers doe or ought to run, If he 
be found in your prescints or balywick ; and in the law • 
w ch states the county of New London I finde not this in- 
cluded. But if it were, I think it hard measure that the 
marshall did not serv the repreiv granted by M r Mason, 
w ch was, according to the common costum and right of 
Englishmen, that their working oxen and neseserys of 
livelyhood should not be arested out of their hands to 
their undoing, but that they should have a repleiue, 
whatever your law may seem to say to the contrary, [in] 
the case of spetiall paye contracted for by the treaders, w ch 
law dose not repeal your own law about repreiues ; nei- 
there dos it seem consonant to law and reason that a 
court should adjourn purposly to accomodate a member 
of that court in an action not brought before the adjourn- 
ment, and to a time when generally there is no safe pas- 
ing. I understand one of the court has said he knew of 
no other business at the adjournment. Gentlemen, how- 
euer this matter of M r Fitches may be presented against 
Palmar, yet the bottom of it is about the title to the 

516 the winthrop papers. Up- 

lands. Therefore I desire the honoured court that the 
case may be dismist and the tenants have satisfaction for 
their damage, or that it be continued till my brother 
corns, that he may not be damnified whilest that he is 
serving you, or till I can haue oppertunity to be there to 
defend our tenants in their just rights, w ch is the reson- 
able request of, gentlemen, 

Your uery humble seruant, 

Wait Winthrop. 

Posscript. Gentlemen, I have bin lately ill of a uery 
great cold, and am not yet well; o there wise should 
haue endeuoured to have binn at New London at the 


Indorsed, " About Quinebaug, from Wait Winthrop to the County Court 
at N. London." 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in London, these. 

Boston, Dec*.* 23d, 1695. 

Dear Brother, — I wrote you by fower or flue of the 
mast fleete ; som of them I hope by this time may be 
com to hand. I sent you two packets from the Gov rmt of 
Conecticot. I also sent you thre bills of exchang drawen 
by M r Medcalfe on M r Ball and company, one of which 
bills went with the fleet ; an other in Cap tn Eldridg, who 
could not recover the fleet ; and an other in Macharty, 
who was forced to put back again, and is but now redy to 
saile ; the forth bill I keep by me. By Cap*? Eldridg 
likewise you will receiue one hundred pounds in peices 
of eight when he ariues. I wrote you by those opertuni- 
tyes all I could think of worth your notice. I sent to 
you for severall perticulars, which (if Cap tn Shugars ariues 
from Barbados and you get mony of M r Waterhouse, as I 

1696.] WAIT WINTHROP. 517 

ordered in my former letters) I desire you to send or 
bring. I shall not repeate what I formerly wrote, not 
knowing whether this may reach you if you should com 
away in February. I am glad to hear by M r Sanders 
(who came the last week in Wiswall) of your welfare, 
but I haue not a line from you ; but hope you haue writ- 
ten by Hatch, who is not yet ariued. I heard from 
N. London the last post, where all are well, as all freinds 
are here (God be thanked). The enclosed was sent from 
N. Haven. I am 

Y r . affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 
Pray giue my service to all freinds. 


For the Honble. Robert Treat, Esq., Goif. of the Colony of Conecticut, and 
the Hon b \ e Willm Jones, Esq., Deputy Gou r ., and Moses Mansfield, Ass 1 
Tliese humbly present in New London, Aprill 8, 1696. Copia. 

Boston, Aprill 8<*>, 1696. 

Much honoured Gent m , — After all dew respects to 
your honours I am bould to troble you partly in behalf 
of the new plantation at Quinabogue, but more espetially 
at this time with respect to two of our tenants, Benjamin 
Palmar and Samuell Cleueland, who Hue on our lands not 
far from the middle of the said plantation, at a place 
called Pigscomset, who haue bin, contrary to all law and 
reason, unjustly molested by Cap* Fitch and his accom- 
plises, some of them the last summer seting fire to the 
peoples hay as it lay in wmrows and goeing to be made 
up, teling them that should not serv turn, affrighting 
them with threate of farthere mischeife ; also three or 
four of the inhabitants summonsed to answare actions of 
trespas before M r Brewster at Norwitch, who is only a 
commitioner for the town of New London, Cap* Fitch 


being plantifF; where being menanced and scared by Cap* 
Fitch in an extriordinary unnsiall maner to make them 
to comply with his will, he seeming to preside in that lit- 
tle court, they that would not were fined at pleasure, 
tho they lived not within the bounds of that county, and 
as thay informed me were denied an appele. This was 
but little to the injury done to Palmar by a writ from M r 
Witherly, as I understand, directed to the marshall of 
New London or his deputy, w ch deputy was made on pur- 
pose for this occation, being a fellow that Mr. Fitch 
makes use of much. Palmars goods were arested to a 
considerable vallue, viz. : his working oxen, al his corn 
and hay and fat hogs, and I think neer all he had for the 
supply of his family all winter, to answare the complaint 
of Capt. Fitch at New London court, upon w ch Palmar 
made application to Captaine Mason for a replevin (he 
not being able to live without some of his corn and his 
working oxen, &c), who uery justly and legally granted 
his writ out ; accordingly directed to the marshall, who 
refused to seru it (the court he was to com to was an 
adjournm* of the county court to the dead of winter pur- 
posely designed for that matter). In this distres Palmar 
came hithere the begining of winter, and I wrote the 
inclosed to the court. So after Captii Fitch, siting as the 
principle man there, had reuiled my kinsman Newman 
(who I desired to deliuer it and pray it might be read in 
court), thretoning to lay him by the heels, the plantifF 
not being alltogethere redy, or no jury appering, as I 
have heard, the matter was put off to the begining of 
March, and then the matter went on, the jury consisting 
mostly of Norwitch men, or such who are in the same 
intrest with them and depend upon Capt n Fitch his bot- 
tome ; and Palmar was cast and has appealed, Captn 
Fitch urging the court to put him into posestion; most 
of them justly refused. But Captn Fitch, not being con- 
tent to take orderly steps in the law, the verdict against 

1696.] WAIT WINTHKOP. 519 

Palmar being only for rent, has abused you honours 
eithere by a misinformation of the whole matter, and 
has drawn from your honours something under your 
hands, or else has produced a conterfit warrant to the 
marshal], a coppy of w ch , drawn out of a coppy atested 
by the marshall, I here inclose ; according to w cb the 
marsh all, with Captii Fitch and others, have bin to 
require them to deliuer posestion. But they knowing no 
such prosess in the law whereby they may be obliged to 
quit their posestion without due proses in the law first 
obtained, they haue refused so to doe ; not but that they 
are willing to yeild all dew obedience to authority, but 
they think them selues English men, and ought to haue 
fair trialle before they be ejected ; yea, tho they had bar- 
gained with Captii Fitch for it and were really his ten- 
ants, haueing not entered by uiolence but bin in peacable 
posesion above this three years some time. After their 
refusall to deliuer as above, Captn Fitch, with some 
others, enters that part of the house where Cleveland 
Hues, and with force and violence turned out him and his 
wife and goods, to the great terror of the women, &c, 
and has left there some body to defend their forceable 
posestion, and would haue done the like to Palmar if he 
could, and I know not but by this time he has so done. 

I am sorry to trouble your honours with any thing of 
this nature, or to recite any thing that may seem to 
reflect upon Captii Fitch, considering he has bin in place 
in your government ; neithere have I studied perticuler 
aduantage in these matters but for the publique aduan- 
tage of the plantation. For, seting aside the many farms 
and tracts of land which he has sold out of our purchase, 
w ch may, I doubt, proue inconuenient for him in time, 
the committee wee improued for settlement of the plan- 
tation according to your Generall Courts grant and con- 
firmation ofered Captii Fitch to com in with others of 
his assosiates of Norwitch on as good, nay, much better 


tearms then the rest; but they utterly refused it, and 
nothing would serv there turn but to keep all the inter- 
vale land to them seines as haueing bought it, and almost 
all the countey besides, of Vncas his son, who your 
honours can not but know had nothing to doe there, and 
so utterly overthrow the plantation, wee haveing denied 
ourselues of settleing the best of the lands almost this 
forty years because wee would not spoyle so conuanient 
a place for a plantation. Also my fathere haueing con- 
sented to Norwitch bounds to come many miles into our 
lands, therfore wee are loth at last the place should be 
spoyled by three or four men. His business against Pal- 
mar, &c, is but for aduantage to ruin the plantation. As 
to his pretences about the house and his posestion sixteen 
years, it is utterly fals as to posestion ; and who built the 
house I know not, neithere doe I covet any mans house, 
nor will ever be the better for any thing that is Major 
Fitches ; neithere has the house bin built half sixteen 
years ; but I finde a little house in the uery place where 
the Indian Sachams gave us posestion in dew form of law 
about thirty years since, and houses follow the land and 
not land the houses, and M r Fitch or any othere built 
there they may be thank full if wee will reimburs them. 
The thretening methods that Captii Fitch has used at 
that plantation are intolarable ; wherby it may be a hun- 
dred familys are discoraged, and some are gon, I think, to 
Carolina and othere places. Therefore, if he be lord of 
your collony let him set down his laws, that wee may 
obny him ; if not, I desire, in the behalf of our selues and 
our oppresed tenants, and they desire, that they may 
haue the justis of the collony as Englishmen, and that 
your honours would be pleased to superseed that order 
produced by Captii Fitch, and grant } T our spetiall war- 
rant to your o (licer to put us into peacable posestion 
againe; and if M r Fitch has anything to say to us wee are 
redy to answare in the ordinary cours of law. 



I have heard the court of New London, or some of 
them at least, have taken notis of the marshalls com- 
plaint of being resisted, and I perceive by M r Witherlys 
warrant application has bin made to your honours about 
it; and though I can by no means think well of or would 
countenance any one in makeing the least resistance to 
any lawfull authority, yet when a man shall come under 
pretence of authority out of prescints, and take all I haue 
for my family to live, not to resece it to a tryall but to 
make it away and destroy it, I know not but I may 
resist him lawfully; for so was the case here. The hogs 
were driven away and killed, and the pork with the corn 
quikly eaten up and destroyed, and the officer it may be 
not worth a groat to respond for it. And I must beg to be 
excused if I think most of the gentlemen of the court at 
New London not so compotent judges in this whole mat- 
ter, supposing them to hold lands by the same tenure 
that Captii Fitch pretends to; and I think the marshall or 
his fathere had som pretentions for part of that land. Also 
I know it will be burdensome to your honours to read, as 
it has bin for me to write, such a long discours ; but the 
distres of the poor men there has put me upon it, and I 
beg your honours seriously to consider the matter, so that 
the poor men may haue releef, and that M r Fitch his 
arbitrary daleing may not be brought into presidents 
hereafter; w ch I wright not for reflection upon him, but for 
that I desire, as I always have done, to be tender of the 
honour and reputation of your government, w ch would 
doubtles sufer if such methods should be allowed as he 
seemes to have projected. I have not binn able to goe 
abroad all this winter till the last week, but am now 
much better, I prays God, and hope I may be able to wait 
on your honours at the court at Hartforde ; but if Gods 
providence should prevent me, I beg Palmars appeal be 
continued eithere till my brothere corns or I am able to 
be there. It can be no injury to M r Fitch, for the hogs 



and the corn are eaten up long since, w ! 1 are to answare 
the action. I shall not farthere trouble your honours, but 
beg a favourable interpretation of what is above writen, 
intending nothing more then to let your honours to 
know the whole matter of fact w ch has pased as it has 
com to my hands, without w ch your honours might not 
have binn informed of the truth of the matter, and shall 
leav it with you to doe as in your wisdome you shall 
think right. 

I am, honourble sirs, your honours humble servant, 

Wait Winthrop. 


Boston, Septf>? 22, 1696. 
Hon 1 ? S k , — I thank you for your care in returning 
those letters, which I rec d by M r Whiting inclosed in yours. 
We were in hopes to haue seen the other ships from 
England before this ; but now tis generally thought the 
Gov r will hardly com this winter, and I almost think my 
brother will stay to see the issue of that matter, and the 
rather because the N. York agents are there to negotiate 
against your colony. Therfore it must needs be the inter- 
est of your gover mt to send him such instructions and 
supplyes as may enable him to manage their affaires for 
the best advantage. There are two things which usually 
forwardes the interest of any plantation court : one is, 
sutable supplyes to enable such whom thay send on y r 
[torn] through with y r business ; the other you may easily 
guess, the want of which I think has bin grate reason we 
haue had no better success here from first to last ; for 
you know all men are not alike acceptable at court, which 
your collony has now a 2 d time experimented to y r bene- 
fit, and we thrice to our disadvantage. Your enemyes, I 
understand, went with a strong purse; but if you please to 

1696.] WAIT WINTHROP. 523 

dye to save charges, you may. Tis now nere tlire years 
since your agent went ; and if you had then neglected to 
send, for ought I know you might haue paid fiue times 
as much in one year as you haue yet bin out. I haue 
nothing of a private or worldly advantage that might any 
way incline me to be solicitous for the continuance of 
your gov™*, for tis possible I might advantage myselfe 
and my freinds as much under a chang in that respect as 
an other might do ; but it is meerly for the sake of an 
honest and good people, who would serue God according 
to his own institutions, for which our fathers left all that 
was desirable to com hither, and which will in liklyhood 
in a grate measure be lost if these constitutions should 
chang, which I pray God yet to continue if it be his will. 
As to what yoa mention about Quinabauge, I shall say 
little at present. I may haue opertunity to convince 
sombody of their errors before long. I haue not more to 
trouble you with then the presentation of my servis [to] 
the Gov r and all the gent™ of your court when met, and 
that I am 

\_No signature. ~\ 

Please to give my servis to M rs Allyn. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in London, these. 

Boston, Sept b J 28 th , 1696. 

Dear Brother, — I was revived to hear by my cousin 
Brown a better accout of your recovery then I had in 
your letters, which were of a little older date; which I 
desire to blesse God for, and hope to see you here againe, 
which we expect now every day, and write this for fear 
any thing should happen to delay your coming. I haue 
bin sick grate part of this sumer, so that I haue not bin 


able to goe into the country to look after our concernes 
there, but I thank God am prety well againe, and intend 
to goe to N. London before winter, if you doe not ariue 
spedily. I did, according to your desire, send your last 
by Cousin Brown to M r Allyn, as also those to the gover mt , 
and haue writen to them for their consideration of farther 
supplyes for you, least the N. York agents should occa- 
tion your stay longer ; but doubt thay will not send by 
these ships, being almost ready to saile, and their gen u 
court not meeting till the 8 th of the next month. If it 
be possible, get somthing don about Narraganset. There 
w r as, by the old grants from the lords of the Plimoth Com- 
pany, no vacancy between Plimoth and Conecticot, wdiich, 
if well understood, would vacate that misgoverned gover- 
nment of Road Island. I desire you would look over the 
perticulars I sent for in my former letters, if you haue 
rec? any mony of M r Waterhouse. I will not be larg, in 
hopes you will be here by that time this gets from Pisca- 
taque. I heard the last post from N. London, w Tr all were 
well. Sam Newman is dead at Barbados ; all freinds elce 
are well. Sam Curwin is with Cap tn Bent, bound for 
London, by whom I intend this, who will inform you of 
all perticulers here. We are like to meet with trouble 
from Setauket men about som of the land on Long Island ; 
thay of the east end threaten to come for rates at Qunun- 
nacutt. My cousin Brown sayes the trunk you mention 
is left behind. Pray forget not halfe a hundred pound of 
the most refined niter can be gotten ; also tarter and 
white vitriol, &c, as in my former letters. You know a 
sayne would be very usefull at the island and elce where. 
If thay be cheap, I would gladly haue such a one as the 
old one was for the other island also, with a codd to take 
smaler fish. Thay call them at Newfoundland caplin 
saynes. And think of the book I mentioned. John is at 
the colledg ; and I think to let Ann goe to her unkles at 
Salem. My old paine in my side has made me very 

1696-7.] WAIT WINTHROP. 525 

crasy. I will not doubt but you will, if you liue, doe as 

you would be don by, which I hope I shall obserue while 

I liue. I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 

M rs Blany informes me of a family of our name at Grate 
Mauvan, or Much Mauvan, at Mauvan Hills, in Worster- 
shire, within fiue miles of Worster, that are considerable. 
John Cristophers is maried to one at Long Island.* 


Boston, Feb 1 * 24«\ 169f . 

Dear Brother, — I gaue M r Alford two or thre lines 
wrote in hast to you just when he was going to sayle ; 
but the bad wether haueing put him in againe, I would 
giue you a larger account of all matters here, but that I 
suppose you will be com away before this corns to your 
hands. And thay are againe going off imediately, so that 
I can only refresh to you to look into former letters for 
som things I desired you to send or bring, but espetially 
the druggs and a book or two. I forgot in the other 
letter to tell you that Coll. Allyn is dead this winter at 
Hartford. If it be possible, get som thing don about 
Narraganset. There was by the old grants no vacancy 
between Plimoth and Conecticot, and therfore no roome 
for Road Island gov rmt About halfe an hour since M r 
Addington caled to me as I passed by his office (the leif' 
gov r being with him), and shewed me a letter from my 
Lord Bellamont, directed to myselfe, M r Addington, Foster, 
and Belcher, which had bin in their hands som consider- 

* Descendants of an uncle of Governor John Winthrop the elder were residing in 
Ireland at this period, but nothing is known of any Winthrops at Great Malvern in 
Worcestershire. Mrs. Blany perhaps mistook the name. — Eds. 

526 THE WINTHROP PAPERS. [1697-8. 

able time, but I never heard of it before. Thay haue 
made som answare to it by an other opertunity. It con- 
cerned Capt n Kidd (who put into New York with a 
French prise), with whom his lordship, with severall other 
lords, is concerned. I am sorry I had not the knowledg 
of it when I was at the westward, where I could easily 
haue stept to New York, and bin able to giue his lordship 
a better account of that matter. The post goes usually 
every week from Boston, where I was, and so to N. York, 
and they might easily haue given me an account of his 
lordships comands ; but, as I said, I was wholy ignorant 
of it till now I w T as called to set my hand to an other 
answare, which was redy drawn. This opertunity is too 
sudday for me to write to his lordship, but hope you will 
sutably recoinend my servis to him, w r ith assurance that I 
shall not faile to do all I am capable of for their lordships 
interest in that matter recomended by his lordship. Not 
els but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop, 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, Feb7 l!*, 169f. 

Dear Brother, — I had yours by the last post, but 
mist writing back by him. The wether has bin so ex- 
tream hard since you went that Strang colds haue bin 
with grate violence upon the whole town here, and has 
proved as mortall for the time as ever any sicness that 
has bin here in my memory. I think not less then twelue 
or 14 haue died in a day or night. We haue all bin 
sorely exercised with it. My Sister Endecott, Sister Cur- 
win, and Sister Richards I thought would all haue died. 
But (thanks be to God) we are all geting up again e ; 

1697-8.]j WAIT WINTHROP. 527 

Sister Curwin but weak yet, and Sister Kichards has a 
bad coffe. Capt n Bent sent the bed to Sister Richardses 
the day after you went hence. # He was with me, but I 
did not pay him, haueing not rec d the chest, charges, and 
hamper. He told me the chest was at a warehouse at the 
dock, and he thought the other things also. But I could 
not yet go to see ; all is frozen to Nantasket, and I think 
without. Foy is fast by the wharf. This corns by 
Robert Stanton (I think his name is), if he be not gon 
before it comes to him. Love and servis to all freinds is 
all at present from 

Your affectionate brother, 

W. Wintheop. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, Feb? 9 th , 169J. 

Dear Brother, — Capt n Whiting brought me your 
letter but just now, tho he came to town the night before 
last; but he could not find me nor I him before, and 
M r Cambell told me he had one for me, so I did not write 
till I might speak w th him. And now the post is just 
going ; I haue given him the bill of exchange, and he is 
going towards Piscataque. I mist the last post by reason 
of my own and every bodyes illness, but wrote som days 
after by M r Stanton, which hope is come to hand. It 
continues a very sickly time, and many haue dyed, I think, 
every day, tho all our relations (I thank God) are geting 
up againe. If the post be not gon before I haue don 
writing, shall send those things you sent for. Som here 
that haue had the colds but moderately say thay haue 

* Major John Richards married first the widow of Adam Winthrop, and, secondly, 
Wait Winthrop's sister Anne. — Eds. 


found gingerbred and raisons to help much in it when 
eaten. I fear the post will be gon, so must end by 
giueing you the bad news that Coll. Shrimpton dyed 
about nine of the clock the last night, haueing not bin 
sick aboue two or thre days, tho som thing indisposed as 
he use to be longer. I will get M r Allyn to look on the 
watch, who is very ingenious, and will do it no hurt if he 
can not help it. If the cane be unserviceable, here is the 
other for you. My sutable salutations to all freinds. 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Winthrop. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Feb-7 224, K39i 

Dear Brother, — I am sorry to hear by yours of the 
losse of so many of our old freinds and neibours Here 
are many dropt away of late likewise. Old M r Scottow 
died one of the first when y s cold began, which I did not 
write you word of before, and many other auntient as 
well as younger persons. Thus one is a droping away, 
one after an other. I pray God prepare us also, y fc we 
may be readye for his apearing. I wrote the last week 
by M r Royce, of Sudbury, who I told you (I think) had 
a mind to remoue that way with som of his neibours. 
Here came one from Sandwich the last Satterday, who 
told me those two men were fiting for their jorney to 
veiw the island. I wrote you by Eoyce that our court 
sits at Plimoth the 8 th of March, where I must be if 
nothing prevent, and intend from there to visit Tarpolin 
Coue for a day or two. Here is no news. We are all 
sealed up still with ice and snow. Tis not altogether so 
sickly as formerly, and our freinds are in tollerable health 

1698.] WAIT WINTHROP. 529 

(God be praysed). Not elce but sutable respects to all. 
I am 

Your affectionate brother, W. Winthrop. 

We had need well to consider about termes for those 
men. Thay can expect but to setle and fit themselues 
the first year ; and if we can make but what we use to 
do for next year, we may let them get what thay can 
besides. But you will write what your thoughts are. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, Aprill 18th, 1698. 

Dear Brother, — I haue shipt all your things abord 
M r Hamblin, who, I think, sailed the last night or this 
morning. There is likewise a pipe of the best wine in 
town, of the sort which Sister Richards sends for a market, 
and you may saue a quarter cask out of it; the price here 
is nine pounds. The Sudbury men are abord M r Hamblin 
and will land at the island. We are in a hurry about our 
jurnye and hope to get to Woodcocks tomorrow. I can 
not get a hors easy for me. If there be any there more 
then you use it would be an ease to me. The gen? here 
hope you will be redy when we com. All are well. Not 
els but that I am 

Yours, W. Winthrop. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, June 13^, 1698. 

Dear Brother, — The time is so short between Satur- 
day night and Munday morning that I can hardly write 


any thing. I know not by your letter what suite he was 
upon, whether a suite of sayles or otherwise, nor can I 
look for any papers now. I beleiue I left all the papers I 
had of you, and more. I never seperated any from that 
bundle that I remember. If I haue the other you men- 
tion, shall send them when I can find them. The tayler 
has promised to bring the things before the post goes; 
if he should not, th ay must goe by the next. Thay could 
not be don sooner. We haue a report from Haclly of 
Indians and French coming upon Deerfield, Lancaster, 
and Groton ; and orders are giuen to send men for there 
defence. Pray do not forget to write to York. Not elce 
but that I am 

Your affectionate brother, 

Wait Winthrop. 


Boston, June 30th, 1698. 

Dear Brother, — I came last Tuesday from Salem and 
left all well ; but before we gat to Winisiiiiit a grate light 
arose in the evening towards Salem, a fire braking out in 
M r Lindalls warehouse which burnt M r Willowbyes house 
and M r Hursts house, and past over the street to my 
brother Will. Browns, burnt that and his warehouse ad- 
joyning, and one Princes house on that side next the 
corner, a very grate losse without doubt. We expect 
more perticular intelligence this day. Pray do not ne- 
glect to write to Cousin Read, &c. Here will be opertunity 
both by the frigats and others. This comes by M r Carter, 
who has som businesse that way. I hope you will be as 
helpfull to him as you may. I desire you would send me 
a couple of the paceing horses which you can spare, and 
then I think to see you shortly. I here S r Hude is in 

1698.] WAIT WINTHROP. 531 

town, but haue not seen him. We are going to coni- 
encement next week. Not elce but that I am 
Your affectionate brother, 

W. Wiothrop. 


For John Winthrop, Esq., in New London, these. 

Boston, July 11**, 1698. 

Dear Brother, — I haue yours by the post, and that 
by M r Miner; that to Coll. Hamilton I sealed and delivered. 
He came to me afterwards to discours about that affaire, 
and shewed me your letter, and desired my opinion 
whether he might coihunicate it to M r Brinlye, M r Brin- 
ton, and others, who he had desired to meete him ; who, 
I understood, said to him somthing to the same purpose. I 
perceive he would be glad of a complyance for a small 
sum of mony. As to the matter about the island I know 
not what to say. I thought you had bin sattisfied about 
their capacity to manage their matters. Thay are as 
much strangers to me as to you. As to letting to shares 
in such a place, where a considerable stock is kept without 
much charge or trouble, espetially sheep, if the tenant 
has a thurd of the increase it will be grate profit to him, 
and can only be balanced by his manuring a considerable 
quantity of land by tillage, which he must do to halues. 
You know what Smithers his lease was, which I think was 
indiferant, if a tenant would be honest. Your perticular 
questions are somthing difficult to answare. Without 
doubt he that hires a hundred sheep, and land to keep 
them on, may well give ten pounds a year for them, and 
in such a place as that somthing more, about 15 pounds ; 
if he haue but an ordinary capacity about rustick affaires, 
the very wool will pay it. As to cows and mares and the 


improvement of the land, I know not what to say more 
then you know. I think tis pity there are so many there, 
if sheep were to be had, espetially horskind. The growth 
of every young beast is worth ten, fifteen, and somtimes 
twenty shill. a year; and tis worth halfe the crop for the 
use of the land and cattle, &c, to till it. Every cow must 
be worth twenty shillings a year at least, or 30. If thay 
would build, it might be best to let them small farmes 
such as thay could manage, or if thay had Smethurs his 
lease for a year or two. I know not what is best. I can 
say no more about Quinabauge then you know. John 
Gallup and the rest say there are Indians that can testify 
to the bounds of Atiems hunting. If that can be proved 
it may make up other defects in the deeds. As to Ashby, 
that must be well considered. Nowayanck and the coih- 
onage are as valuable as the land on the farm, which his 
being there hinders us of, and which he will haue the sole 
benefit of if he hires the neck, which is worth as much 
more by reason of that long point, &c, is as good as the 
whole farm without it. I will speak to M r Stougton about 
the contents of y r letter by Miner. I cannot ride the 
black hors a jornye without unjoynting of me. I would 
haue him fit for a market and put him off. There was a 
little truss chesnut or sorrell hors that was broke and 
paced well would serue me for one, and the pyed mare 
Sam Newman left goes very easy if she haue no colt ; a 
troting hors for Mingo, either the Elsabeth Island, or 
Gardners Island, or one of the coach horses, or any other. 
Tis vacation time at Cambridg, and I know not but 
it will be better to take John with me if I go into the 
country; twill keep him out of harmes way. The scol- 
ars are all gon for fiue or six weeks, which is their cus- 
tom every year. If you send the horses, let them com 
by this post if you can. I shewed M r Harris the shop, 
and prayed him to call for a lanthorn, and desired the 
man to put it on bord an other vessell before ; but all 

1698.] WAIT WINTHROP. 533 

failed, so must take the next opertunity. So, with loue 
and servis to all, I am 

Yours, Wait Winthrop. 

I haue not wrote a word yet to Cousin Read. If you 
send by this post, it may com time enough. The copy 
has reference to an act of the province which you may 
leaue out and take only the latter part, which constitutes 
him. Now I haue writ an answare. I am disposing the 
paper as you directed. 


Boston, July 25th, 1698. 

Much hon rd S r , — I haue yours of the 8 th of May last, 
and am much obliged for your acceptance of mine, the 
fredom of which wanted your pardon. I was with som 
other gent m ordered by this gov™* to wait on my Lord 
Bellamont at New York, to congratulate his arivall into 
these parts of America, which upon the first notice of his 
coming thither we performed, and find his Lordship every 
way to answare the noble carracter your selfe with others 
haue giuen him, and hope this country will be very happy 
under his administration. I beleiue his Lord? found the 
affairs of that gov rmt much perplex' t, as I suppose you will 
hear. He is lately gon up the river to Albany, to settle 
the affaires there with the Fiue Nations of Indians (as thay 
are caled), and then I hope will visit this place, where I 
beleiue both himselfe and his lady may find those that 
will be more agreable to their inclinations. W n we were 
at N. Y., we understood that his Lord p - was aplyed to by 
our Leif fc Gov r and M r By., that he would impower som 
person here to administer the necessary oathes that a 
court of admiralty might be set up in persuance of M r 
Byfeilds comission; but upon our representation of that 
matter his Lordship was pleased to defer it till he should 


com to this place, which has somthing broke their mesures 
at present. I am sorry I haue not a better account of 
our affaires to send you. M r Byfeild was speaker to our 
last Assembly, where, as I remember, no grate of concern- 
ment was don but the revival! of som of our old laws, 
which som thought were as well before. But in truth I 
think we are reformed a litle in one point; that wheras in 
the time of our gratest prosperity, when the blessings of 
peace and plenty attended us, we were wont to starue our 
gov rnrs (with about a hundred pounds a year in country 
pay), who had layd out, som of them, all their estates to a 
grate value meerly for the publick benefit and good of 
this people, we haue of late bin able (notwithstanding the 
vast expence of a long warr and the inconveniency of a 
scarcity of all sorts of provition for som years which came 
nere to a famin) to giue our Leif tn Gov r (who is a single 
person and at no charg since his being in place, and has 
got a good estate) about thre hundred pounds a year. I 
look upon this to be a tolerable reformation, and hope we 
shall be as able to pay our just debts and acknowledg- 
ments to our freinds and benefactors ; and I doe assure 
you I shall not be wanting to use all the interest I haue 
to promote that matter with respect to yourselfe which 
you mention, it being just and reasonable. If we knew 
what law would make such officers as you speak of un- 
necessary, I beleiue it would redily pass with us. M r 
Brenton is now going over to you, upon what business we 
know not, but suppose it may be to promote his own 
interest with pretence of His Maj ts servise. You may be 
sure we haue som such among us as you mention, who 
haue in a litle time got more by the gov"?' then all that 
haue bin before. S r , I may assure you that all the good 
people of this country haue that just value for you which 
you deserve of them, and I hope you will not be discour- 
aged from promoteing their welfare because of a very few 
who are enimyes to themselves in being so to this people, 

1698.] WAIT WINTHKOP. 535 

and, for their sakes, to you. I can but return you my 
thanks for your kind offers in your letters. The places I 
haue sustayned since I haue bin concerned in the gov rmt 
haue hitherto bin very expensive to me ; and indeed I 
know no place that will yeild a sutable recompence for 
my attendance on it, unless (as has bin don of late and is 
not yet wholy layed aside) I should eat up the poor as 
bread and squeese them to death by virtue of an office ; 
which is so contrary to my nature and inclinations that I 
had rather make one of them then mend my condition 
that way. I thank God I haue a competency in the 
country (tho it be remote from hence), which would yeild 
me a comfortable New England subsistance if I could 
disengage myselfe here and look after the improuement 
of it, which I haue wholy in a maner lost by liueing here 
to help keep this people from sinking. I haue not spent 
less then thre thousand pounds while I haue bin concerned 
here, which I might haue saved and aded more then so 
much to it if I had neglected the publick, and minded my 
private occations ; but if I haue bin any wayes instru- 
mentall to saue the best interest here and keep this 
people from that slavery which thay were growing under 
and haue almost forgot alredy, I am satisfyed. The offer 
of your respect to me has drawne thus much from me, 
which is only to yourselfe ; tho it be all true, and a grate 
deale more I could say. I haue but two children, a son 
about 17 years and a daughter about 12. My son is at 
our colledg at Cambridg; and for their benefit I am medi- 
tateing a retreate into the country, that I may mind my 
own business there, tho I am the more loth to it now my 
Lord is coming amongst us, if any thing offered whereby 
I might but saue my selfe from the grate expence I haue 
bin at for many years without recompence. But I trouble 
you too much, and must beg your pardon, and desire you 
to beleiue that I am, with sincerity, 

S r , your very humble servant, Wait Winthrop. 



For John Winthrop, Esq., Gov r . of His Maff Collony of Conecticot, 
In New London, these. 

Boston, July 25*>, 1698. 

Dear Brother, — The ships are going to sayle from 
Nantasket, and I am in a hurry about my letters and can 
giue you but a